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1.
Front Psychol ; 12: 661267, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335371

RESUMO

This study of 104 Chilean employees examines the process of WFF-recovery-general health on a daily basis. Drawing on the work-home resources (W-HR) model, we hypothesized that daily work-to-family facilitation and work engagement predict recovery experiences during off-job time in the evening (i.e., detachment from work and relaxation) and subsequent general health at night. Furthermore, we explored whether daily work engagement moderates the relationships between daily work-to-family facilitation and recovery experiences during off-job time in the evening and general health at night. In addition, we expected employees' detachment from work to have a lagged effect on next-day general health at night. Participants completed a survey and a diary booklet over 5 consecutive working days (N = 520 occasions). Multilevel analyses show that, as expected, daily work-to-family facilitation predicted recovery experiences during off-job time in the evening (i.e., detachment from work and relaxation). However, contrary to our expectations, daily work engagement only predicted general health at night. Moreover, as expected, a moderation effect of daily work engagement shows that on days that employees experience low levels of daily work engagement, daily work-to-family facilitation is strongly related to detachment from work and relaxation during off-job time in the evening and to general health at night. Unexpectedly, on days on which employees experienced high levels of daily work engagement, daily work-to-family facilitation was weakly related to these outcomes. Finally, in accordance with our expectations, detachment from work had a lagged effect on next-day general health at night. These findings offer support for the W-HR model and have theoretical and practical implications for research and organizations.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013986

RESUMO

Nursing home workers have been exposed to great physical and mental burdens during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although this has generated high levels of exhaustion, it may also have contributed to feelings of professional satisfaction. The objective of this study was to explore the levels of satisfaction among nursing home workers during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the role of job demands, resources and emotional experiences in explaining their levels of satisfaction. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain between March and May 2020. Three hundred and thirty-five nursing home workers participated. A quantitative analysis was conducted, as was a content analysis of the responses to an open-ended question about the respondents' perceptions of job demands and resources during the crisis. The results showed that workers had very high levels of satisfaction. Social pressure from work, contact with death and suffering, and emotional exhaustion were negatively associated with satisfaction. Moreover, under conditions of extensive contact with suffering people and great fear of contagion, social support at work was shown to promote professional satisfaction. In conclusion, nursing home workers in Spain experienced high rates of satisfaction during the COVID-19 crisis despite the high job demands, lack of job resources, fear of contagion and exhaustion. The main practical implication of this study is the importance of ensuring optimal working conditions in the nursing home sector in order to guarantee professional satisfaction, prevent burnout, reduce turnover and promote post-crisis resilience.

3.
J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807903

RESUMO

Early detection of gestational complications is a priority in obstetrics. In our social context, this is linked to maternity age. Most studies are focused on biological factors. However, pregnancy is also influenced by social and psychological factors, which have not been deeply explored. We aimed to identify biopsychosocial risk and protective factors associated with the development of maternal and fetal complications. We enrolled 182 healthy pregnant women, and plasma melatonin and cortisol levels were measured in the first trimester by chemiluminescent immunoassays. At different time points along gestation, women answered several questionnaires (positive and negative affect schedule, hospital anxiety and depression scale, pregnancy concerns scale, life orientation test, resilience scale, life satisfaction scale and life-work conflicts scale). They were followed up until delivery and categorized as normal pregnancy, maternal or fetal complications. Maternal complications were associated with low melatonin (OR = 0.99 [0.98; 1.00]; p-value = 0.08) and life satisfaction (OR = 0.64 [0.41; 0.93]; p-value = 0.03) and fetal complications were associated with high cortisol (OR = 1.06 [1.02; 1.13]; p-value = 0.04), anxiety (OR = 2.21 [1.10; 4.55]; p-value = 0.03) and life-work conflicts (OR = 1.92 [1.04; 3.75]; p-value = 0.05). We conclude that psychological factors influence pregnancy outcomes in association with melatonin and cortisol alterations. High maternal melatonin and life satisfaction levels could be potential protective factors against the development of maternal complications during pregnancy. Low anxiety and cortisol levels and reduced work-life conflicts could prevent fetal complications.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922232

