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1.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) negatively affect morbidity, healthcare costs and postsurgical survival. Preoperative and intraoperative peripheral oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) levels are independent risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). The airtest assesses the value of SpO2 while breathing room air. We aimed at building a clinical score that includes the airtest for predicting the risk for PPCs. METHODS: This is a development and validation study in patients randomly divided into two cohorts from a large randomized clinical trial (iPROVE) that enrolled 964 intermediatetohigh risk patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. Arterial oxygenation was assessed on roomair in the preoperative period (preoperative airtest) and 3h after admission to the postoperative care unit (postoperative airtest). The airtest was defined as positive or negative if SpO2 was ≤96% or >96%, respectively. Positive airtests were stratified into weak (9396%) or strong (<93%). The primary outcome was a composite of moderatetosevere PPCs during the first seven post operative days. RESULTS: A total of 902 patients were included in the final analysis (542 in the development cohort and 360 in the validation cohort). Regression analysis identified five independent risk factors for PPC: age, type of surgery, pre and postoperative airtest, and atelectasis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.750.82) when including this five independent predictors. We built a simplified score termed "airtest score" by using only the pre and postoperative SpO2, resulting in an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.670.76) for the derivation and 0.72 (95% CI :0.660.78) for the validation cohort, respectively. The air test score stratified patients into four levels of risk, with PPCs ranging from <15% to >75%. CONCLUSIONS: The simple, noninvasive and inexpensive bedside airtest score, evaluating pre and postoperatively SpO2 measured on roomair, helps to predict the risk for PPCs.

2.
Trials ; 20(1): 622, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of minimally invasive surgical techniques for lung resection surgery (LRS), such as video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATS), has increased in recent years. However, there is little information about the best anesthetic technique in this context. This surgical approach is associated with a lower intensity of postoperative pain, and its use has been proposed in programs for enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). This study compares the severity of postoperative complications in patients undergoing LRS who have received lidocaine intraoperatively either intravenously or via paravertebral administration versus saline. METHODS/DESIGN: We will conduct a single-center randomized controlled trial involving 153 patients undergoing LRS through a thoracoscopic approach. The patients will be randomly assigned to one of the following study groups: intravenous lidocaine with more paravertebral thoracic (PVT) saline, PVT lidocaine with more intravenous saline, or intravenous remifentanil with more PVT saline. The primary outcome will be the comparison of the postoperative course through Clavien-Dindo classification. Furthermore, we will compare the perioperative pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response by monitoring biomarkers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood, as well as postoperative analgesic consumption between the three groups of patients. We will use an ANOVA to compare quantitative variables and a chi-squared test to compare qualitative variables. DISCUSSION: The development of less invasive surgical techniques means that anesthesiologists must adapt their perioperative management protocols and look for anesthetic techniques that provide good analgesic quality and allow rapid rehabilitation of the patient, as proposed in the ERAS protocols. The administration of a continuous infusion of intravenous lidocaine has proven to be useful and safe for the management of other types of surgery, as demonstrated in colorectal cancer. We want to know whether the continuous administration of lidocaine by a paravertebral route can be substituted with the intravenous administration of this local anesthetic in a safe and effective way while avoiding the risks inherent in the use of regional anesthetic techniques. In this way, this technique could be used in a safe and effective way in ERAS programs for pulmonary resection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT, 2016-004271-52; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03905837 . Protocol number IGGFGG-2016 version 4.0, 27th April 2017.

3.
Br J Anaesth ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine whether using a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) in the context of an individualised intra- and postoperative open-lung ventilation approach could decrease surgical site infection (SSI) in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial in a network of 21 university hospitals from June 6, 2017 to July 19, 2018. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to receive a high (0.80) or conventional (0.3) FIO2 during the intraoperative period and during the first 3 postoperative hours. All patients were mechanically ventilated with an open-lung strategy, which included recruitment manoeuvres and individualised positive end-expiratory pressure for the best respiratory-system compliance, and individualised continuous postoperative airway pressure for adequate peripheral oxyhaemoglobin saturation. The primary outcome was the prevalence of SSI within the first 7 postoperative days. The secondary outcomes were composites of systemic complications, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and 6-month mortality. RESULTS: We enrolled 740 subjects: 371 in the high FIO2 group and 369 in the low FIO2 group. Data from 717 subjects were available for final analysis. The rate of SSI during the first postoperative week did not differ between high (8.9%) and low (9.4%) FIO2 groups (relative risk [RR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-1.50; P=0.90]). Secondary outcomes, such as atelectasis (7.7% vs 9.8%; RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.48-1.25; P=0.38) and myocardial ischaemia (0.6% [n=2] vs 0% [n=0]; P=0.47) did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: An oxygenation strategy using high FIO2 compared with conventional FIO2 did not reduce postoperative SSIs in abdominal surgery. No differences in secondary outcomes or adverse events were found. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02776046.

