Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
1.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Curative gene therapies for sickle cell disease (SCD) are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. The occurrence of myeloid malignancies in these trials has prompted safety concerns. Individuals with SCD are predisposed to myeloid malignancies, but the underlying causes remain undefined. Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is a pre-malignant condition that also confers significant predisposition to myeloid cancers. While it has been speculated that CH may play a role in SCD-associated cancer predisposition, limited data addressing this issue have been reported. METHODS: Here, we leveraged 74,190 whole genome sequences to robustly study CH in SCD. Somatic mutation calling methods were used to assess CH in all samples and comparisons between individuals with and without SCD were performed. RESULTS: While we had sufficient power to detect a greater than 2-fold increased rate of CH, we found no detectable variation in rate or clone properties between individuals affected by SCD and controls. The rate of CH in individuals with SCD was unaltered by hydroxyurea use. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an increased risk for acquiring detectable CH in SCD, at least as measured by whole genome sequencing. These results should help guide ongoing efforts and further studies that seek to better define the risk factors underlying myeloid malignancy predisposition in SCD and help ensure that curative therapies can be more safely applied. FUNDING: Funding was provided by the New York Stem Cell Foundation and National Institutes of Health. The funders had no role in study design or reporting.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 637, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916497

RESUMO

The volume of subcortical structures represents a reliable, quantitative, and objective phenotype that captures genetic effects, environmental effects such as trauma, and disease effects such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma and PTSD represent potent exposures that may interact with genetic markers to influence brain structure and function. Genetic variants, associated with subcortical volumes in two large normative discovery samples, were used to compute polygenic scores (PGS) for the volume of seven subcortical structures. These were applied to a target sample enriched for childhood trauma and PTSD. Subcortical volume PGS from the discovery sample were strongly associated in our trauma/PTSD enriched sample (n = 7580) with respective subcortical volumes of the hippocampus (p = 1.10 × 10-20), thalamus (p = 7.46 × 10-10), caudate (p = 1.97 × 10-18), putamen (p = 1.7 × 10-12), and nucleus accumbens (p = 1.99 × 10-7). We found a significant association between the hippocampal volume PGS and hippocampal volume in control subjects from our sample, but was absent in individuals with PTSD (GxE; (beta = -0.10, p = 0.027)). This significant GxE (PGS × PTSD) relationship persisted (p < 1 × 10-19) in four out of five threshold peaks (0.024, 0.133, 0.487, 0.730, and 0.889) used to calculate hippocampal volume PGSs. We detected similar GxE (G × ChildTrauma) relationships in the amygdala for exposure to childhood trauma (rs4702973; p = 2.16 × 10-7) or PTSD (rs10861272; p = 1.78 × 10-6) in the CHST11 gene. The hippocampus and amygdala are pivotal brain structures in mediating PTSD symptomatology. Trauma exposure and PTSD modulate the effect of polygenic markers on hippocampal volume (GxE) and the amygdala volume PGS is associated with PTSD risk, which supports the role of amygdala volume as a risk factor for PTSD.

3.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 678548, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393704

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that can develop following exposure to traumatic events. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium PTSD group (PGC-PTSD) has collected over 20,000 multi-ethnic PTSD cases and controls and has identified both genetic and epigenetic factors associated with PTSD risk. To further investigate biological correlates of PTSD risk, we examined three PGC-PTSD cohorts comprising 977 subjects to identify differentially expressed genes among PTSD cases and controls. Whole blood gene expression was quantified with the HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip for 726 OEF/OIF veterans from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), 155 samples from the Injury and Traumatic Stress (INTRuST) Clinical Consortium, and 96 Australian Vietnam War veterans. Differential gene expression analysis was performed in each cohort separately followed by meta-analysis. In the largest cohort, we performed co-expression analysis to identify modules of genes that are associated with PTSD and MDD. We then conducted expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and assessed the presence of eQTL interactions involving PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). Finally, we utilized PTSD and MDD GWAS summary statistics to identify regions that colocalize with eQTLs. Although not surpassing correction for multiple testing, the most differentially expressed genes in meta-analysis were interleukin-1 beta (IL1B), a pro-inflammatory cytokine previously associated with PTSD, and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), which is highly expressed in brain and can rescue dysregulated hippocampal neurogenesis and memory deficits. Pathway analysis revealed enrichment of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor genes, which are integral to cellular innate immune response. Co-expression analysis identified four modules of genes associated with PTSD, two of which are also associated with MDD, demonstrating common biological pathways underlying the two conditions. Lastly, we identified four genes (UBA7, HLA-F, HSPA1B, and RERE) with high probability of a shared causal eQTL variant with PTSD and/or MDD GWAS variants, thereby providing a potential mechanism by which the GWAS variant contributes to disease risk. In summary, we provide additional evidence for genes and pathways previously reported and identified plausible novel candidates for PTSD. These data provide further insight into genetic factors and pathways involved in PTSD, as well as potential regions of pleiotropy between PTSD and MDD.