RESUMO

COVID-19 has increased the likelihood of healthcare professionals suffering from Secondary Traumatic Stress (STS). However, the difficulty of this crisis may lead these professionals to display personal resources, such as harmonious passion, that could be involved in posttraumatic growth. The goal of this study is to examine the STS and posttraumatic growth among healthcare professionals and the demands and resources related to COVID-19. A longitudinal study was carried out in April 2020 (T1) and December 2020 (T2). The participants were 172 health professionals from different health institutions and they reported their workload, fear of contagion, lack of staff and personal protection equipment (PPE), harmonious passion, STS and posttraumatic growth. The results revealed that workload and fear of contagion in T2 were positive predictors for STS, whereas harmonious passion was a negative predictor. Fear of contagion of both times seemed to positively predict posttraumatic growth, as well as harmonious passion. One moderation effect was found concerning the lack of staff/PPE, as posttraumatic growth was higher when the workload was high, especially in those with a high lack of staff/PPE. All in all, these findings pointed out the need for preventative measures to protect these professionals from long-term negative consequences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fadiga por Compaixão , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671211

RESUMO

There is an intensification of work in global health systems, a phenomenon that could increase work-family conflict, exhaustion, and intentions to leave among healthcare workers. The main objective of this study is to analyze if daily work-family conflict and burnout could explain the daily leaving intentions and vitality of healthcare workers. This is a diary study, which employs an experience-sampling methodology (ESM). A total of 56 physicians, nurses, and nursing aides from intensive care and nephrology units filled out various quantitative scales during 5 working days (56 × 5 = 280 observations). Multilevel hierarchical analysis showed that daily work-family conflict and burnout were significantly associated with higher daily intentions of leaving the profession, and with lower levels of daily vitality. In addition, those workers who experienced more work-family conflict and depersonalization on a daily basis were those who showed more intentions to leave and less daily vitality, showing an interactive effect. The results highlight the importance of examining the psychosocial risks experienced by healthcare workers by employing experience-sampling methodologies, which could help us to deepen our understanding of the proximal antecedents of their intentions to leave and their psychological well-being.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Médicos , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Conflito Familiar , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Front Psychol ; 12: 564036, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767642

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 crisis may have an impact on the mental health of professionals working on the frontline, especially healthcare workers due to the increase of occupational psychosocial risks, such as emotional exhaustion and secondary traumatic stress (STS). This study explored job demands and resources during the COVID-19 crisis in predicting emotional exhaustion and STS among health professionals. The present study is a descriptive and correlational cross-sectional design, conducted in different hospitals and health centers in Spain. The sample consisted of 221 health professionals with direct involvement in treating COVID-19. An online survey was created and distributed nationwide from March 20 to April 15 which assessed: sociodemographic and occupational data, fear of contagion, contact with death/suffering, lack of material and human protection resources (MHRP), challenge, emotional exhaustion, and STS. Descriptive findings show high levels of workload, contact with death/suffering, lack of MHPR and challenge, and are moderately high for fear of contagion, emotional exhaustion, and STS. We found an indirect significant effect of lack of MHPR on predicting (1) emotional exhaustion through the workload and (2) on STS through fear of contagion, contact with death/suffering, and workload. To conclude, this study examines the immediate consequences of the crisis on health professionals' well-being in Spain, emphasizing the job demands related to COVID-19 that health professionals are facing, and the resources available in these health contexts. These findings may boost follow-up of this crisis among health professionals to prevent them from long-term consequences.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578963

