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1.
Blood ; 133(24): 2586-2596, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015189

RESUMO

DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by various degrees of T-cell deficiency. In partial DGS (pDGS), other risk factors could predispose to recurrent infections, autoimmunity, and allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different factors in the development of infections, autoimmunity, and/or allergy in patients with pDGS. We studied 467 pDGS patients in follow-up at Great Ormond Street Hospital. Using a multivariate approach, we observed that palatal anomalies represent a risk factor for the development of recurrent otitis media with effusion. Gastroesophageal reflux/dysphagia and asthma/rhinitis represent a risk factor for the development of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Allergy and autoimmunity were associated with persistently low immunoglobulin M levels and lymphopenia, respectively. Patients with autoimmunity showed lower levels of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and naïve CD4+CD45RA+CD27+ T lymphocytes compared with pDGS patients without autoimmunity. We also observed that the physiological age-related decline of the T-cell number was slower in pDGS patients compared with age-matched controls. The age-related recovery of the T-cell number depended on a homeostatic peripheral proliferation of T cells, as suggested by an accelerated decline of the naïve T lymphocytes in pDGS as well as a more skewed T-cell repertoire in older pDGS patients. These evidences suggest that premature CD4+ T-cell aging and lymphopenia induced spontaneous peripheral T-cell proliferation might contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity in patients with pDGS. Infections in these patients represent, in most of the cases, a complication of anatomical or gastroenterological anomalies rather than a feature of the underlying immunodeficiency.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194989

RESUMO

Inherited defects in adenosine deaminase (ADA) cause a subtype of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) known as severe combined immune deficiency caused by adenosine deaminase defects (ADA-SCID). Most affected infants can receive a diagnosis while still asymptomatic by using an SCID newborn screening test, allowing early initiation of therapy. We review the evidence currently available and propose a consensus management strategy. In addition to treatment of the immune deficiency seen in patients with ADA-SCID, patients should be followed for specific noninfectious respiratory, neurological, and biochemical complications associated with ADA deficiency. All patients should initially receive enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), followed by definitive treatment with either of 2 equal first-line options. If an HLA-matched sibling donor or HLA-matched family donor is available, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be pursued. The excellent safety and efficacy observed in more than 100 patients with ADA-SCID who received gammaretrovirus- or lentivirus-mediated autologous hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT) since 2000 now positions HSC-GT as an equal alternative. If HLA-matched sibling donor/HLA-matched family donor HSCT or HSC-GT are not available or have failed, ERT can be continued or reinstituted, and HSCT with alternative donors should be considered. The outcomes of novel HSCT, ERT, and HSC-GT strategies should be evaluated prospectively in "real-life" conditions to further inform these management guidelines.

3.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 9: 257-269, 2018 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707600

RESUMO

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is caused by mutations in the interleukin-2 receptor γ chain gene (IL2RG), and it is characterized by profound defects in T, B, and natural killer (NK) cell functions. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) genetically corrected with early murine leukemia retrovirus (MLV)-derived gammaretroviral vectors showed restoration of T cell immunity in patients, but it resulted in vector-induced insertional oncogenesis. We developed a self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vector carrying a codon-optimized human IL2RG cDNA driven by the EF1α short promoter (EFS-IL2RG), and we tested its efficacy and safety in vivo by transplanting transduced Il2rg-deficient Lin- HSPCs in an Il2rg-/-/Rag2-/- mouse model. The study showed restoration of T, B, and NK cell counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood and normalization of thymus and spleen cellularity and architecture. High-definition insertion site analysis defined the EFS-IL2RG genomic integration profile, and it showed no sign of vector-induced clonal selection or skewing in primarily and secondarily transplanted animals. The study enables a phase I/II clinical trial aimed at restoring both T and B cell immunity in SCID-X1 children upon non-myeloablative conditioning.

