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1.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 639, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance of pest insect species to insecticides, including B. thuringiensis (Bt) pesticidal proteins expressed by transgenic plants, is a threat to global food security. Despite the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, being a major pest of maize and having populations showing increasing levels of resistance to hybrids expressing Bt pesticidal proteins, the cell mechanisms leading to mortality are not fully understood. RESULTS: Twenty unique RNA-seq libraries from the Bt susceptible D. v. virgifera inbred line Ped12, representing all growth stages and a range of different adult and larval exposures, were assembled into a reference transcriptome. Ten-day exposures of Ped12 larvae to transgenic Bt Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize roots showed significant differential expression of 1055 and 1374 transcripts, respectively, compared to cohorts on non-Bt maize. Among these, 696 were differentially expressed in both Cry3Bb1 and Gpp34/Tpp35Ab1 maize exposures. Differentially-expressed transcripts encoded protein domains putatively involved in detoxification, metabolism, binding, and transport, were, in part, shared among transcripts that changed significantly following exposures to the entomopathogens Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Metarhizium anisopliae. Differentially expressed transcripts in common between Bt and entomopathogen treatments encode proteins in general stress response pathways, including putative Bt binding receptors from the ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Putative caspases, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-response factors were identified among transcripts uniquely up-regulated following exposure to either Bt protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the up-regulation of genes involved in ER stress management and apoptotic progression may be important in determining cell fate following exposure of susceptible D. v. virgifera larvae to Bt maize roots. This study provides novel insights into insect response to Bt intoxication, and a possible framework for future investigations of resistance mechanisms.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Praguicidas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Sobrevivência Celular , Besouros/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Regulação para Cima , Zea mays/genética
2.
Ecol Appl ; 31(4): e02295, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428798

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of maize in the United States and is an invasive pest in Europe. Maize is the only agricultural crop on which western corn rootworm larvae can survive and this insect requires two consecutive years of maize cultivation to complete its life cycle. Transgenic maize producing insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is often used to manage rootworm populations. The first Bt trait, Cry3Bb1, was introduced in 2003, but larval resistance to this toxin appeared in northeastern Iowa in 2009. Rootworm management occurs on a field-by-field basis, but adult rootworm may disperse among fields. It is known that growing consecutive years of Cry3Bb1 maize within a field can lead to resistance, but the relationship of the surrounding landscape to the development of resistance is unknown. Using geospatial tools and publicly available land-use data, we examined circular areas (buffers) surrounding fields that had previously experienced high levels of rootworm injury to Cry3Bb1 maize and rootworm resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize (problem fields). We calculated the proportion of area inside each buffer planted to maize continuously for 1-9 yr, and compared these values to those for randomly selected control points throughout the state. We also calculated the proportion of the state planted to maize for at least three consecutive years for 2003 through 2018, and its relationship with the annual value of maize. We found that areas surrounding problem fields had significantly more continuous maize compared to controls, with the most continuous maize within 1.6 km of problem fields. We also found that the cultivation of continuous maize in Iowa increased significantly between 2003 and 2018, and this was correlated with average annual price of maize. We hypothesize a scenario in which continuous cultivation of Cry3Bb1 maize in local landscapes, driven in part by the increased value of maize, facilitated selection for Cry3Bb1 resistance. These results suggest that land use in areas surrounding problem fields affect the rate of resistance evolution and approaches for resistance management can be enhanced by taking a landscape-level perspective.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Iowa , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética
3.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(6): 2873-2882, 2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990316

RESUMO

Field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn by western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Colleoptera: Chrysomellidae), has been reported in field populations in Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, and Minnesota. Inheritance and fitness costs associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance have been determined for non-diapausing laboratory strains of western corn rootworm with either laboratory-selected resistance or field-derived resistance. However, information on inheritance and fitness costs of Cry3Bb1 resistance in the diapausing field populations is lacking. In this study, we determined the inheritance of Cry3Bb1 resistance for four diapausing field strains of western corn rootworm using plant-based bioassays. We also determined the fitness costs for eight diapausing field populations in a greenhouse experiment. We found that Cry3Bb1 resistance was an autosomal trait and that the inheritance of resistance was mostly non-recessive; however, there was some variation in the dominance of Cry3Bb1 resistance. We did not find evidence of fitness costs affecting survival to adulthood, developmental rate, or adult dry mass. However, we did detect a fitness cost affecting adult size. The results of this study will add to the current understanding of field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn by western corn rootworm and help in developing better strategies to manage resistance.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Besouros/genética , Endotoxinas , Illinois , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Iowa , Larva/genética , Minnesota , Nebraska , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética
4.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(5): 2473-2479, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772116