4.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 58, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the post-GWAS era, there is an unmet need to decode the underpinning genetic etiologies of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and translate the associations to causation. METHODS: We conducted ATAC-seq profiling using NeuN sorted-nuclei from 40 frozen brain tissues to determine LOAD-specific changes in chromatin accessibility landscape in a cell-type specific manner. RESULTS: We identified 211 LOAD-specific differential chromatin accessibility sites in neuronal-nuclei, four of which overlapped with LOAD-GWAS regions (±100 kb of SNP). While the non-neuronal nuclei did not show LOAD-specific differences, stratification by sex identified 842 LOAD-specific chromatin accessibility sites in females. Seven of these sex-dependent sites in the non-neuronal samples overlapped LOAD-GWAS regions including APOE. LOAD loci were functionally validated using single-nuclei RNA-seq datasets. CONCLUSIONS: Using brain sorted-nuclei enabled the identification of sex-dependent cell type-specific LOAD alterations in chromatin structure. These findings enhance the interpretation of LOAD-GWAS discoveries, provide potential pathomechanisms, and suggest novel LOAD-loci.

5.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 678503, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248484

RESUMO

Growing research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a risk factor for poor cardiovascular health, and yet our understanding of who might be at greatest risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes after trauma is limited. In this study, we conducted the first examination of the individual and synergistic contributions of PTSD symptoms and blood pressure genetics to continuous blood pressure levels. We harnessed the power of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-PTSD Physical Health Working Group and investigated these associations across 11 studies of 72,224 trauma-exposed individuals of European (n = 70,870) and African (n = 1,354) ancestry. Genetic contributions to blood pressure were modeled via polygenic scores (PGS) for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) that were derived from a prior trans-ethnic blood pressure genome-wide association study (GWAS). Results of trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed significant main effects of the PGS on blood pressure levels [SBP: ß = 2.83, standard error (SE) = 0.06, p < 1E-20; DBP: ß = 1.32, SE = 0.04, p < 1E-20]. Significant main effects of PTSD symptoms were also detected for SBP and DBP in trans-ethnic meta-analyses, though there was significant heterogeneity in these results. When including data from the largest contributing study - United Kingdom Biobank - PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with SBP levels (ß = -1.46, SE = 0.44, p = 9.8E-4) and positively associated with DBP levels (ß = 0.70, SE = 0.26, p = 8.1E-3). However, when excluding the United Kingdom Biobank cohort in trans-ethnic meta-analyses, there was a nominally significant positive association between PTSD symptoms and SBP levels (ß = 2.81, SE = 1.13, p = 0.01); no significant association was observed for DBP (ß = 0.43, SE = 0.78, p = 0.58). Blood pressure PGS did not significantly moderate the associations between PTSD symptoms and blood pressure levels in meta-analyses. Additional research is needed to better understand the extent to which PTSD is associated with high blood pressure and how genetic as well as contextual factors may play a role in influencing cardiovascular risk.