4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 242-252, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013413

RESUMO

Abstract Background and objectives: Patients undergoing lung resection surgery are at risk of developing postoperative acute kidney injury. Determination of cytokine levels allows the detection of an early inflammatory response. We investigated any temporal relationship among perioperative inflammatory status and development of acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury on outcome and analyzed the feasibility of cytokines to predict acute kidney injury. Methods: We prospectively analyzed 174 patients scheduled for elective lung resection surgery with intra-operative periods of one-lung ventilation periods. Fiberoptic broncho-alveolar lavage was performed in each lung before and after one-lung ventilation periods for cytokine analysis. As well, cytokine levels were measured from arterial blood samples at five time points. acute kidney injury was diagnosed within 48 h of surgery based on acute kidney injury criteria. We analyzed the association between acute kidney injury and cardiopulmonary complications, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, intensive care unit re-admission, and short-term and long-term mortality. Results: The incidence of acute kidney injury in our study was 6.9% (12/174). Acute kidney injury patients showed higher plasma cytokine levels after surgery but differences in alveolar cytokines were not detected. Although no patient required renal replacement therapy, acute kidney injury patients had higher incidence of cardiopulmonary complications and increased overall mortality. Plasma interleukin-6 at 6 h was the most predictive cytokine of acute kidney injury (cut-off point at 4.89 pg.mL-1). Conclusions: Increased postoperative plasma cytokine levels are associated with acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery in our study, which worsens the prognosis. Plasma interleukin-6 may be used as an early indicator for patients at risk of developing acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar apresentam risco de desenvolver lesão renal aguda pós-operatória. A determinação dos níveis de citocinas permite detectar uma resposta inflamatória precoce. Investigamos a relação temporal entre o estado inflamatório perioperatório e o desenvolvimento de lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar. Além disso, avaliamos o impacto da lesão renal aguda no desfecho e analisamos a viabilidade das citocinas para prever este tipo de lesão. Métodos: No total, foram analisados prospectivamente 174 pacientes agendados para cirurgia eletiva de ressecção pulmonar com períodos intraoperatórios de ventilação monopulmonar. Lavado bronco-alveolar com fibra óptica foi realizado em cada pulmão antes e após os períodos de ventilação monopulmonar para análise das citocinas. Os níveis de citocina foram medidos a partir de amostras de sangue arterial em cinco momentos. A lesão renal aguda foi diagnosticada dentro de 48 horas após a cirurgia, com base nos critérios para sua verificação. Analisamos a associação entre lesão renal aguda e complicações cardiopulmonares, tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva e de internação hospitalar, reinternação em unidade de terapia intensiva e mortalidade a curto e longo prazos. Resultados: A incidência de lesão renal aguda no estudo foi de 6,9% (12/174). Os pacientes com lesão renal aguda apresentaram níveis mais altos de citocinas plasmáticas após a cirurgia, mas não foram detectadas diferenças nas citocinas alveolares. Embora nenhum paciente tenha precisado de terapia renal substitutiva, os com lesão renal aguda apresentaram maior incidência de complicações cardiopulmonares e aumento da mortalidade geral. A interleucina-6 plasmática em seis horas foi a citocina mais preditiva de lesão renal aguda (ponto de corte em 4,89 pg.mL-1). Conclusões: O aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de citocinas no pós-operatório está associado à lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar no estudo, o que piora o prognóstico. A interleucina-6 plasmática pode ser usada como um indicador precoce para pacientes com risco de desenvolver lesão renal aguda após cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar.

5.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 69(3): 242-252, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing lung resection surgery are at risk of developing postoperative acute kidney injury. Determination of cytokine levels allows the detection of an early inflammatory response. We investigated any temporal relationship among perioperative inflammatory status and development of acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of acute kidney injury on outcome and analyzed the feasibility of cytokines to predict acute kidney injury. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed 174 patients scheduled for elective lung resection surgery with intra-operative periods of one-lung ventilation. Fiberoptic broncho-alveolar lavage was performed in each lung before and after one-lung ventilation periods for cytokine analysis. As well, cytokine levels were measured from arterial blood samples at five time points. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed within 48h of surgery based estabilished criteria for its diagnosis. We analyzed the association between acute kidney injury and cardiopulmonary complications, length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, intensive care unit re-admission, and short-term and long-term mortality. RESULTS: The incidence of acute kidney injury in our study was 6.9% (12/174). Acute kidney injury patients showed higher plasma cytokine levels after surgery, but differences in alveolar cytokines were not detected. Although no patient required renal replacement therapy, acute kidney injury patients had higher incidence of cardiopulmonary complications and increased overall mortality. Plasma interleukin-6 at 6h was the most predictive cytokine of acute kidney injury (cut-off point at 4.89pg.mL-1). CONCLUSIONS: Increased postoperative plasma cytokine levels are associated with acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery in our study, which worsens the prognosis. Plasma interleukin-6 may be used as an early indicator for patients at risk of developing acute kidney injury after lung resection surgery.

6.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(9): 2492-2502, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928294

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial is to examine whether it is possible to reduce postoperative complications using an individualized perioperative ventilatory strategy versus using a standard lung-protective ventilation strategy in patients scheduled for thoracic surgery requiring one-lung ventilation. DESIGN: International, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING: A network of university hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprises 1,380 patients scheduled for thoracic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The individualized group will receive intraoperative recruitment maneuvers followed by individualized positive end-expiratory pressure (open lung approach) during the intraoperative period plus postoperative ventilatory support with high-flow nasal cannula, whereas the control group will be managed with conventional lung-protective ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Individual and total number of postoperative complications, including atelectasis, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, pneumonia, acute lung injury; unplanned readmission and reintubation; length of stay and death in the critical care unit and in the hospital will be analyzed for both groups. The authors hypothesize that the intraoperative application of an open lung approach followed by an individual indication of high-flow nasal cannula in the postoperative period will reduce pulmonary complications and length of hospital stay in high-risk surgical patients.

7.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 33(6): 1043-1054, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656507

RESUMO

Early detection of patients with a high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) could improve postoperative strategies. We investigated the role of monitoring systemic and lung inflammatory biomarkers during surgery and the early postoperative period to detect patients at high risk of PPCs after lung resection surgery (LRS). This is a substudy of a randomized control trial on the inflammatory effects of anaesthetic drugs during LRS. We classified patients into two groups, depending on whether or not they developed PPCs. We constructed three multivariate logistic regression models to analyse the power of the biomarkers to predict PPCs. Model 1 only included the usual clinical variables; Model 2 included lung and systemic inflammatory biomarkers; and Model 3 combined Models 1 and 2. Comparisons between mathematical models were based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and tests of integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. PPCs were detected in 37 (21.3%) patients during admission. The AUROC for Models 1, 2, and 3 was 0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.87), 0.80 (95% CI 0.72-0.88), and 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.97), respectively. Comparison of the AUROC between Models 1 and 2 did not reveal statistically significant values (p = 0.79). However, Model 3 was superior to Model 1 (p < 0.001). Model 3 had had an IDI of 0.29 (p < 0.001) and a net reclassification index of 0.28 (p = 0.007). A mathematical model combining inflammation biomarkers with clinical variables predicts PPCs after LRS better than a model that includes only clinical data. Clinical registration number Clinical Trial Registration NCT02168751; EudraCT 2011-002294-29.

8.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 29(2): 101-108, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601429

RESUMO

It is well known that surgery provokes an inflammatory response. However, the induced inflammatory response to laparoscopic compared with open surgery under combined anesthesia has never been compared following colorectal cancer surgery. We hypothesize that laparoscopic technique under general anesthesia results in a decreased proinflammatory state. We compared cytokines plasma secretion after laparoscopic technique under general anesthesia (LG), open surgery under combined anesthesia (thoracic epidural and general anesthesia) (OGE), and open surgery under general anesthesia as the control group (OG). Proinflammatory cytokines measured postoperatively were significantly increased in the OG group (n=19), compared with the LG (n=18) and OGE (n=20) groups. Post hoc analysis showed that CCL2 levels were significantly lower in LG at all times postoperatively (P<0.01), while interleukin-4, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was increased in the OGE group (P<0.01). Laparoscopic technique blunts the postoperative proinflammatory response from the very early stages of the inflammatory cascade, whereas combined anesthesia is a more anti-inflammatory approach.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Pró-Calcitonina/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 48-57, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977418

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Anesthetic pre-conditioning attenuates inflammatory response during ischemia-reperfusion lung injury. The molecular mechanisms to explain it are not fully understood. The aim of our investigation was to analyze the molecular mechanism that explain the anti-inflammatory effects of anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane focusing on its effects on MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa beta) pathways, and apoptosis in an experimental lung autotransplant model. Methods: Twenty large white pigs undergoing pneumonectomy plus lung autotransplant were divided into two 10-member groups on the basis of the anesthetic received (propofol or sevoflurane). Anesthetic pre-conditioning group received sevoflurane 3% after anesthesia induction and it stopped when one-lung ventilation get started. Control group did not receive sevoflurane in any moment during the whole study period. Intracellular signal-transduction pathways (MAPK family), transcription factor (NF-κB), and apoptosis (caspases 3 and 9) were analyzed during experiment. Results: Pigs that received anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane have shown significant lower values of MAPK-p38, MAPK-P-p38, JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases), NF-κB p50 intranuclear, and caspases (p < 0.05) than pigs anesthetized with intravenous propofol. Conclusions: Lung protection of anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane during experimental lung autotransplant is, at least, partially associated with MAPKs and NF κB pathways attenuation, and antiapoptotic effects.


