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Swiss Dent J ; 130(11): 899-905, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161692


Studies on interdental cleaning have shown an advantage of interdental brushes (IDB) over other interdental care products. Sticks (STK) made of rubber are often recommended as an alternative, as they are considered user-friendly, gentle but nevertheless effective. This laboratory study aimed to compare the cleaning efficiency with the same application force between IDB and STK. Brushes with different geometries and diameters were tested. Two conical STK from two manufacturers of the sizes "XS/S" (0.7-2.6 mm) and "L" (0.9-3.4 mm) were tested. For the IDB, one conical (2.7-3.4 mm), two cylindrical (1.9 and 2.5 mm) and one waisted brush (4-2-4 mm) were assessed. A geometric model with parallel-walled metal blocks (black and coated with titanium oxide) was used. The brushes were tested with one and five cleaning cycles each in horizontal direction. The test surfaces were measured planimetrically for cleaning efficiency by calculating the areas freed from titanium oxide in relation to the maximum cleanable total area. The maximum cleaning efficiency of the IDB was 45% at 1 mm distance with one cleaning cycle and 95% with five cycles. For the sticks, the cleaning efficiency with one cleaning cycle was 30% and 67% with five cycles. At a distance of 2 mm, the maximum cleaning efficiency was 50% with one cleaning cycle and 87% with five cycles for the IDBs and only 10% for the STKs. Taking into account the limitations of this study, the IDBs showed an overall better cleaning efficiency with the same application force, compared to STKs, with the waisted IDB achieving better cleaning efficiency than the conical IDB. In conclusion, STKs can be used in narrow interdental spaces where app opriate, but overall IDBs are more preferable in narrow and wider contact point conditions.

Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária , Humanos , Escovação Dentária
Dent J (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882808


Electronic and mobile health (eHealth/mHealth) are rapidly growing areas in medicine and digital technologies are gaining importance. In dentistry, digitalization is also an emerging topic, whereby more and more applications are being offered. As an example, using real-time feedback, digital application software (an app) was designed to help users brush their teeth more accurately. However, there is no data on the effectiveness and haptic of such apps. Therefore, a single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial was designed: twenty volunteers received an electric toothbrush with an associated app to assess whether the app-assisted toothbrushing is better than without. After a short period of familiarization with the electric toothbrush, plaque index (O'Leary et al. 1972) was recorded and subjects were assigned to the test (with app; n = 10) or the control group (no app; n = 10). At the end of the 2-week pilot study period, plaque was again assessed and participants in the test group completed a questionnaire about the app's user-friendliness. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the test and control groups. The plaque index improved on average by 8.5% points in the test and 4.7% points in the control group. Fifty percent of the test group participants were of the opinion that they had achieved better cleaning results and would recommend the app to others, although the app contributed only marginally to increased plaque removal. However, such apps may nevertheless be helpful as motivational tools, especially when tracking and monitoring cleaning data. Therefore, more development and research on this topic is indicated.

Swiss Dent J ; 129(3): 186-191, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806511


Dental students in Zurich receive 8.5 hours of preclinical training in scaling/root planing. Dental hygiene students receive a multiple of this amount. This study was undertaken to assess the students' acquired preclinical competencies and to what degree they may differ. 34 undergraduate dental students and 20 dental hygiene (DH) students from two different schools in Zurich were tasked with scaling/root planing a maxillary left canine, coated with black lacquer from the apex to ca. 5 mm above the cemento-enamel junction, after completing their preclinical periodontal instrumentation course. The students were allowed to use any instrument in their set (Gracey or universal curettes) for a 5-minute period. Positive (experienced DHs) and negative (laypeople) control groups performed the same task. After instrumentation, teeth were scanned and planimetrically assessed. The percentage of cleaned tooth surface was calculated and statistically analysed (Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test, Conover's test for pairwise comparisons). The dental students achieved the highest median cleaning efficacy (80.6%), followed by the experienced DHs (65.3%), the DH students (62.0%) and the laypeople (26.7%). When split by schools, a significant difference in instrumentation efficacy by the student DHs was seen (p <0.001). Despite their limited instruction time, the dental students acquired preclinical scaling/root planing skills comparable to, or better than, DH students with more training time.

Raspagem Dentária , Higiene Bucal , Aplainamento Radicular , Estudantes de Odontologia , Educação em Odontologia , Raiz Dentária
Clin Oral Investig ; 21(4): 1029-1036, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27193939


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the effects of ultrasonic tip distance and orientation on the removal of a multispecies biofilm under standardized conditions in vitro. METHODS: Six-species biofilms were grown on hydroxyapatite discs for 64 h and treated with a magnetostrictive ultrasonic tip (Cavitron) placed either on contact or at 0.25- and 0.5-mm distance. The treatment was performed for 15 s with either the tip at right angle or sideways. Biofilm removal was evaluated by assessing the viable bacteria in each supernatant and compared to respective controls. In the latter, biofilms were mechanically removed and evaluated in supernatants to assess adhering and floating bacteria. Colony-forming units (CFU) were determined by cultivation on solid media. Any remaining biofilm on the treated discs was also visualized after staining with green-fluorescent SYTO® 9 stain using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Mann-Whitney U tests and Bonferroni correction were used to analyze the results between the groups. RESULTS: Sideways application of the ultrasonic tip at distances of 0.25 and 0.5 mm removed as many bacteria as present on the control discs compared to the tip on contact (p < 0.05). All other application modes, especially the ultrasonic tip applied perpendicularly on contact, showed no statistical significance in removing biofilm. CONCLUSION: Overall, data indicated that bacterial detachment depended on tip orientation and distance, especially when the tip was applied sideways similar to the clinical setting. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Biofilm removal by means of ultrasonic debridement remains a crucial aspect in the treatment of periodontal disease. To ensure sufficient biofilm removal, the tip does not necessarily require contact to the surface, but an application parallel to the surface on the side is recommended.

Biofilmes , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Placa Dentária/terapia , Raspagem Dentária/instrumentação , Terapia por Ultrassom/instrumentação , Durapatita , Técnicas In Vitro , Microscopia Confocal
BMC Oral Health ; 17(1): 19, 2016 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27431672


BACKGROUND: To selectively review the existing literature on post-interventional maintenance protocols in patients with periodontal disease receiving either non-surgical or surgical periodontal treatment. METHODS: Three systematic reviews with different periodontal interventions, i.e. scaling and root planing (SRP), SRP with adjunctive antibiotics or regenerative periodontal surgery were evaluated focusing on their post-interventional maintenance care. Due to the early publication of one review an additional literature search update was undertaken. The search was executed for studies published from January 2001 till March 2015 through an electronic database to ensure the inclusion of resent studies on SRP. Two reviewers guided the study selection and assessed the validity of the three reviews found. RESULTS: Within the group of scaling and root planing alone there have been nine studies with more than three appointments for maintenance care and five studies with more than two appointments in the first 2 months after the intervention. Chlorhexidine was the most frequently used antiseptic agent used for 2 weeks after non-surgical intervention. Scaling and root planing with adjunctive antibiotics showed a similar number of visits with professional biofilm debridement, whereas regenerative studies displayed more studies with more than three visits in the intervention group. In addition, the use of antiseptics was longer and lasted 4 to 8 weeks after the regenerative intervention. The latter studies also showed more stringent maintenance protocols. CONCLUSIONS: With increased interventional effort there was a greater tendency to increase frequency and duration of the maintenance care program and antiseptic agents.

Raspagem Dentária , Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Aplainamento Radicular , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina , Humanos