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Mol Brain ; 12(1): 48, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072410


In humans, dysfunctional primary cilia result in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), which presents with clinical features including intellectual disabilities, obesity, and retinal degeneration, and, in mouse models, the added feature of hydrocephalus. We observed increased Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in BBS mouse brains. Increased GFAP expression is a hallmark of astrocyte reactivity that is associated with microglia activation and neuro-inflammation. To gain a better understanding of reactive astrocytes observed in BBS mice, we used two mouse models of BBS8, a BBSome protein, to characterize the reactive astrocyte phenotype. The finding of reactive astrocytes in young BBS mouse brains led us to hypothesize that loss of BBSome function leads to reactive astrocytes prior to hydrocephalus and obesity. By using two mouse models of BBS8, a congenital BBS8 knockout with hydrocephalus, and a tamoxifen-inducible BBS8 knockout without hydrocephalus, we were able to molecularly phenotype the reactive astrocytes. Molecular phenotype of reactive astrocytes shows differential regulation of inducers of Pan, A1 neurotoxic, and A2 neuroprotective astrocytes that are significantly altered in brains of both congenital and induced knockouts of BBS8, but without microglia activation. We find evidence for neuroinflammation in the brains of congenital knockout mice, but not in induced knockout mice. Protein levels of GFAP, SERPINA3N and post-synaptic density 95 (PSD95) are significantly increased in congenital knockout mice, but remain unchanged in induced knockout mice. Thus, despite the reactive astrocyte phenotype being present in both models, the molecular signature of reactive astrocytes in BBS8 mice models are distinct. Together, these findings suggest that BBS8, and by extension the BBSome, plays a role in neuro-astrocyte functions independent of hydrocephalus, and its dysregulation is associated with astrocyte reactivity without microglia activation. (Total word count 278).

PLoS Genet ; 13(10): e1007057, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049287


Genetic mutations disrupting the structure and function of primary cilia cause various inherited retinal diseases in humans. Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetically heterogeneous, pleiotropic ciliopathy characterized by retinal degeneration, obesity, postaxial polydactyly, intellectual disability, and genital and renal abnormalities. To gain insight into the mechanisms of retinal degeneration in BBS, we developed a congenital knockout mouse of Bbs8, as well as conditional mouse models in which function of the BBSome (a protein complex that mediates ciliary trafficking) can be temporally inactivated or restored. We demonstrate that BBS mutant mice have defects in retinal outer segment morphogenesis. We further demonstrate that removal of Bbs8 in adult mice affects photoreceptor function and disrupts the structural integrity of the outer segment. Notably, using a mouse model in which a gene trap inhibiting Bbs8 gene expression can be removed by an inducible FLP recombinase, we show that when BBS8 is restored in immature retinas with malformed outer segments, outer segment extension can resume normally and malformed outer segment discs are displaced distally by normal outer segment structures. Over time, the retinas of the rescued mice become morphologically and functionally normal, indicating that there is a window of plasticity when initial retinal outer segment morphogenesis defects can be ameliorated.

Morfogênese/fisiologia , Células Fotorreceptoras/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Animais , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/metabolismo , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/patologia , Cílios/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Animais , Morfogênese/genética , Mutação/genética , Transporte Proteico/genética , Retina/metabolismo , Retina/fisiologia
Med Res Arch ; 5(9)2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29457131


Upwards of 90% of individuals with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) display rod-cone dystrophy with early macular involvement. BBS is an autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous, pleiotropic ciliopathy for which 21 causative genes have been discovered to date. In addition to retinal degeneration, the cardinal features of BBS include obesity, cognitive impairment, renal anomalies, polydactyly, and hypogonadism. Here, we review the genes, proteins, and protein complexes involved in BBS and the BBS model organisms available for the study of retinal degeneration. We include comprehensive lists for all known BBS genes, their known phenotypes, and the model organisms available. We also review the molecular mechanisms believed to lead to retinal degeneration. We provide an overview of the mode of inheritance and describe the relationships between BBS genes and Joubert syndrome, Leber Congenital Amaurosis, Senior-Løken syndrome, and non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Finally, we propose ways that new advances in technology will allow us to better understand the role of different BBS genes in retinal formation and function.

Hum Mol Genet ; 25(11): 2283-2294, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008867


Bardet Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a multisystem genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy that most commonly leads to obesity, photoreceptor degeneration, digit anomalies, genito-urinary abnormalities, as well as cognitive impairment with autism, among other features. Sequencing of a DNA sample from a 17-year-old female affected with BBS did not identify any mutation in the known BBS genes. Whole-genome sequencing identified a novel loss-of-function disease-causing homozygous mutation (K102*) in C8ORF37, a gene coding for a cilia protein. The proband was overweight (body mass index 29.1) with a slowly progressive rod-cone dystrophy, a mild learning difficulty, high myopia, three limb post-axial polydactyly, horseshoe kidney, abnormally positioned uterus and elevated liver enzymes. Mutations in C8ORF37 were previously associated with severe autosomal recessive retinal dystrophies (retinitis pigmentosa RP64 and cone-rod dystrophy CORD16) but not BBS. To elucidate the functional role of C8ORF37 in a vertebrate system, we performed gene knockdown in Danio rerio and assessed the cardinal features of BBS and visual function. Knockdown of c8orf37 resulted in impaired visual behavior and BBS-related phenotypes, specifically, defects in the formation of Kupffer's vesicle and delays in retrograde transport. Specificity of these phenotypes to BBS knockdown was shown with rescue experiments. Over-expression of human missense mutations in zebrafish also resulted in impaired visual behavior and BBS-related phenotypes. This is the first functional validation and association of C8ORF37 mutations with the BBS phenotype, which identifies BBS21. The zebrafish studies hereby show that C8ORF37 variants underlie clinically diagnosed BBS-related phenotypes as well as isolated retinal degeneration.

Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas/genética , Distrofias Retinianas/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos do Fígado/patologia , Mutação , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Distrofias Retinianas/patologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética