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Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366039


Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a human and animal pathogen that uses type III secretion system effectors to manipulate the host cell and fulfill infection. SseK1 is a Salmonella effector with glycosyltransferase activity. We carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen and have identified tubulin-binding cofactor B (TBCB) as a new binding partner for this effector. SseK1 catalyzed the addition of N-acetylglucosamine to arginine on TBCB, and its expression promoted the stabilization of the microtubule cytoskeleton of HEK293T cells. The conserved Asp-x-Asp (DxD) motif that is essential for the activity of SseK1 was required for the binding and modification of TBCB and for the effect on the cytoskeleton. Our study has identified a novel target for SseK1 and suggests that this effector may have a role in the manipulation of the host cell microtubule network to provide a safe niche for this pathogen.

Atmos Chem Phys ; 18(14): 10199-10218, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450115


The evaluation and intercomparison of air quality models is key to reducing model errors and uncertainty. The projects AQMEII3 and EURODELTA-Trends, in the framework of the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollutants and the Task Force on Measurements and Modelling, respectively (both task forces under the UNECE Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution, LTRAP), have brought together various regional air quality models to analyze their performance in terms of air concentrations and wet deposition, as well as to address other specific objectives. This paper jointly examines the results from both project communities by intercomparing and evaluating the deposition estimates of reduced and oxidized nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) in Europe simulated by 14 air quality model systems for the year 2010. An accurate estimate of deposition is key to an accurate simulation of atmospheric concentrations. In addition, deposition fluxes are increasingly being used to estimate ecological impacts. It is therefore important to know by how much model results differ and how well they agree with observed values, at least when comparison with observations is possible, such as in the case of wet deposition. This study reveals a large variability between the wet deposition estimates of the models, with some performing acceptably (according to previously defined criteria) and others underestimating wet deposition rates. For dry deposition, there are also considerable differences between the model estimates. An ensemble of the models with the best performance for N wet deposition was made and used to explore the implications of N deposition in the conservation of protected European habitats. Exceedances of empirical critical loads were calculated for the most common habitats at a resolution of 100 × 100 m2 within the Natura 2000 network, and the habitats with the largest areas showing exceedances are determined. Moreover, simulations with reduced emissions in selected source areas indicated a fairly linear relationship between reductions in emissions and changes in the deposition rates of N and S. An approximate 20 % reduction in N and S deposition in Europe is found when emissions at a global scale are reduced by the same amount. European emissions are by far the main contributor to deposition in Europe, whereas the reduction in deposition due to a decrease in emissions in North America is very small and confined to the western part of the domain. Reductions in European emissions led to substantial decreases in the protected habitat areas with critical load exceedances (halving the exceeded area for certain habitats), whereas no change was found, on average, when reducing North American emissions in terms of average values per habitat.

Br J Pharmacol ; 174(21): 3795-3810, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800677


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thyroid hormones induce several changes in whole body metabolism that are known to improve metabolic homeostasis. However, adverse side effects have prevented its use in the clinic. In view of the promising effects of thyroid hormones, we investigated the effects of levothyroxine supplementation on glucose homeostasis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: C57BL/6 mice were treated with levothyroxine from birth to 24 weeks of age, when mice were killed. The effects of levothyroxine supplementation on metabolic health were determined. C57BL/6 mice treated with levothyroxine for 2 weeks and then challenged with streptozotocin to monitor survival. Mechanistic experiments were conducted in the pancreas, liver and skeletal muscle. RIP-B7.1 mice were treated with levothyroxine for 2 weeks and were subsequently immunized to trigger experimental autoimmune diabetes (EAD). Metabolic tests were performed. Mice were killed and metabolic tissues were extracted for immunohistological analyses. KEY RESULTS: Long-term levothyroxine supplementation enhanced glucose clearance and reduced circulating glucose in C57BL/6 mice. Levothyroxine increased simultaneously the proliferation and apoptosis of pancreatic beta cells, promoting the maintenance of a highly insulin-expressing beta cell population. Levothyroxine increased circulating insulin levels, inducing sustained activation of IRS1-AKT signalling in insulin-target tissues. Levothyroxine-treated C57BL/6 mice challenged with streptozotocin exhibited extended survival. Levothyroxine blunted the onset of EAD in RIP-B7.1 mice by inducing beta cell proliferation and preservation of insulin-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Interventions based on the use of thyroid hormones or thyromimetics could be explored to provide therapeutic benefit in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Tiroxina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estreptozocina , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem
Environ Pollut ; 159(8-9): 2138-47, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21269745


Tropospheric ozone (O(3)) is considered one of the most important air pollutants affecting human health. The role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O(3) concentrations has been analyzed in the Madrid region (Spain) using the V200603par-rc1 version of the CHIMERE air quality model. The 3.7 version of the MM5 meteorological model was used to provide meteorological input data to the CHIMERE. The emissions were derived from the EMEP database for 2003. Land use data and the stomatal conductance model included in CHIMERE were modified according to the latest information available for the study area. Two cases were considered for the period April-September 2003: (1) actual land use and (2) a fictitious scenario where El Pardo peri-urban forest was converted to bare-soil. The results show that El Pardo forest constitutes a sink of O(3) since removing this green area increased O(3) levels over the modified area and over down-wind surrounding areas.

Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Árvores/fisiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/metabolismo , Cidades , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/metabolismo , Espanha , Árvores/classificação , Árvores/metabolismo