Resumo Justificativa: O pré-condicionamento anestésico atenua a resposta inflamatória durante a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão do pulmão. Os mecanismos moleculares para explicá-lo não são totalmente compreendidos. O objetivo de nossa investigação foi analisar o mecanismo molecular que explica os efeitos anti-inflamatórios do pré-condicionamento anestésico com sevoflurano, enfocar seus efeitos sobre as proteínas quinases ativadas por mitógenos (MAPKs), o fator nuclear kappa beta (NF-κB) e a apoptose em modelo experimental de autotransplante pulmonar. Métodos: Vinte porcos Large White submetidos à pneumonectomia e autoimplante de pulmão foram divididos em dois grupos de 10 membros com base no anestésico recebido (propofol ou sevoflurano). O grupo de pré-condicionamento anestésico recebeu sevoflurano a 3% após a indução da anestesia, que foi descontinuado quando a ventilação monopulmonar foi iniciada. O grupo controle não recebeu sevoflurano em qualquer momento durante todo o período do estudo. As vias de transdução de sinal intracelular (família MAPK), o fator de transcrição (NF-κB) e a apoptose (caspases 3 e 9) foram analisados durante o experimento. Resultados: Os suínos que receberam pré-condicionamento anestésico com sevoflurano apresentaram valores mais baixos de MAPK-p38, MAPK-P-p38, c-Jun N-terminal quinases (JNK), NF-κB p50 intranuclear e caspases (p < 0,05) do que os suínos anestesiados com propofol intravenoso. Conclusões: A proteção pulmonar do pré-condicionamento anestésico com sevoflurano durante o autotransplante pulmonar experimental está, pelo menos, parcialmente associada à atenuação das vias de MAPKs e NF κB e aos efeitos antiapoptóticos.

10.
Anesth Analg ; 128(1): 168-175, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung resection surgery (LRS) is associated with systemic and pulmonary inflammation, which can affect postoperative outcomes. Activation of ß-adrenergic receptors increases the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators, and their blockade may attenuate the systemic inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of a continuous perioperative intravenous perfusion of esmolol on postoperative pulmonary edema in an experimental model of LRS requiring periods of one-lung ventilation (OLV). METHODS: Twenty-four large white pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control (CON), esmolol (ESM), and sham. The ESM group received an intravenous esmolol bolus (0.5 mg/kg) and then an esmolol infusion (0.05 mg·kg·minute) throughout the procedure. The CON group received the same volume of 0.9% saline solution as the ESM group plus a continual infusion of saline. The sham group underwent a left thoracotomy without LRS or OLV. At the end of the LRS, the animals were awakened, and after 24 hours, they underwent general anesthesia again. Lung biopsies and plasma samples were obtained to analyze the levels and expression of inflammatory mediators, and the animals also received a bronchoalveolar lavage. RESULTS: At 24 hours after the operation, the ESM group had less lung edema and lower expression of the proinflammatory biomarkers tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 compared to the CON group for both lung lobes. For the mediastinal lobe biopsies, the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) between the groups for edema, TNF, and IL-1 were 14.3 (95% CI, 5.6-23.1), P = .002; 0.19 (95% CI, 0.07-0.32), P = .002; and 0.13 (95% CI, 0.04-0.22), P = .006, respectively. In the left upper lobe, the mean differences for edema, TNF, and IL-1 were 12.4 (95% CI, 4.2-20.6), P = .003; 0.25 (95% CI, 0.12-0.37), P < .001; and 0.3 (95% CI, 0.08-0.53), P = .009. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that esmolol reduces lung edema and inflammatory responses in the intraoperative and postoperative periods in animals that underwent LRS with OLV.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/cirurgia , Pneumonectomia/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Propanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Edema Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esquema de Medicação , Infusões Intravenosas , Interleucina-1/sangue , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia/sangue , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/patologia , Edema Pulmonar/sangue , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
11.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 69(1): 48-57, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anesthetic pre-conditioning attenuates inflammatory response during ischemia-reperfusion lung injury. The molecular mechanisms to explain it are not fully understood. The aim of our investigation was to analyze the molecular mechanism that explain the anti-inflammatory effects of anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane focusing on its effects on MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa beta) pathways, and apoptosis in an experimental lung autotransplant model. METHODS: Twenty large white pigs undergoing pneumonectomy plus lung autotransplant were divided into two 10-member groups on the basis of the anesthetic received (propofol or sevoflurane). Anesthetic pre-conditioning group received sevoflurane 3% after anesthesia induction and it stopped when one-lung ventilation get started. Control group did not receive sevoflurane in any moment during the whole study period. Intracellular signal-transduction pathways (MAPK family), transcription factor (NF-κB), and apoptosis (caspases 3 and 9) were analyzed during experiment. RESULTS: Pigs that received anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane have shown significant lower values of MAPK-p38, MAPK-P-p38, JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases), NF-κB p50 intranuclear, and caspases (p<0.05) than pigs anesthetized with intravenous propofol. CONCLUSIONS: Lung protection of anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane during experimental lung autotransplant is, at least, partially associated with MAPKs and NF κB pathways attenuation, and antiapoptotic effects.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Transplante de Pulmão , Sevoflurano/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Suínos , Transplante Autólogo
12.
Eur Surg Res ; 59(3-4): 115-125, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089286