4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(1): 235-245.e6, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease 1 arises from mutations in the SH2D1A gene encoding SLAM-associated protein (SAP), an adaptor protein expressed in T, natural killer (NK), and NKT cells. Defects lead to abnormalities of T-cell and NK cell cytotoxicity and T cell-dependent humoral function. Clinical manifestations include hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia. Curative treatment is limited to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with outcomes reliant on a good donor match. OBJECTIVES: Because most symptoms arise from defective T-cell function, we investigated whether transfer of SAP gene-corrected T cells could reconstitute known effector cell defects. METHODS: CD3+ lymphocytes from Sap-deficient mice were transduced with a gammaretroviral vector encoding human SAP cDNA before transfer into sublethally irradiated Sap-deficient recipients. After immunization with the T-dependent antigen 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetly chicken gammaglobulin (NP-CGG), recovery of humoral function was evaluated through germinal center formation and antigen-specific responses. To efficiently transduce CD3+ cells from patients, we generated an equivalent lentiviral SAP vector. Functional recovery was demonstrated by using in vitro cytotoxicity and T follicular helper cell function assays alongside tumor clearance in an in vivo lymphoblastoid cell line lymphoma xenograft model. RESULTS: In Sap-deficient mice 20% to 40% engraftment of gene-modified T cells led to significant recovery of germinal center formation and NP-specific antibody responses. Gene-corrected T cells from patients demonstrated improved cytotoxicity and T follicular helper cell function in vitro. Adoptive transfer of gene-corrected cytotoxic T lymphocytes from patients reduced tumor burden to a level comparable with that seen in healthy donor cytotoxic T lymphocytes in an in vivo lymphoma model. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that autologous T-cell gene therapy corrects SAP-dependent defects and might offer an alternative therapeutic option for patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease 1.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(3): 904-913.e3, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29355678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the perforin 1 (PRF1) gene account for up to 58% of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndromes. The resulting defects in effector cell cytotoxicity lead to hypercytokinemia and hyperactivation with inflammation in various organs. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether autologous gene-corrected T cells can restore cytotoxic function, reduce disease activity, and prevent hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) symptoms in in vivo models. METHODS: We developed a gammaretroviral vector to transduce murine CD8 T cells in the Prf-/- mouse model. To verify functional correction of Prf-/- CD8 T cells in vivo, we used a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) epitope-transfected murine lung carcinoma cell tumor model. Furthermore, we challenged gene-corrected and uncorrected mice with LCMV. One patient sample was transduced with a PRF1-encoding lentiviral vector to study restoration of cytotoxicity in human cells. RESULTS: We demonstrated efficient engraftment and functional reconstitution of cytotoxicity after intravenous administration of gene-corrected Prf-/- CD8 T cells into Prf-/- mice. In the tumor model infusion of Prf-/- gene-corrected CD8 T cells eliminated the tumor as efficiently as transplantation of wild-type CD8 T cells. Similarly, mice reconstituted with gene-corrected Prf-/- CD8 T cells displayed complete protection from the HLH phenotype after infection with LCMV. Patients' cells showed correction of cytotoxicity in human CD8 T cells after transduction. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the potential application of T-cell gene therapy in reconstituting cytotoxic function and protection against HLH in the setting of perforin deficiency.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(1): 322-328.e10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare DNA breakage repair disorders predispose to infection and lymphoreticular malignancies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative, but coadministered chemotherapy or radiotherapy is damaging because of systemic radiosensitivity. We collected HCT outcome data for Nijmegen breakage syndrome, DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XRCC4-like factor (Cernunnos-XLF) deficiency, and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). METHODS: Data from 38 centers worldwide, including indication, donor, conditioning regimen, graft-versus-host disease, and outcome, were analyzed. Conditioning was classified as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) if it contained radiotherapy or alkylators and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) if no alkylators and/or 150 mg/m2 fludarabine or less and 40 mg/kg cyclophosphamide or less were used. RESULTS: Fifty-five new, 14 updated, and 18 previously published patients were analyzed. Median age at HCT was 48 months (range, 1.5-552 months). Twenty-nine patients underwent transplantation for infection, 21 had malignancy, 13 had bone marrow failure, 13 received pre-emptive transplantation, 5 had multiple indications, and 6 had no information. Twenty-two received MAC, 59 received RIC, and 4 were infused; information was unavailable for 2 patients. Seventy-three of 77 patients with DNA ligase IV deficiency, Cernunnos-XLF deficiency, or Nijmegen breakage syndrome received conditioning. Survival was 53 (69%) of 77 and was worse for those receiving MAC than for those receiving RIC (P = .006). Most deaths occurred early after transplantation, suggesting poor tolerance of conditioning. Survival in patients with AT was 25%. Forty-one (49%) of 83 patients experienced acute GvHD, which was less frequent in those receiving RIC compared with those receiving MAC (26/56 [46%] vs 12/21 [57%], P = .45). Median follow-up was 35 months (range, 2-168 months). No secondary malignancies were reported during 15 years of follow-up. Growth and developmental delay remained after HCT; immune-mediated complications resolved. CONCLUSION: RIC HCT resolves DNA repair disorder-associated immunodeficiency. Long-term follow-up is required for secondary malignancy surveillance. Routine HCT for AT is not recommended.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 377(17): 1630-1638, 2017 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28976817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, mutations in ABCD1 lead to loss of function of the ALD protein. Cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy is characterized by demyelination and neurodegeneration. Disease progression, which leads to loss of neurologic function and death, can be halted only with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. METHODS: We enrolled boys with cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy in a single-group, open-label, phase 2-3 safety and efficacy study. Patients were required to have early-stage disease and gadolinium enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at screening. The investigational therapy involved infusion of autologous CD34+ cells transduced with the elivaldogene tavalentivec (Lenti-D) lentiviral vector. In this interim analysis, patients were assessed for the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease, death, and major functional disabilities, as well as changes in neurologic function and in the extent of lesions on MRI. The primary end point was being alive and having no major functional disability at 24 months after infusion. RESULTS: A total of 17 boys received Lenti-D gene therapy. At the time of the interim analysis, the median follow-up was 29.4 months (range, 21.6 to 42.0). All the patients had gene-marked cells after engraftment, with no evidence of preferential integration near known oncogenes or clonal outgrowth. Measurable ALD protein was observed in all the patients. No treatment-related death or graft-versus-host disease had been reported; 15 of the 17 patients (88%) were alive and free of major functional disability, with minimal clinical symptoms. One patient, who had had rapid neurologic deterioration, had died from disease progression. Another patient, who had had evidence of disease progression on MRI, had withdrawn from the study to undergo allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and later died from transplantation-related complications. CONCLUSIONS: Early results of this study suggest that Lenti-D gene therapy may be a safe and effective alternative to allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in boys with early-stage cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Additional follow-up is needed to fully assess the duration of response and long-term safety. (Funded by Bluebird Bio and others; STARBEAM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01896102 ; ClinicalTrialsRegister.eu number, 2011-001953-10 .).