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is often managed with transgenic corn producing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This pest has developed field-evolved resistance to all commercially available Bt traits, beginning with Cry3Bb1 in 2009. Fitness costs may accompany Bt resistance, where individuals with alleles for Bt resistance have reduced fitness on non-Bt corn compared to Bt-susceptible individuals. In conjunction with non-Bt refuges, fitness costs can delay the evolution of Bt resistance. Importantly, ecological factors may affect the presence and magnitude of fitness costs. For western corn rootworm, available data suggest that fitness costs of Bt resistance may be present in some cases. Using two Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm strains (Hopkinton and Cresco), a fitness-cost experiment was performed by rearing rootworm in the absence of Bt for six generations to test for fitness costs of Cry3Bb1 resistance and the effect of larval rearing density on fitness costs. Fitness costs were detected for both strains; however, strains were still resistant to Cry3Bb1 corn at the end of the experiment. Cresco experienced a greater loss of resistance at low versus high density, but no effect of density was detected in Hopkinton. Our study shows that fitness costs can accompany Bt resistance in western corn rootworm and may be more pronounced under low larval density. Even though fitness costs were present, it appears that rootworm populations may remain resistant to Cry3Bb1 corn for years after resistance has evolved.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias , Besouros/genética , Endotoxinas , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Zea mays/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0237094, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735582

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of corn in the United States. Transgenic corn expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an important tool used to manage rootworm populations. However, field-evolved resistance to Bt threatens this technology. In areas where resistance is present, resistant individuals may travel from one field to a neighboring field, spreading resistance alleles. An important question that remains to be answered is the extent to which greater-than-expected root injury (i.e., >1 node of injury) to Cry3Bb1 corn from western corn rootworm is associated with rootworm abundance, root injury, and levels of resistance in neighboring fields. To address this question, fields with a history of greater-than-expected injury to Cry3Bb1 corn (focal fields) and surrounding fields (< 2.2 km from focal fields) were examined to quantify rootworm abundance, root injury, and resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn. Additionally, use of Bt corn and soil insecticide use for the previous six years were quantified for each field. Resistance to Cry3Bb1 was present in all fields assayed, even though focal fields had grown more Cry3 corn and less non-Bt corn than surrounding fields. This finding implies that some movement of resistance alleles had occurred between focal fields and surrounding fields. Overall, our data suggest that resistance to Cry3Bb1 in the landscape has been influenced by both local rootworm movement and field-level management tactics.


Assuntos
Endotoxinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(11): 3871-3878, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The western corn rootworm is an economically important pest of corn. Management tactics include pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides, which may be applied as a mixture to protect corn roots. The goal of our study was to characterize the effects of pyrethroids and organophosphates alone and in combination on larval corn rootworm mortality and injury to corn roots. We evaluated two insecticide combinations: tebupirimphos with ß-cyfluthrin and chlorethoxyfos with bifenthrin. Using a soil-based, laboratory bioassay, we exposed larvae to five concentrations of the pyrethroid alone, the organophosphate alone, the combined formulation, and a water control. We calculated LC50 values and co-toxicity factors to determine synergism or antagonism between organophosphates and pyrethroids. We also measured adult emergence and root injury in a field experiment that tested tebupirimphos alone, ß-cyfluthrin alone, the combined formulation, and an untreated control. RESULTS: Bioassay results indicated antagonism between the pyrethroid and organophosphate at most concentrations for both insecticide combinations. In the field experiment, tebupirimphos alone or in combination with ß-cyfluthrin significantly reduced adult emergence and root injury compared to the untreated controls, but ß-cyfluthrin alone did not differ from the untreated control for either metric. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, at the concentrations tested, the pyrethroid component of pyrethroid-organophosphate mixtures may not contribute to a reduction of rootworm emergence or root injury. While these pyrethroids may confer a management benefit for other pests, such as seedcorn maggot, the concentrations of pyrethroids present in current formulations of these mixtures are likely too low for effective rootworm management. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Zea mays , Animais , Besouros , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas , Larva , Organofosfatos , Piretrinas
7.
J Econ Entomol ; 113(4): 1839-1849, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449512