RESUMO

Cognitive maternal adaptation during pregnancy may influence biological variables, maternal psychological, and neonatal health. We hypothesized that pregnant women with numerous general resources and less negative emotions would have a better coping with a positive influence on neonatal birth weight and maternal psychological health. The study included 131 healthy pregnant women. A blood sample was obtained in the first trimester to assess biological variables (polyphenols, hematological and biochemical parameters). Psychological variables (negative affect, anxiety, optimism, resilience, family-work conflicts, pregnancy concerns, general resources, and life satisfaction) were evaluated at several time points along gestation, and birth weight was recorded. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to associate the above parameters with maternal psychological outcome at the end of gestation (depression, resilience, and optimism) and neonatal outcome (birth weight). Maternal depression was associated with leukocytes (ß = 0.08 ± 0.03, p-value = 0.003), cholesterol (ß = 0.01 ± 0.002, p-value = 0.026), and pregnancy concerns (ß = 0.31 ± 0.09, p-value = 0.001). Maternal resilience was associated with leukocytes (ß = -0.14 ± 0.09, p-value = 0.010) and life satisfaction (ß = 0.82 ± 0.08, p-value = 0.001), and maternal optimism was associated with polyphenol levels (ß = 0.002 ± 0.001, p-value = 0.018) and life satisfaction (ß = 0.49 ± 0.04, p-value = 0.001). Birth weight was associated with maternal resilience (ß = 370.2 ± 97.0, p-value = 0.001), red blood cells (ß = 480.3 ± 144.4, p-value = 0.001), and life satisfaction (ß = 423.3 ± 32.6, p-value = 0.001). We found associations between maternal psychological, blood variables, and birth weight and maternal depression. This study reveals the relevance of psychological health during pregnancy for maternal and neonatal outcome, and it emphasizes the need to consider it in preventive policies in the obstetric field.

8.
J Psychol ; 155(2): 210-237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539273

RESUMO

The objective of this study is twofold: first, to analyze whether the daily level of energy in terms of vigor at work could explain the way in which workers psychologically detach from their work, relax, practice challenging activities, and have the feeling of having control over their leisure time when arriving home. Second, to check if the daily emotional job demands could hinder that relationship, reversing the positive effect of vigor in recovery. For this purpose, a multilevel study with a diary methodology was designed. In total, 94 nurses from various hospital and primary care centers in Madrid and Basque Country (Spain) participated in this study. They completed daily questionnaires twice a day (in the afternoon after work and at night before going to bed) for five consecutive workdays from Monday to Friday (N = 94*5 = 470). The results revealed that on days that vigor at work was high, nurses experienced more psychological detachment, relaxation, feelings of mastery, and time control at home. Moreover, on days that emotional job demands were high, vigor was more negatively related to psychological detachment and time control at home. Additionally, vigor was more positively related to all recovery experiences at home in days that emotional demands were low. Therefore, daily vigor can act as an energy resource that helps the worker to recover. However, this effect can occur in situations in which stressors are not present in high intensity. These results have clear practical implications for both health organizations and workers.


Assuntos
Emoções , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Estresse Ocupacional , Humanos , Análise Multinível , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Enfermagem de Atenção Primária/psicologia , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
9.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(3): 244-256, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025850

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on nursing home workers, as well as the influence of certain related stressors and job resources. Two-hundred twenty-eight nursing home workers in Spain participated in this cross-sectional study. High levels of workload, social pressure from work, contact with suffering, and fear of contagion were found. In nursing homes where cases of COVID-19 had been detected, workers experienced higher levels of secondary traumatic stress. Social pressure from work, high doses of exposure to suffering, lack of personnel and personal protective equipment, and minimal supervisor support were significant in explaining traumatic stress. Supervisor and coworker support moderated some of these relationships. The results are discussed in terms of the need to implement urgent psychosocial protection strategies and to provide personal protective equipment (PPE) to help prevent future psychological disorders in this worker population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fadiga por Compaixão/etiologia , Medo/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Análise de Regressão , Espanha
10.
Salud ment ; 43(5): 219-226, Sep.-Oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145103