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/uso terapêutico , Adrenoleucodistrofia/terapia , Terapia Genética , Vetores Genéticos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Lentivirus , Membro 1 da Subfamília D de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adolescente , Adrenoleucodistrofia/genética , Antígenos CD34/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Vetores Genéticos/sangue , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Transplante Autólogo
8.
Hematol Oncol Clin North Am ; 31(5): 823-834, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895850

RESUMO

Transfer of gene-corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells in patients with primary immunodeficiencies has emerged as a new therapeutic approach. Patients with various conditions lacking a suitable donor have been treated with retroviral vectors and a gene-addition strategy. Initial promising results were shadowed by the occurrence of malignancies in some of these patients. Current trials, developed in the last decade, use safer viral vectors to overcome the risk of genotoxicity and have led to improved clinical outcomes. This review reflects the progresses made in specific disorders, including adenosine deaminase deficiency, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic granulomatous disease, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Expressão Gênica , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/classificação , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução Genética , Transgenes , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
9.
Blood ; 130(11): 1327-1335, 2017 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716862

RESUMO

Until recently, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was the only curative option for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). The first attempts at gene therapy for WAS using a ϒ-retroviral vector improved immunological parameters substantially but were complicated by acute leukemia as a result of insertional mutagenesis in a high proportion of patients. More recently, treatment of children with a state-of-the-art self-inactivating lentiviral vector (LV-w1.6 WASp) has resulted in significant clinical benefit without inducing selection of clones harboring integrations near oncogenes. Here, we describe a case of a presplenectomized 30-year-old patient with severe WAS manifesting as cutaneous vasculitis, inflammatory arthropathy, intermittent polyclonal lymphoproliferation, and significant chronic kidney disease and requiring long-term immunosuppressive treatment. Following reduced-intensity conditioning, there was rapid engraftment and expansion of a polyclonal pool of transgene-positive functional T cells and sustained gene marking in myeloid and B-cell lineages up to 20 months of observation. The patient was able to discontinue immunosuppression and exogenous immunoglobulin support, with improvement in vasculitic disease and proinflammatory markers. Autologous gene therapy using a lentiviral vector is a viable strategy for adult WAS patients with severe chronic disease complications and for whom an allogeneic procedure could present an unacceptable risk. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01347242.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/genética , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/terapia , Adulto , Proliferação de Células , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Células Clonais , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação , Síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich/sangue
10.
Mol Ther ; 25(8): 1805-1814, 2017 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28434866

RESUMO

Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a congenital erythroid hypoplasia and is associated with physical malformations and a predisposition to cancer. Twenty-five percent of patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia have mutations in a gene encoding ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19). Through overexpression of RPS19 using a lentiviral vector with the spleen focus-forming virus promoter, we demonstrated that the Diamond-Blackfan anemia phenotype can be successfully treated in Rps19-deficient mice. In our present study, we assessed the efficacy of a clinically relevant promoter, the human elongation factor 1α short promoter, with or without the locus control region of the ß-globin gene for treatment of RPS19-deficient Diamond-Blackfan anemia. The findings demonstrate that these vectors rescue the proliferation defect and improve erythroid development of transduced RPS19-deficient bone marrow cells. Remarkably, bone marrow failure and severe anemia in Rps19-deficient mice was cured with enforced expression of RPS19 driven by the elongation factor 1α short promoter. We also demonstrate that RPS19-deficient bone marrow cells can be transduced and these cells have the capacity to repopulate bone marrow in long-term reconstituted mice. Our results collectively demonstrate the feasibility to cure RPS19-deficient Diamond-Blackfan anemia using lentiviral vectors with cellular promoters that possess a reduced risk of insertional mutagenesis.


Assuntos
Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/genética , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/patologia , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Lentivirus/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/diagnóstico , Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/terapia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Ordem dos Genes , Terapia Genética , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/genética , Hematopoese/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Transdução Genética , Transgenes , Integração Viral
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(6): 1660-1670.e16, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thymus transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of athymic complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS). METHODS: Twelve patients with cDGS underwent transplantation with allogeneic cultured thymus. OBJECTIVE: We sought to confirm and extend the results previously obtained in a single center. RESULTS: Two patients died of pre-existing viral infections without having thymopoiesis, and 1 late death occurred from autoimmune thrombocytopenia. One infant had septic shock shortly after transplantation, resulting in graft loss and the need for a second transplant. Evidence of thymopoiesis developed from 5 to 6 months after transplantation in 10 patients. Median circulating naive CD4 counts were 44 × 106/L (range, 11-440 × 106/L) and 200 × 106/L (range, 5-310 × 106/L) at 12 and 24 months after transplantation and T-cell receptor excision circles were 2,238/106 T cells (range, 320-8,807/106 T cells) and 4,184/106 T cells (range, 1,582-24,596/106 T cells). Counts did not usually reach normal levels for age, but patients were able to clear pre-existing infections and those acquired later. At a median of 49 months (range, 22-80 months), 8 have ceased prophylactic antimicrobials, and 5 have ceased immunoglobulin replacement. Histologic confirmation of thymopoiesis was seen in 7 of 11 patients undergoing biopsy of transplanted tissue, including 5 showing full maturation through to the terminal stage of Hassall body formation. Autoimmune regulator expression was also demonstrated. Autoimmune complications were seen in 7 of 12 patients. In 2 patients early transient autoimmune hemolysis settled after treatment and did not recur. The other 5 experienced ongoing autoimmune problems, including thyroiditis (3), hemolysis (1), thrombocytopenia (4), and neutropenia (1). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the previous reports that thymus transplantation can reconstitute T cells in patients with cDGS but with frequent autoimmune complications in survivors.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/terapia , Transplante de Órgãos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/transplante , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Síndrome de DiGeorge/imunologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Reconstituição Imune , Lactente , Masculino , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(4): 351-356, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28194615

RESUMO

Adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency (ADA SCID) accounts for 10-15% of cases of human SCID. From what was once a uniformly fatal disease, the prognosis for infants with ADA SCID has improved greatly based on the development of multiple therapeutic options, coupled with more frequent early diagnosis due to implementation of newborn screening for SCID. We review the various treatment approaches for ADA SCID including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling or family member or from a matched unrelated donor or a haplo-identical donor, autologous HSCT with gene correction of the hematopoietic stem cells (gene therapy-GT), and enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with polyethylene glycol-conjugated adenosine deaminase. Based on growing evidence of safety and efficacy from GT, we propose a treatment algorithm for patients with ADA SCID that recommends HSCT from a matched family donor, when available, as a first choice, followed by GT as the next option, with allogeneic HSCT from an unrelated or haplo-identical donor or long-term ERT as other options.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/deficiência , Adenosina Desaminase/uso terapêutico , Agamaglobulinemia/terapia , Antígenos HLA/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas , Terapia Genética , Antígenos HLA/genética , Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Triagem Neonatal , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(2): 634-642.e5, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27522155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Signaling through the T-cell receptor (TCR) is critical for T-cell development and function. Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a transmembrane adaptor signaling molecule that is part of the TCR complex and essential for T-cell development, as demonstrated by LAT-deficient mice, which show a complete lack of peripheral T cells. OBJECTIVE: We describe a pedigree affected by a severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype with absent T cells and normal B-cell and natural killer cell numbers. A novel homozygous frameshift mutation in the gene encoding for LAT was identified in this kindred. METHODS: Genetic, molecular, and functional analyses were used to identify and characterize the LAT defect. Clinical and immunologic analysis of patients was also performed and reported. RESULTS: Homozygosity mapping was used to identify potential defective genes. Sanger sequencing of the LAT gene showed a mutation that resulted in a premature stop codon and protein truncation leading to complete loss of function and loss of expression of LAT in the affected family members. We also demonstrate loss of LAT expression and lack of TCR signaling restoration in LAT-deficient cell lines reconstituted with a synthetic LAT gene bearing this severe combined immunodeficiency mutation. CONCLUSION: For the first time, the results of this study show that inherited LAT deficiency should be considered in patients with combined immunodeficiency with T-cell abnormalities.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Apoptose , Sinalização do Cálcio/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Paquistão , Linhagem , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Transgenes/genética
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1302-1310.e4, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and "atypical" SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. METHODS: In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of "atypical" SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance, prospective data from this study will be a helpful resource for guiding the difficult HSCT decisions in patients with P-CID.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(3): 852-859.e3, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27130861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Reports of outcomes are still limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyze the results of HSCT in patients with DOCK8 deficiency and report whether approaches resulting in mixed chimerism result in clinically relevant immune reconstitution. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 11 patients with DOCK8 deficiency and measured DOCK8 expression and cytokine production. RESULTS: Of 11 patients, 7 received HSCT from related and 4 from unrelated donors; 9 patients received busulfan-based conditioning regimens. Survival was excellent (10 [91%] of 11 patients alive), including a patient who had undergone liver transplantation. Patients showed significant improvements in the frequency and severity of infections. Although eczema resolved in all, food allergies and high IgE levels persisted in some patients. Lymphopenia, eosinophilia, low numbers of naive CD8(+) T cells and switched memory B cells, and TH1/TH2 cytokine imbalance improved in most patients. Although the 8 matched related or unrelated donor recipients had full donor chimerism, all 3 recipients of mismatched unrelated donor HSCT had high levels of donor T-cell chimerism and low B-cell and myeloid cell chimerism (0% to 46%). Almost all switched memory B cells were of donor origin. All patients, including those with mixed chimerism, mounted robust antibody responses to vaccination. CONCLUSION: Allogeneic HSCT ameliorated the infectious and atopic symptoms of patients with DOCK8 deficiency. In patients with mixed chimerism, selective advantage for donor-derived T cells and switched memory B cells promoted restoration of cellular and humoral immunity and protection against opportunistic infection.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Masculino , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Trends Mol Med ; 22(4): 317-327, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26993219