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a main cause of morbidity after pulmonary resection surgery. The degradation of glycocalyx, a dynamic layer of macromolecules at the luminal surface of the endothelium, seems to participate in tissue dysfunction after IRI. Lidocaine has a proven anti-inflammatory activity in several tissues but its modulation of glycocalyx has not been investigated. This work aimed to investigate the potential involvement of glycocalyx in lung IRI in a lung auto-transplantation model and the possible effect of lidocaine in modulating IRI. METHODS: Three groups (sham-operated, control, and lidocaine), each consisting of 6 Large White pigs, were subjected to lung auto-transplantation. All groups received the same anaesthesia. In addition, the lidocaine group received a continuous IV administration of lidocaine (1.5 mg/kg/h). Lung tissue and plasma samples were taken before pulmonary artery clamp, before reperfusion, and 30 and 60 min post-reperfusion in order to analyse pulmonary oedema, glycocalyx components, adhesion molecules, and myeloperoxidase level. RESULTS: Ischaemia caused pulmonary oedema, which was greater after reperfusion. This effect was accompanied by decreased levels of syndecan-1 and heparan sulphate in the lung samples, together with increased levels of both glycocalyx components in the plasma samples. After reperfusion, neutrophil activation and the expression of adhesion molecules were increased. All these alterations were significantly lower or absent in the lidocaine group. CONCLUSION: Lung IRI caused glycocalyx degradation that contributed to neutrophil activation and adhesion. The administration of lidocaine was able to protect the lung from glycocalyx degradation.


Assuntos
Glicocálix/metabolismo , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Animais , Adesão Celular , Heparitina Sulfato/análise , Lidocaína/farmacologia , Masculino , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Suínos
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(3): 225-230, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-958304

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: In last few years, emphasis was placed in goal-directed therapy in order to optimize patient's hemodynamic status and improve their prognosis. Parameters based on the interaction between heart and lungs have been questioned in situations like low tidal volume and open chest surgery. The goal of the study was to analyze the changes that one-lung ventilation can produce over stroke volume variation and to assess the possible impact of airway pressures and lung compliance over stroke volume variation. Methods: Prospective observational study, 112 patients undergoing lung resection surgery with one-lung ventilation periods were included. Intravenous fluid therapy with crystalloids was set at 2 mL.g-1. Hypotension episodes were treated with vasoconstrictive drugs. Two-lung Ventilation was implemented with a TV of 8 mL.g-1 and one-lung ventilation was managed with a TV of 6 mL.g-1. Invasive blood pressure was monitored. We recorded the following cardiorespiratory values: heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, stroke volume index, airway peak pressure, airway plateau pressure and static lung compliance at 3 different times during surgery: immediately after lung collapse, 30 min after initiating one-lung ventilation and after restoration of two-lung ventilation. Results: Stroke volume variation values were influenced by lung collapse (before lung collapse 14.6 (DS) vs. OLV 9.9% (DS), p < 0.0001); or after restoring two-lung ventilation (11.01 (DS), p < 0.0001). During two-lung Ventilation there was a significant correlation between airway pressures and stroke volume variation, however this correlation lacks during one-lung ventilation. Conclusion: The decrease of stroke volume variation values during one-lung ventilation with protective ventilatory strategies advices not to use the same threshold values to determine fluid responsiveness.


Resumo Introdução: Nos últimos anos, a importância da terapia alvo-dirigida foi enfatizada para aprimorar o estado hemodinâmico do paciente e melhorar seu prognóstico. Os parâmetros baseados na interação entre o coração e os pulmões foram questionados em situações como baixo volume corrente e cirurgia aberta do tórax. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as alterações que a ventilação monopulmonar pode produzir na variação do volume sistólico e avaliar o possível impacto das pressões da via aérea e da complacência pulmonar sobre a variação do volume sistólico. Métodos: Estudo observacional prospectivo, no qual 112 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de ressecção pulmonar com períodos de ventilação monopulmonar foram incluídos. A terapia de fluídos intravenosos com cristaloides foi ajustada a 2 mL.kg-1.h-1. Os episódios de hipotensão foram tratados com vasoconstritores. A ventilação dos dois pulmões (VDP) foi implantada com volume corrente de 8 mL.kg-1 e a ventilação monopulmonar foi controlada com volume corrente de 6 mL.kg-1. Foi monitorada a pressão arterial invasiva. Registramos os seguintes valores cardiorrespiratórios: frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial média, índice cardíaco, índice de volume sistólico, pressão de pico das vias aéreas, pressão de platô das vias aéreas e complacência pulmonar estática em três tempos durante a cirurgia: imediatamente após o colapso do pulmão, 30 minutos após o início da ventilação monopulmonar e após a restauração da ventilação dos dois pulmões. Resultados: Os valores de variação do volume sistólico foram influenciados pelo colapso pulmonar (antes do colapso pulmonar 14,6 [DS] vs. ventilação monopulmonar 9,9% [DS], p < 0,0001), ou após o restabelecimento da ventilação dos dois pulmões (11,01 [DS], p < 0,0001). Durante a ventilação dos dois pulmões houve uma correlação significativa entre as pressões das vias aéreas e a variação do volume sistólico, porém, essa correlação não existe durante a ventilação monopulmonar. Conclusão: A diminuição dos valores da variação do volume sistólico durante a ventilação monopulmonar com estratégias ventilatórias protetoras sugere não usar os mesmos valores de limiar para determinar a responsividade aos fluídos.

14.
Can J Surg ; 61(3): 185-194, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a mostly asymptomatic condition that is strongly associated with 30-day mortality; however, it remains mostly undetected without systematic troponin T monitoring. We evaluated the cost and consequences of postoperative troponin T monitoring to detect MINS. METHODS: We conducted a model-based cost-consequence analysis to compare the impact of routine troponin T monitoring versus standard care (troponin T measurement triggered by ischemic symptoms) on the incidence of MINS detection. Model inputs were based on Canadian patients enrolled in the Vascular Events in Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study, which enrolled patients aged 45 years or older undergoing inpatient noncardiac surgery. We conducted probability analyses with 10 000 iterations and extensive sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The data were based on 6021 patients (48% men, mean age 65 [standard deviation 12] yr). The 30-day mortality rate for MINS was 9.6%. We determined the incremental cost to avoid missing a MINS event as $1632 (2015 Canadian dollars). The cost-effectiveness of troponin monitoring was higher in patient subgroups at higher risk for MINS, e.g., those aged 65 years or more, or with a history of atherosclerosis or diabetes ($1309). CONCLUSION: The costs associated with a troponin T monitoring program to detect MINS were moderate. Based on the estimated incremental cost per health gain, implementation of postoperative troponin T monitoring seems appealing, particularly in patients at high risk for MINS.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Isquemia Miocárdica , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/economia , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , /economia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/economia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Risco
15.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(6): 2665-2672, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thoracic surgical procedures are associated with an increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), which seem to be related directly to intraoperative driving pressure. The authors conducted this study to describe the incidence of PPCs in patients in whom an individualized open-lung approach was applied during one-lung ventilation. DESIGN: This was a prospective, multicenter, national descriptive study. SETTING: Thoracic surgery patients undergoing one-lung ventilation. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were included consecutively from October 1, 2016, to September 30, 2017. A total of 690 patients were included. INTERVENTIONS: An individualized open-lung approach that consisted of an alveolar recruitment maneuver followed by a positive end-expiratory pressure adjusted to best respiratory system compliance was performed in all patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Preoperative and intraoperative data were recorded; the primary outcome was a description of the incidence of PPCs in these patients during the first 7 postoperative days. The patients were mainly male, and half of them had a high risk of PPCs (ARISCAT score exceeding 44). Eleven percent of participants developed a PPC within the first postoperative week. The mean open lung positive end-expiratory pressure was 8 ± 3 cmH2O. When compared with pre-open lung approach values, the open-lung approach significantly decreased the driving pressure (14 ± 4 cmH2O v 11 ± 3 cmH2O; p < 0.001) and increased dynamic compliance (30 ± 10 mL/cmH2O v 43 ±15 mL/cmH2O; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The low incidence of PPCs in patients who underwent an open-lung approach during one-lung ventilation compared with that reported for other thoracic surgery series and the decrease in the driving pressure in these patients justify an additional randomized controlled trial to compare the open-lung approach with the standard protective strategy of low tidal volume and low positive end-expiratory pressure.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Ventilação Monopulmonar/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ventilação Monopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ventilação Monopulmonar/tendências , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 68(3): 225-230, 2018.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In last few years, emphasis was placed in goal-directed therapy in order to optimize patient's hemodynamic status and improve their prognosis. Parameters based on the interaction between heart and lungs have been questioned in situations like low tidal volume and open chest surgery. The goal of the study was to analyze the changes that one-lung ventilation can produce over stroke volume variation and to assess the possible impact of airway pressures and lung compliance over stroke volume variation. METHODS: Prospective observational study, 112 patients undergoing lung resection surgery with one-lung ventilation periods were included. Intravenous fluid therapy with crystalloids was set at 2mL.kg-1.h-1. Hypotension episodes were treated with vasoconstrictive drugs. Two-lung ventilation was implemented with a TV of 8mL.kg-1 and one-lung ventilation was managed with a TV of 6mL.kg-1. Invasive blood pressure was monitored. We recorded the following cardiorespiratory values: heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, stroke volume index, airway peak pressure, airway plateau pressure and static lung compliance at 3 different times during surgery: immediately after lung collapse, 30minutes after initiating one-lung ventilation and after restoration of two-lung ventilation. RESULTS: Stroke volume variation values were influenced by lung collapse (before lung collapse14.6 (DS) vs. OLV 9.9% (DS), p < 0.0001); or after restoring two-lung ventilation (11.01 (DS), p < 0.0001). During two-lung ventilation there was a significant correlation between airwaypressures and stroke volume variation, however this correlation lacks during one-lung ventilation. CONCLUSION: The decrease of stroke volume variation values during one-lung ventilation with protective ventilatory strategies advices not to use the same threshold values to determine fluid responsiveness.

17.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(3): 193-203, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29371130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of individualised perioperative lung-protective ventilation (based on the open-lung approach [OLA]) on postoperative complications is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of intraoperative and postoperative ventilatory management in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery, compared with standard protective ventilation. METHODS: We did this prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled trial in 21 teaching hospitals in Spain. We enrolled patients who were aged 18 years or older, were scheduled to have abdominal surgery with an expected time of longer than 2 h, had intermediate-to-high-risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications, and who had a body-mass index less than 35 kg/m2. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) online to receive one of four lung-protective ventilation strategies using low tidal volume plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): open-lung approach (OLA)-iCPAP (individualised intraoperative ventilation [individualised PEEP after a lung recruitment manoeuvre] plus individualised postoperative continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP]), OLA-CPAP (intraoperative individualised ventilation plus postoperative CPAP), STD-CPAP (standard intraoperative ventilation plus postoperative CPAP), or STD-O2 (standard intraoperative ventilation plus standard postoperative oxygen therapy). Patients were masked to treatment allocation. Investigators were not masked in the operating and postoperative rooms; after 24 h, data were given to a second investigator who was masked to allocations. The primary outcome was a composite of pulmonary and systemic complications during the first 7 postoperative days. We did the primary analysis using the modified intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02158923. FINDINGS: Between Jan 2, 2015, and May 18, 2016, we enrolled 1012 eligible patients. Data were available for 967 patients, whom we included in the final analysis. Risk of pulmonary and systemic complications did not differ for patients in OLA-iCPAP (110 [46%] of 241, relative risk 0·89 [95% CI 0·74-1·07; p=0·25]), OLA-CPAP (111 [47%] of 238, 0·91 [0·76-1·09; p=0·35]), or STD-CPAP groups (118 [48%] of 244, 0·95 [0·80-1·14; p=0·65]) when compared with patients in the STD-O2 group (125 [51%] of 244). Intraoperatively, PEEP was increased in 69 (14%) of patients in the standard perioperative ventilation groups because of hypoxaemia, and no patients from either of the OLA groups required rescue manoeuvres. INTERPRETATION: In patients who have major abdominal surgery, the different perioperative open lung approaches tested in this study did not reduce the risk of postoperative complications when compared with standard lung-protective mechanical ventilation. FUNDING: Instituto de Salud Carlos III of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, and Grants Programme of the European Society of Anaesthesiology.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Espanha , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMJ Open ; 7(7): e016765, 2017 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infection (SSI) is a serious postoperative complication that increases morbidity and healthcare costs. SSIs tend to increase as the partial pressure of tissue oxygen decreases: previous trials have focused on trying to reduce them by comparing high versus conventional inspiratory oxygen fractions (FIO2) in the perioperative period but did not use a protocolised ventilatory strategy. The open-lung ventilatory approach restores functional lung volume and improves gas exchange, and therefore it may increase the partial pressure of tissue oxygen for a given FIO2. The trial presented here aims to compare the efficacy of high versus conventional FIO2 in reducing the overall incidence of SSIs in patients by implementing a protocolised and individualised global approach to perioperative open-lung ventilation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a comparative, prospective, multicentre, randomised and controlled two-arm trial that will include 756 patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. The patients will be randomised into two groups: (1) a high FIO2 group (80% oxygen; FIO2 of 0.80) and (2) a conventional FIO2 group (30% oxygen; FIO2 of 0.30). Each group will be assessed intra- and postoperatively. The primary outcome is the appearance of postoperative SSI complications. Secondary outcomes are the appearance of systemic and pulmonary complications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The iPROVE-O2 trial has been approved by the Ethics Review Board at the reference centre (the Hospital Clínico Universitario in Valencia). Informed consent will be obtained from all patients before their participation. If the approach using high FIO2 during individualised open-lung ventilation decreases SSIs, use of this method will become standard practice for patients scheduled for future abdominal surgery. Publication of the results is anticipated in early 2019. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02776046; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(3): 288-293, Mar.-June 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-843399