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Physicians of Intensive Care Units (ICU) have a potential risk to develop negative outcomes such as emotional exhaustion and secondary traumatic stress (STS). Specifically, job demands in these units (i.e., work stressors and emotional effort) may positively predict these outcomes, whereas personal resources such as harmonious passion and self-compassion may diminish them. Objetive To design a specific intervention for physicians in ICU and provide preliminary evidence of its effectiveness. Method A brief intervention of five weekly sessions (two hour-sessions) was carried out with four physicians in ICU in a hospital in Mexico. Other four physicians were selected as a control group. The intervention was aimed at reducing emotional exhaustion and STS by increasing harmonious passion and self-compassion, and diminishing the emotional effort. Results The intervention group showed a significant reduction in: a) work stressors (2/4 physicians; RCI = .21); emotional effort (1/4 physicians; (RCI = .60); emotional exhaustion (2/4 physicians; RCI = .34); and STS (3/4 physicians; RCI = .26). One physician experienced a significant increase in harmonious passion (RCI = 1.00), but the intervention seems to maintain high levels of this and self-compassion in comparison with the control group. The control group showed a worse result in its outcomes. Discussion and conclusion Despite the limitations, this study provides preliminary evidence for effectively reducing emotional exhaustion and STS. Our findings highlight the individual analysis of the effective tools per physician and address interventions focused on harmonious passion and self-compassion. This study calls for future research concerning intervention proposals in ICU with follow-up measures to diminish the negative consequences in the long-term.


Resumen Introducción Los médicos de las unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) presentan un riesgo de desarrollar agotamiento emocional y estrés traumático secundario (ETS). Las demandas laborales en estas unidades (estresores laborales y esfuerzo emocional) pueden predecir positivamente estos resultados, mientras que los recursos personales como la pasión armoniosa y la autocompasión pueden disminuirlos. Objetivo Diseñar una intervención específica para médicos de UCI y proporcionar evidencia preliminar de su efectividad. Método Se realizó una intervención de cinco sesiones semanales (de dos horas de duración cada una) con cuatro médicos de una UCI en un hospital de México. Otros cuatro médicos fueron seleccionados como grupo control. El objetivo fue reducir el agotamiento emocional y el ETS mediante el aumento la pasión armoniosa y la autocompasión; y la disminución del esfuerzo emocional. Resultados En el grupo de intervención se halló una disminución significativa en: a) estresores laborales (2/4 médicos; RCI = .21); esfuerzo emocional (1/4 médicos; RCI = .60); agotamiento emocional (2/4 médicos; RCI = .34); y ETS (3/4 médicos; RCI = .26). Un médico experimentó un aumento significativo en la pasión armoniosa (RCI = 1.00), en tanto que el resto mantuvo altos niveles de ésta y autocompasión en comparación con el grupo control. Discusión y conclusión A pesar de las limitaciones, este estudio proporciona evidencia preliminar para reducir el agotamiento emocional y el ETS. Nuestros hallazgos destacan el análisis individual de las herramientas efectivas y destaca las intervenciones centradas en la pasión armoniosa y la autocompasión. Nuestro estudio recalca la importancia de desarrollar investigaciones futuras sobre intervenciones en UCI con medidas de seguimiento que puedan disminuir las consecuencias negativas a largo plazo.

11.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 12(3): 907-933, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary traumatic stress (STS), a construct formed by compassion fatigue, shattered assumptions, and symptomatology, has been scarcely studied in intensive care units (ICU). In these units, healthcare workers encounter daily work stressors which impact on their health and well-being. Also, previous literature revealed a passion for caring among these workers, finding two types: harmonious passion, which may protect them against negative outcomes, and obsessive passion, which may boost negative consequences. We aim to study whether both types of passion could moderate the relationships between daily work stressors and STS. METHODS: In all, 265 assessments were collected at ICUs from different hospitals in Spain through a diary approach (53 health workers × 5 days at two time points per day). RESULTS: First, daily work stressors were positive predictors of symptomatology; secondly, dispositional harmonious passion was a negative predictor of both compassion fatigue and shattered assumptions, also presenting a buffering effect between daily work stressors and daily shattered assumptions. Finally, dispositional obsessive passion showed positive relationships with both shattered assumptions and symptomatology, also presenting a boosting effect between daily work stressors and daily symptomatology. CONCLUSIONS: This study allows us to deepen our understanding of STS in ICUs and to boost preventive proposals. Practical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Fadiga por Compaixão/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Assistentes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/fisiopatologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 628-636, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535389

RESUMO

Based on Role Congruity Theory, we tested the hypothesis of gender bias by examining gender differences in observers' evaluations of the awareness and acceptability of workplace incivility gender-dyad interaction. Three hundred and ninety-six Spanish high school students (55.3% female) read one scenario of overt incivility (publicly humiliates and openly doubts the employee's judgment) or covert (omits and pays little attention) from a leader (female vs. male) toward a subordinate (female vs. male) in engineering. Results indicated gender differences among observers. From the leader actor of incivility, males were more aware and accepted less the incivility when performed by a female leader in a male domain; whereas females were more aware and accepted less incivility than males in all cases. Regarding the subordinate target of incivility, only females were more aware and accepted less incivility, and both males and females were more aware and accepted less covert incivility. Our results reveal practical implications for interventions from a gender perspective.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Incivilidade , Masculinidade , Sexismo , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
13.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E25, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084652

RESUMO

One of the job resources most strongly associated with nurses' well-being and motivation is social support. However, the psychosocial mechanisms that would explain this relationship have not been sufficiently researched. Thus, the main aim of this study was analyze whether this relationship could be mediated by two variables: role ambiguity and psychological flexibility. A total of 196 nurses from various Spanish hospitals and primary health care centers participated in this cross-sectional study. A multiple mediation analysis was run using the "PROCESS" macro script in SPSS 23.0. The results showed that co-worker support was related to higher levels of vigor and vitality through role ambiguity (Estimate = .158, 95% CI [.050, .298], and Estimate = .212, 95% CI [.076, .390], respectively). The same applied to supervisor support, (Estimate = .197, 95% CI [.059, .378], and Estimate = .212, 95% CI [.076, .390], respectively). Co-worker support was also related to higher levels of vigor and vitality through psychological flexibility, (Estimate = .132, 95% CI [.048, .271], and Estimate = .216, 95% CI [.086, .394], respectively). The same applied to supervisor support (Estimate = .092, 95% CI [.024, .208], and Estimate = .157, 95% CI [.035, .333], respectively). However, in the relationships between co-worker, supervisor support and exhaustion, only psychological flexibility played a mediating role. In conclusion, social support in nursing is a job resource that is associated with high levels of energy and motivation among nurses through the mediating role of certain job demands and personal resources.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(3): 267-276, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868601

RESUMO

Workplace incivility is a growing problem in nursing. However, most studies that explore this psychosocial risk and its consequences do so considering a single level and a between-person perspective. The aims of the study were to explore whether the effects of experiencing incivility during work-time could explain the daily levels of well-being of nurses at home; and to analyze if that relationship could be moderated by their levels of emotional dysregulation as a trait. This is a multilevel study with diary methodology. The study was carried out in 18 primary health-care centers belonging to Madrid and the Basque Country, in Spain. Ninety-four nurses completed a general questionnaire and 54 of them a diary booklet over five consecutive working days in two different moments, immediately after work and at bedtime. The results showed that nurses' emotional dysregulation moderated the relationship between daily workplace incivility and daily fatigue, and positive affect at night at home. However, there were no direct effects of daily incivility on these outcome variables. In conclusion, the presence of difficulties in emotional regulation among nurses can increase the negative effects of daily workplace incivility on their health and well-being.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Incivilidade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Span. j. psychol ; 22: e25.1-e25.12, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-188865

RESUMO

One of the job resources most strongly associated with nurses' well-being and motivation is social support. However, the psychosocial mechanisms that would explain this relationship have not been sufficiently researched. Thus, the main aim of this study was analyze whether this relationship could be mediated by two variables: role ambiguity and psychological flexibility. A total of 196 nurses from various Spanish hospitals and primary health care centers participated in this cross-sectional study. A multiple mediation analysis was run using the "PROCESS" macro script in SPSS 23.0. The results showed that co-worker support was related to higher levels of vigor and vitality through role ambiguity (Estimate = .158, 95% CI [.050, .298], and Estimate = .212, 95% CI [.076, .390], respectively). The same applied to supervisor support, (Estimate = .197, 95% CI [.059, .378], and Estimate = .212, 95% CI [.076, .390], respectively). Co-worker support was also related to higher levels of vigor and vitality through psychological flexibility, (Estimate = .132, 95% CI [.048, .271], and Estimate = .216, 95% CI [.086, .394], respectively). The same applied to supervisor support (Estimate = .092, 95% CI [.024, .208], and Estimate = .157, 95% CI [.035, .333], respectively). However, in the relationships between co-worker, supervisor support and exhaustion, only psychological flexibility played a mediating role. In conclusion, social support in nursing is a job resource that is associated with high levels of energy and motivation among nurses through the mediating role of certain job demands and personal resources


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Emprego/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estudos Transversais
16.
Med. segur. trab ; 64(252): 244-262, jul.-sept. 2018. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182334

RESUMO

Los profesionales de enfermería que trabajan en unidades de cuidados intensivos y que participan en las actividades relacionadas con la donación y trasplante de órganos están expuestos a un número importante de estresores en su trabajo, lo que favorece la aparición de determinados riesgos psicosociales como son el estrés laboral, el desgaste profesional, el trabajo emocional, el estrés traumático secundario, el estrés moral y el conflicto entre el trabajo y la familia. Además, los nuevos escenarios que se presentan y van consolidando en nuestro país en relación a la donación de órganos, como son la donación en asistolia controlada y no controlada, o los cuidados intensivos orientados a la donación, generan nuevas situaciones y estresores a estos profesionales que aumentan su exposición al riesgo psicosocial en su trabajo. Por todo ello, aquí llevamos a cabo una revisión y propuesta de las demandas específicas y las causas que podrían influir en el desarrollo de estos riesgos entre estos profesionales, así como sus posibles consecuencias. También se proponen una serie de recursos laborales y personales que podrían ser útiles para afrontar las demandas laborales y que satisfacen muchas de las necesidades apuntadas por organismos de referencia en éste ámbito para la prevención y promoción de la salud y bienestar dentro de este colectivo, así como para la mejora del proceso de donación y trasplante de órganos


Nursing professionals who work in intensive care units and participate in activities related to organ donation and transplantation are exposed to a significant number of stressors their work, which favors the appearance of certain psychosocial risks such as work stress, burnout, secondary traumatic stress, moral stress, and the conflict between work and family. In addition, the new scenarios in our country in relation to organ donation, such as uncontrolled and controlled donation after cardiac death, or the intensive cares oriented to organ donation, generate new situations and stressors among these professionals that increase their exposure to psychosocial risks. Therefore, this paper reviews and proposes the specific demands and causes that could influence the development of these risks these professionals, as well as their possible consequences. It also proposes a series of job and personal resources that could be useful to these workers to face these job demands. These proposals meet many of the needs pointed by reference institutions in this field to prevention and promotion of health and well-being in this group of professionals, as well as to improve the process of organ donation and transplantation


Assuntos
Humanos , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , Psicologia Industrial/tendências , Esgotamento Profissional/enfermagem , Transplante de Órgãos/enfermagem , Transplante de Órgãos/psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde
17.
Summa psicol. UST ; 14(2): 24-34, 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087765

RESUMO

La energía y motivación de los profesionales de enfermería son fundamentales para su bienestar, para garantizar la calidad asistencial, así como la permanencia de los trabajadores dentro de las organizaciones con altos niveles de compromiso. El objetivo de este trabajo fue explorar el valor añadido que tenían dos recursos personales del propio trabajador: su flexibilidad psicológica y atención plena, sobre sus niveles de vigor y agotamiento emocional relacionados con el trabajo, así como sobre su vitalidad y fatiga, controlando previamente otras demandas y recursos laborales. En el estudio participaron un total de 171 profesionales de enfermería procedentes de España y 50 profesionales de Cuba (10.9% varones y 86.9% mujeres). Se realizaron análisis descriptivos, correlacionales, contraste de medias y análisis de regresión jerárquica. Los resultados revelaron que la flexibilidad psicológica explicaba una parte significativa de la varianza en las puntuaciones de vigor, vitalidad y fatiga, mientras que la atención plena explicaba de forma significativa una parte de la varianza del agotamiento emocional. Demandas laborales como la ambigüedad de rol y recursos laborales como la autonomía, también mostraron un efecto directo importante. Los resultados se discuten en términos de la importancia de incorporar estas variables en los planes de prevención y promoción de la salud dentro de las organizaciones sanitarias.


Nurses' energy and motivation are fundamental to explain their well-being, to guarantee the quality of care, as well as the permanence of the workers within organizations with high levels of job commitment. Thus, the main aim of this study was to explore the added value of two personal resources of the worker, their psychological flexibility and mindfulness, on their levels of vigor and emotional exhaustion at work, as well as on their levels of vitality and fatigue, previously controlling other job demands and job resources. The study involved a total of 171 nursing professionals from Spain and 50 professionals from Cuba (10.9% male and 86.9% female). Descriptive, correlational, mean contrasts and hierarchical regression analyses were performed. The results showed that psychological flexibility explained a significant portion of the variance in vigor, vitality, and fatigue scores, while mindfulness significantly explained a portion of the variance in emotional exhaustion. Job demands such as role ambiguity and job resources such as autonomy also showed a significant direct effect on the energy and motivation variables. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of considering these variables in health prevention and promotion plans within health organizations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Enfermagem , Atenção Plena , Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho , Satisfação no Emprego , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia
18.
Acta investigación psicol. (en línea) ; 7(2): 2679-2690, abr. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-973512

RESUMO

Resumen El uso universal del Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), y sus versiones, ha creado un marco de inferencias polémicas sobre el cimiento anglosajón del MBI. El estudio analiza la universalidad del constructo de burnout del MBI en un contexto latinoamericano, examinando su validez, mediante análisis factorial exploratorio, confirmatorio y de fiabilidad. Un total de 505 docentes nicaragüenses participaron en el estudio. El 41% de los ítems no superaron las cargas factoriales. El mayor cuestionamiento acopia las inferencias de las dimensiones Despersonalización y Realización personal, apuntando a la probable falta de correspondencia cultural del constructo. El Agotamiento emocional resultó consistente y con la fiabilidad aceptable. El modelo del análisis factorial confirmatorio con el mejor ajuste mostró que el burnout puede ser interpretado como parte de una sola variable latente. Se concluyó que el constructo del MBI, tal como se plantea, no muestra suficiente peso para asumir su universalidad entre culturas heterogéneas. Las inconsistencias encontradas en la Despersonalización y la Realización personal dan indicios que se trata de un fenómeno específico ligado a contextos culturales determinados.


Abstract The universal use of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and its versions has created a framework of controversial inferences about the MBI's Anglo-Saxon foundation. The study analyzes the universality of the MBI burnout construct in a Latin American context, examining its validity, through exploratory, confirmatory factor analysis plus reliability; 505 Nicaraguan teachers participated in the study; 41% of the items did not surpass the factorial loads. The major inquiring points out to the inferences of the Depersonalization and Emotional exhaustion was consistent and with acceptable reliability. The model of Confirmatory Factor Analysis with the best fit showed that burnout can be interpreted as part of a single latent variable. It was concluded that the MBI construct, as proposed, does not show enough weight to assume its universality among heterogeneous cultures. The inconsistencies found in Depersonalization and Personal Realization give indications that it is a specific phenomenon linked to particular cultural contexts.

19.
Ergonomics ; 59(2): 207-21, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26230967

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Artificial neural networks are sophisticated modelling and prediction tools capable of extracting complex, non-linear relationships between predictor (input) and predicted (output) variables. This study explores this capacity by modelling non-linearities in the hardiness-modulated burnout process with a neural network. Specifically, two multi-layer feed-forward artificial neural networks are concatenated in an attempt to model the composite non-linear burnout process. Sensitivity analysis, a Monte Carlo-based global simulation technique, is then utilised to examine the first-order effects of the predictor variables on the burnout sub-dimensions and consequences. Results show that (1) this concatenated artificial neural network approach is feasible to model the burnout process, (2) sensitivity analysis is a prolific method to study the relative importance of predictor variables and (3) the relationships among variables involved in the development of burnout and its consequences are to different degrees non-linear. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Many relationships among variables (e.g., stressors and strains) are not linear, yet researchers use linear methods such as Pearson correlation or linear regression to analyse these relationships. Artificial neural network analysis is an innovative method to analyse non-linear relationships and in combination with sensitivity analysis superior to linear methods.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Modelos Teóricos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Medicina do Trabalho/métodos , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo
20.
An. psicol ; 31(1): 190-198, ene. 2015. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131613

RESUMO

El objetivo fue estudiar la influencia diaria del incivismo laboral y el abuso verbal en el bienestar de los trabajadores, y explorar el papel de la recuperación. Se obtuvieron 1575 registros con una muestra de trabajadores del sector servicios (N = 105). Es un estudio multinivel con diseño de diario, de dos niveles: el nivel 1 (i), día (day-level); y el nivel 2 (j), sujeto (person-level). Se evaluó en dos momentos temporales distintos, general y diario. La medida de diario consistió en la evaluación durante una semana laboral y en distintos momentos del día. Los análisis multinivel con MLwiN mostraron resultados significativos del incivismo laboral y el abuso verbal como predictores del agotamiento emocional, y todos sobre el afecto negativo de la noche. No se encontraron relaciones entre estas variables y el afecto positivo de la noche. La recuperación durante la tarde fue clave en el estado afectivo de la noche. La relajación tuvo un efecto directo sobre el afecto negativo y las actividades enriquecedoras sobre el afecto positivo, además se encontraron efectos de moderación de la desconexión psicológica y la relajación. El diseño del estudio puede proporcionar importantes avances en medidas preventivas de la agresión en el ámbito laboral


The aim was to study daily fluctuations from workplace incivility and verbal abuse in the emotional well-being of employees and examine the daily role of recovery. It was conducted a diary study over five consecutive working days (total of 525 days) with 105 employees. It was evaluated on two different times, general and diary moments. Diary measure was completed in a work week, three times per day, morning, afternoon and night. Multilevel modeling showed significant results for workplace incivility and verbal abuse as predictors of emotional exhaustion, as well as an impact of all these variables on negative affect at night. However, nonsignificant relationships were found for positive affect at night. Recovery from daily work was a key factor predicting affect at night. Relaxation showed main effects on negative affect at night and mastery on positive affect at night. Both psychological detachment and relaxation showed a moderating role. The present diary study of occupational health psychology helps us achieve greater knowledge in this area and contribute on the prevention of aggression in the organizational context


Assuntos
Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Relações Trabalhistas , Hostilidade , Comportamento Verbal , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia
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