6.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(7): 941-953, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017130

RESUMO

Common genetic risk for neuropsychiatric disorders is enriched in regulatory elements active during cortical neurogenesis. However, it remains poorly understood as to how these variants influence gene regulation. To model the functional impact of common genetic variation on the noncoding genome during human cortical development, we performed the assay for transposase accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) and analyzed chromatin accessibility quantitative trait loci (QTL) in cultured human neural progenitor cells and their differentiated neuronal progeny from 87 donors. We identified significant genetic effects on 988/1,839 neuron/progenitor regulatory elements, with highly cell-type and temporally specific effects. A subset (roughly 30%) of chromatin accessibility-QTL were also associated with changes in gene expression. Motif-disrupting alleles of transcriptional activators generally led to decreases in chromatin accessibility, whereas motif-disrupting alleles of repressors led to increases in chromatin accessibility. By integrating cell-type-specific chromatin accessibility-QTL and brain-relevant genome-wide association data, we were able to fine-map and identify regulatory mechanisms underlying noncoding neuropsychiatric disorder risk loci.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Neurônios/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Cromatina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neurogênese/genética , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974636

RESUMO

Chiari Malformation Type 1 (CM-1) is characterized by herniation of the cerebellar tonsils below the foramen magnum and the presence of headaches and other neurologic symptoms. Cranial bone constriction is suspected to be the most common biologic mechanism leading to CM-1. However, other mechanisms may also contribute, particularly in the presence of connective tissue disorders (CTDs), such as Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (EDS). Accumulating data suggest CM-1 with connective tissue disorders (CTD+) may have a different patho-mechanism and different genetic risk factors than CM-1 without CTDs (CTD-). To identify CM-1 genetic risk variants, we performed whole exome sequencing on a single large, multiplex family from Spain and targeted sequencing on a cohort of 186 unrelated adult, Caucasian females with CM-1. Targeted sequencing captured the coding regions of 21 CM-1 and EDS candidate genes, including two genes identified in the Spanish family. Using gene burden analysis, we compared the frequency of rare, functional variants detected in CM-1 cases versus publically available ethnically-matched controls from gnomAD. A secondary analysis compared the presence of rare variants in these genes between CTD+ and CTD- CM-1 cases. In the Spanish family, rare variants co-segregated with CM-1 in COL6A5, ADGRB3 and DST. A variant in COL7A1 was present in affected and unaffected family members. In the targeted sequencing analysis, rare variants in six genes (COL7A1, COL5A2, COL6A5, COL1A2, VEGFB, FLT1) were significantly more frequent in CM-1 cases compared to public controls. In total, 47% of CM-1 cases presented with rare variants in at least one of the four significant collagen genes and 10% of cases harbored variants in multiple significant collagen genes. Moreover, 26% of CM-1 cases presented with rare variants in the COL6A5 gene. We also identified two genes (COL7A1, COL3A1) for which the burden of rare variants differed significantly between CTD+ and CTD- CM-1 cases. A higher percentage of CTD+ patients had variants in COL7A1 compared to CTD+ patients, while CTD+ patients had fewer rare variants in COL3A1 than did CTD- patients. In summary, rare variants in several collagen genes are particularly frequent in CM-1 cases and those in COL6A5 co-segregated with CM-1 in a Spanish multiplex family. COL6A5 has been previously associated with musculoskeletal phenotypes, but this is the first association with CM-1. Our findings underscore the contribution of rare genetic variants in collagen genes to CM-1, and suggest that CM-1 in the presence and absence of CTD symptoms is driven by different genes.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo VII/genética , Colágeno Tipo VI/genética , Adulto , Criança , Comorbidade , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(4): 598-607, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860118

RESUMO

The development of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is influenced by genetics, sex, and menopausal status, but whether genetic susceptibility to fibrosis is influenced by sex and reproductive status is unclear. Our aim was to identify metabolism-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), whose effect on NAFLD fibrosis is significantly modified by sex and menopausal status. We performed a cross-sectional, proof-of-concept study of 616 patients in the Duke NAFLD Clinical Database and Biorepository. The primary outcome was nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-Clinical Research Network (NASH-CRN) fibrosis stage. Menopause status was self-reported; age 51 years was used as a surrogate for menopause in patients with missing menopause data. The Metabochip was used to obtain 98,359 SNP genotypes in known metabolic pathway genes for each patient. We used additive genetic models to characterize sex and menopause-specific effects of SNP genotypes on NAFLD fibrosis stage. In the main effects analysis, none of the SNPs were associated with fibrosis at P < 0.05 after correcting for multiple comparisons. Twenty-five SNPs significantly interacted with sex/menopause to affect fibrosis stage (interaction P < 0.0001). After removal of loci in linkage disequilibrium, 10 independent loci were identified. Six were in the following genes: KCNIP4 (potassium voltage-gated channel interacting protein 4), PSORS1C1 (psoriasis susceptibility 1 candidate 1), KLHL8 (Kelch-like family member 8), GLRA1 (glycine receptor alpha 1), NOTCH2 (notch receptor 2), and PRKCH (protein kinase C eta), and four SNPs were intergenic. In stratified models, four SNPs were significant in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, three only in postmenopausal women, two in men and postmenopausal women, and one only in premenopausal women. Conclusion: We identified 10 loci with a significant sex/menopause interaction with respect to fibrosis. None of these SNPs were significant in all sex/menopause groups, suggesting modulation of genetic susceptibility to fibrosis by sex and menopause status. Future studies of genetic predictors of NAFLD progression should account for sex and menopause.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(1): 100-114, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352116

RESUMO

Chiari I malformation (CM1), the displacement of the cerebellum through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal, is one of the most common pediatric neurological conditions. Individuals with CM1 can present with neurological symptoms, including severe headaches and sensory or motor deficits, often as a consequence of brainstem compression or syringomyelia (SM). We conducted whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 668 CM1 probands and 232 family members and performed gene-burden and de novo enrichment analyses. A significant enrichment of rare and de novo non-synonymous variants in chromodomain (CHD) genes was observed among individuals with CM1 (combined p = 2.4 × 10-10), including 3 de novo loss-of-function variants in CHD8 (LOF enrichment p = 1.9 × 10-10) and a significant burden of rare transmitted variants in CHD3 (p = 1.8 × 10-6). Overall, individuals with CM1 were found to have significantly increased head circumference (p = 2.6 × 10-9), with many harboring CHD rare variants having macrocephaly. Finally, haploinsufficiency for chd8 in zebrafish led to macrocephaly and posterior hindbrain displacement reminiscent of CM1. These results implicate chromodomain genes and excessive brain growth in CM1 pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adulto , Animais , Malformação de Arnold-Chiari/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Siringomielia/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Peixe-Zebra/genética
13.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 86: 102504, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949984

RESUMO

In a recent clinical trial, the metabolite l-glutamine was shown to reduce painful crises in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. To support this observation and identify other metabolites implicated in SCD clinical heterogeneity, we profiled 129 metabolites in the plasma of 705 SCD patients. We tested correlations between metabolite levels and six SCD-related complications (painful crises, cholecystectomy, retinopathy, leg ulcer, priapism, aseptic necrosis) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and used Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess causality. We found a potential causal relationship between l-glutamine levels and painful crises (N = 1278, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] = 0.68 [0.52-0.89], P = 0.0048). In two smaller SCD cohorts (N = 299 and 406), the protective effect of l-glutamine was observed (OR = 0.82 [0.50-1.34]), although the MR result was not significant (P = 0.44). We identified 66 significant correlations between the levels of other metabolites and SCD-related complications or eGFR. We tested these correlations for causality using MR analyses and found no significant causal relationship. The baseline levels of quinolinic acid were associated with prospectively ascertained survival in SCD patients, and this effect was dependent on eGFR. Metabolomics provide a promising approach to prioritize small molecules that may serve as biomarkers or drug targets in SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Glutamina/sangue , Dor/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/sangue , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5903, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214552

RESUMO

The neuronal primary cilium and centriolar satellites have functions in neurogenesis, but little is known about their roles in the postnatal brain. We show that ablation of pericentriolar material 1 in the mouse leads to progressive ciliary, anatomical, psychomotor, and cognitive abnormalities. RNAseq reveals changes in amine- and G-protein coupled receptor pathways. The physiological relevance of this phenotype is supported by decreased available dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels and the failure of antipsychotic drugs to rescue adult behavioral defects. Immunoprecipitations show an association with Pcm1 and D2Rs. Finally, we sequence PCM1 in two human cohorts with severe schizophrenia. Systematic modeling of all discovered rare alleles by zebrafish in vivo complementation reveals an enrichment for pathogenic alleles. Our data emphasize a role for the pericentriolar material in the postnatal brain, with progressive degenerative ciliary and behavioral phenotypes; and they support a contributory role for PCM1 in some individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Cílios/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Aminas/metabolismo , Animais , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5965, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235198