RESUMO

Abstract Background and objectives: Neuromuscular relaxants are essential during general anesthesia for several procedures. Classical anesthesiology literature indicates that the use of neuromuscular blockade in thoracic surgery may be deleterious in patients in lateral decubitus position in one-lung ventilation. The primary objective of our study was to compare respiratory function according to the degree of patient neuromuscular relaxation. Secondary, we wanted to check that neuromuscular blockade during one-lung ventilation is not deleterious. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal observational study was made in which each patient served as both treated subject and control. 76 consecutive patients programmed for lung resection surgery in Gregorio Marañon Hospital along 2013 who required one-lung ventilation in lateral decubitus were included. Ventilator data, hemodynamic parameters were registered in different moments according to train-of-four response (intense, deep and moderate blockade) during one-lung ventilation. Results: Peak, plateau and mean pressures were significantly lower during the intense and deep blockade. Besides compliance and peripheral oxygen saturation were significantly higher in that moments. Heart rate was significantly higher during deep blockade. No mechanical ventilation parameters were modified during measurements. Conclusions: Deep neuromuscular blockade attenuates the poor lung mechanics observed during one-lung ventilation.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Os relaxantes neuromusculares são essenciais durante a anestesia geral para vários procedimentos. A literatura clássica de anestesiologia indica que o uso de bloqueio neuromuscular em cirurgia torácica pode ser prejudicial em pacientes posicionados em decúbito lateral com ventilação seletiva. O objetivo primário deste estudo foi comparar a função respiratória de acordo com o grau de relaxamento neuromuscular do paciente. O objetivo secundário foi verificar que o bloqueio neuromuscular durante a ventilação seletiva não é prejudicial. Métodos: Estudo observacional, prospectivo e longitudinal no qual cada paciente serviu como próprio controle. Foram incluídos 76 pacientes consecutivos, agendados para cirurgia de ressecção do pulmão no Hospital Gregorio Marañon ao longo de 2013, submetidos à ventilação seletiva em decúbito lateral. Os dados do ventilador e os parâmetros hemodinâmicos foram registrados em diferentes momentos de acordo com a resposta por sequência de quatro estímulos (bloqueio intenso, profundo e moderado) durante a ventilação seletiva. Resultados: As pressões de pico, platô e média foram significativamente menores durante os bloqueios intenso e profundo. Além disso, complacência e saturação periférica de oxigênio foram significativamente maiores nesses momentos. A frequência cardíaca foi significativamente maior durante o bloqueio profundo. Não houve alteração dos parâmetros da ventilação mecânica durante as mensurações. Conclusões: O bloqueio neuromuscular profundo atenua a mecânica pulmonar deficiente observada durante a ventilação seletiva.

20.
Lung ; 195(3): 333-340, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28432436

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During transplant surgeries, the lung experiences an ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced damage identified as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms by which I/R induces leucocyte accumulation and subsequent tissue damage in lung surgeries remain unknown. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the role of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in leucocyte chemotaxis related to lung injury secondary to I/R. METHODS: Six pigs were subjected to an orthotopic left caudal lobe lung transplantation with a subsequent 60-min graft reperfusion (Transplant group). In addition, six animals underwent to sham surgery (Sham Group). Plasma samples and lung biopsies were collected before the beginning of pneumonectomy, before starting the reperfusion, and 30 min and 60 min after the beginning of the reperfusion. Plasma levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and lung expressions of MCP-1, MIP-2, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lung oedema were measured. RESULTS: Lung I/R caused substantial damage observed as pulmonary oedema. The oedema was evident after the ischemic insult and increased after reperfusion. After reperfusion, increased levels of MPO were observed which suggests an activation and infiltration of neutrophils into the lung tissue. After 30 min of reperfusion, MCP-1, MIP-2, and ICAM-1 levels were significantly increased compared to prepneumonectomy levels (p < 0.05) and a further increase was observed after 60 min of reperfusion (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that activated neutrophils, as well as MCP-1, MIP-2, and ICAM-1, are involved in inflammatory response induced by ischaemia-reperfusion-induced lung injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/sangue , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Quimiocina CXCL2/sangue , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/sangue , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo , Isquemia/complicações , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Pneumonectomia/efeitos adversos , Reperfusão/efeitos adversos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Suínos
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