RESUMO

Haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy has been successfully employed as a therapeutic option to treat specific inherited immune deficiencies, including severe combined immune deficiencies (SCID) over the past two decades. Initial clinical trials using first-generation gamma-retroviral vectors to transfer corrective DNA demonstrated clinical benefit for patients, but were associated with leukemogenesis in a number of cases. Safer vectors have since been developed, affording comparable efficacy with an improved biosafety profile. These vectors are now in Phase I/II clinical trials for a number of immune disorders with more preclinical studies underway. Targeted gene editing allowing precise DNA correction via platforms such as ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 may now offer promising strategies to improve the safety and efficacy of gene therapy in the future.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Expressão Gênica , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Lentivirus/genética , Reparo Gênico Alvo-Dirigido/métodos , Transdução Genética , Transgenes
20.
Cell Transplant ; 25(3): 615, 2016 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836829

RESUMO

Long-term engraftment and phenotype correction has been difficult to achieve in humans after in utero stem cell transplantation mainly because of allogeneic rejection. Autologous cells could be obtained during gestation from the amniotic fluid with minimal risk for the fetus and the mother. Using a sheep model, we explored the possibility of using amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) for autologous in utero stem cell/gene therapy. We collected amniotic fluid (AF) under ultrasound-guided amniocentesis in early gestation pregnant sheep ( n = 9, 58 days of gestation, term = 145 days). AFMSCs were isolated and expanded in all sampled fetal sheep. Those cells were transduced using an HIV vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) with 63.2% (range 38.3-96.2%) transduction efficiency rate. After expansion, transduced AFMSCs were injected into the peritoneal cavity of each donor fetal sheep at 76 days under ultrasound guidance. One ewe miscarried twin fetuses after amniocentesis. Intraperitoneal injection was successful in the remaining 7 fetal sheep giving a 78% survival for the full procedure. Tissues were sampled at postmortem examination 2 weeks later. PCR analysis detected GFP-positive cells in fetal tissues including liver, heart, placenta, membrane, umbilical cord, adrenal gland, and muscle. GFP protein was detected in these tissues by Western blotting and further confirmed by cytofluorimetric and immunofluorescence analyses. This is the first demonstration of autologous stem cell transplantation in the fetus using AFMSCs. Autologous cells derived from AF showed widespread organ migration and could offer an alternative way to ameliorate prenatal congenital disease.

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