RESUMO

Epigenetic differences may help to distinguish between PTSD cases and trauma-exposed controls. Here, we describe the results of the largest DNA methylation meta-analysis of PTSD to date. Ten cohorts, military and civilian, contribute blood-derived DNA methylation data from 1,896 PTSD cases and trauma-exposed controls. Four CpG sites within the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) associate with PTSD after adjustment for multiple comparisons, with lower DNA methylation in PTSD cases relative to controls. Although AHRR methylation is known to associate with smoking, the AHRR association with PTSD is most pronounced in non-smokers, suggesting the result was independent of smoking status. Evaluation of metabolomics data reveals that AHRR methylation associated with kynurenine levels, which are lower among subjects with PTSD. This study supports epigenetic differences in those with PTSD and suggests a role for decreased kynurenine as a contributor to immune dysregulation in PTSD.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas Repressoras , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Humanos , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Masculino , Militares , Proteínas Repressoras/sangue , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/genética , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo
16.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1785994, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029326

RESUMO

Behavioural, structural, and functional neuroimaging have implicated the hippocampus as a critical brain region in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pathogenesis. Recent work in a normative, primarily European, sample identified 15 unique genetic loci contributing to structural variability in six hippocampal subfield volumes. We explored the relevance of these loci in two samples (Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Centre [MIRECC] and Grady; n = 290) of trauma-exposed individuals enriched for PTSD and of diverse ancestry. Four of the previous loci demonstrated nominal evidence of replication in the MIRECC dataset, primarily within non-Hispanic whites (NHW). One locus replicated in the Grady cohort, which was composed exclusively of non-Hispanic blacks (NHB). Our data supported genetic interactions with diagnosis of lifetime PTSD and genetic interactions with childhood trauma in the MIRECC sample, but not the Grady sample. Given the racial, diagnostic, and trauma-exposure differences with the original genome-wide association study (GWAS) report, we conducted a full GWAS in the MIRECC and Grady datasets. Interactions between genetic variants and lifetime PTSD or childhood trauma were interrogated for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of main effects. Genetic associations surpassed false discovery rate (FDR)-correction within hippocampal subfields in fimbria, subiculum, cornu ammonis-1 (CA1), and hippocampal amygdala transition area (HATA). One association was replicated in the Grady cohort (rs12880795 in TUNAR with left (L)-HATA volume). The most significant association in the MIRECC dataset was between rs6906714 in LINC02571 and right (R)-fimbria volume (p = 5.99×10-8, q = 0.0056). Interestingly, the effect of rs6906714 on R-fimbria volume increased with exposure to childhood trauma (gene*environment [G*E] interaction p = 0.022). These preliminary results argue for G*E interactions between genetic loci with PTSD and childhood trauma on hippocampal phenotypes. Our results underscore the need for larger neuroimaging-genetic studies in PTSD, trauma, and ancestrally diverse populations.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237543, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776978

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) impacts liver and kidney function as well as skin integrity. These complications, as well as the hyperinflammatory state of SCD, could affect serum albumin. Serum albumin has key roles in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic pathways and maintains vascular integrity. In SCD, these pathways modulate disease severity and clinical outcomes. We used three independent SCD adult cohorts to assess clinical predictors of serum albumin as well its association with mortality. In 2553 SCD adult participants, the frequency of low (<35 g/L) serum albumin was 5%. Older age and lower hemoglobin (P <0.001) were associated with lower serum albumin in all three cohorts. In age and hemoglobin adjusted analysis, higher liver enzymes (P <0.05) were associated with lower serum albumin. In two of the three cohorts, lower kidney function as measured by Glomerular Filtration Rate (P<0.001) was associated with lower serum albumin. Lower serum albumin predicted higher risk of tricuspid regurgitation velocity ≥ 2.5 m/s (OR = 1.1 per g/L, P ≤0.01). In all three cohorts, patients with low serum albumin had higher mortality (adjusted HR ≥2.9, P ≤0.003). This study confirms the role of serum albumin as a biomarker of disease severity and prognosis in patients with SCD. Albumin as a biomarker and possible mediator of SCD severity should be studied further.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Albumina Sérica/análise , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 46, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies using candidate gene and genome-wide approaches have identified epigenetic changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: In this study, we performed an EWAS of PTSD in a cohort of Veterans (n = 378 lifetime PTSD cases and 135 controls) from the Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) cohort assessed using the Illumina EPIC Methylation BeadChip which assesses DNAm at more than 850,000 sites throughout the genome. Our model included covariates for ancestry, cell heterogeneity, sex, age, and a smoking score based on DNAm at 39 smoking-associated CpGs. We also examined in EPIC-based DNAm data generated from pre-frontal cortex (PFC) tissue from the National PTSD Brain Bank (n = 72). RESULTS: The analysis of blood samples yielded one genome-wide significant association with PTSD at cg19534438 in the gene G0S2 (p = 1.19 × 10-7, padj = 0.048). This association was replicated in an independent PGC-PTSD-EWAS consortium meta-analysis of military cohorts (p = 0.0024). We also observed association with the smoking-related locus cg05575921 in AHRR despite inclusion of a methylation-based smoking score covariate (p = 9.16 × 10-6), which replicates a previously observed PGC-PTSD-EWAS association (Smith et al. 2019), and yields evidence consistent with a smoking-independent effect. The top 100 EWAS loci were then examined in the PFC data. One of the blood-based PTSD loci, cg04130728 in CHST11, which was in the top 10 loci in blood, but which was not genome-wide significant, was significantly associated with PTSD in brain tissue (in blood p = 1.19 × 10-5, padj = 0.60, in brain, p = 0.00032 with the same direction of effect). Gene set enrichment analysis of the top 500 EWAS loci yielded several significant overlapping GO terms involved in pathogen response, including "Response to lipopolysaccharide" (p = 6.97 × 10-6, padj = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: The cross replication observed in independent cohorts is evidence that DNA methylation in peripheral tissue can yield consistent and replicable PTSD associations, and our results also suggest that that some PTSD associations observed in peripheral tissue may mirror associations in the brain.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Sulfotransferases/genética , Veteranos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/sangue , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/química , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Proteínas Repressoras/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/sangue , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217042, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158233

RESUMO

Kidney failure occurs in 5-13% of individuals with sickle cell disease and is associated with early mortality. Two APOL1 alleles (G1 and G2) have been identified as risk factors for sickle cell disease nephropathy. Both risk alleles are prevalent in individuals with recent African ancestry and have been associated with nephropathic complications in other diseases. Despite the association of G1 and G2 with kidney dysfunction, the mechanisms by which these variants contribute to increased risk remain poorly understood. Previous work in zebrafish models suggest that the G2 risk allele functions as a dominant negative, whereas the G1 allele is a functional null. To understand better the cellular pathology attributed to APOL1 G2, we investigated the in vivo effects of the G2 risk variant on distinct cell types using RNA sequencing. We surveyed APOL1 G2 associated transcriptomic alterations in podocytes and vascular endothelial cells isolated from zebrafish larvae expressing cell-type specific reporters. Our analysis identified many transcripts (n = 7,523) showing differential expression between APOL1 G0 (human wild-type) and APOL1 G2 exposed podocytes. Conversely, relatively few transcripts (n = 107) were differentially expressed when comparing APOL1 G0 and APOL1 G2 exposed endothelial cells. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed transcripts in podocytes showed enrichment for autophagy associated terms such as "Lysosome" and "Phagosome", implicating these pathways in APOL1 G2 associated kidney dysfunction. This work provides insight into the molecular pathology of APOL1 G2 nephropathy which may offer new therapeutic strategies for multiple disease contexts such as sickle cell nephropathy.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Apolipoproteína L1/genética , Variação Genética , Nefropatias/patologia , Podócitos/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Larva/genética , Podócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Risco , Transcrição Genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...