RESUMO

Transgenic corn expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an important pest management tool. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a key pest of corn in the midwestern United States that has developed field-evolved resistance to all available Bt traits. The first Bt trait to be commercialized for management of rootworm was Cry3Bb1 in 2003, and field-evolved resistance appeared in 2009. In this study, we examined fields in counties where greater-than-expected injury to Cry3 (Cry3Bb1 or mCry3A) corn roots (>1 node) had previously been reported (problem counties) and counties where injury had not been reported (non-problem counties). Four to eight fields were sampled per county in 2015, 2016, and 2017 to quantify rootworm abundance, root injury, Cry3Bb1resistance, and rootworm management strategies. Rootworm abundance, root injury, and resistance to Cry3Bb1 did not differ between county types. Management tactics differed between county types, with problem counties growing more corn, using more soil insecticide, and growing more Cry34/35Ab1 corn. Additionally, a comparison of root injury to Bt and non-Bt corn within fields indicated that farmers derived an economic benefit from planting Bt corn to manage corn rootworm. Our results suggest that rootworm populations are similar between problem and non-problem counties in Iowa due to similar levels of selection pressure on Cry3 corn, but problem county fields have applied more management tactics due to previous rootworm issues in the area.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias , Endotoxinas , Resistência a Inseticidas , Iowa , Larva , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Zea mays/genética
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(1): 268-276, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted to manage agricultural insect pests. However, widespread adoption of Bt crops has led to the evolution of Bt resistance. The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is among the most serious pests of maize in the midwestern United States and is currently managed with Bt maize. To date, there is evidence of field-evolved resistance to all Bt toxins used to manage this pest. While western corn rootworm resistance to Cry3Bb1, and the closely related mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab traits, is widely distributed within the Midwest, fewer cases of Cry34/35Ab1 resistance have been observed, and planting of Cry34/35Ab1 maize is one of the methods used to manage Cry3-resistant rootworm. RESULTS: We found that fields with high levels of root injury to Cry34/35Ab1 maize by western corn rootworm were associated with Cry34/35Ab1-resistant western corn rootworm. Additionally, a population not associated with high levels of root injury was found to be resistant to Cry34/35Ab1. In all cases, populations that were resistant to Cry34/35Ab1 also were resistant to Cry3 traits. CONCLUSIONS: Western corn rootworm resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 has continued to persist in the agricultural landscape and has likely increased. The presence of rootworm populations with resistance to all available Bt traits threatens the utility of current and future transgenic technologies to manage this pest. Decreased reliance on Cry34/35Ab1 and better use of integrated pest management will be essential to preserve Bt susceptibility in western corn rootworm. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias , Besouros , Endotoxinas , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays
9.
J Vis Exp ; (152)2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736493

RESUMO

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Knowledge of western corn rootworm dispersal is of critical importance for models of resistance evolution, spread, and mitigation. Flight behavior of an insect, especially over a long distance, is inherently difficult to observe and characterize. Flight mills provide a means to directly test developmental and physiological impacts and consequences of flight in the laboratory that cannot be obtained in field studies. In this study, flight mills were used to measure the timing of flight activity, total number of flights, and the distance, duration, and speed of flights taken by female rootworms during a 22-h test period. Sixteen flight mills were housed in an environmental chamber with programmable lighting, temperature, and humidity control. The flight mill described is of a typical design, where a flight arm is free to rotate about a central pivot. Rotation is caused by flight of an insect tethered to one end of the flight arm, and each rotation is recorded by a sensor with a time-stamp. Raw data are compiled by software, which are subsequently processed to provide summary statistics for flight parameters of interest. The most difficult task for any flight mill study is attachment of the tether to the insect with an adhesive, and the method used must be tailored to each species. The attachment must be strong enough to hold the insect in a rigid orientation and to prevent detachment during movement, while not interfering with natural wing motion during flight. The attachment process requires dexterity, finesse, and speed, making video footage of the process for rootworms of value.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Software
10.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(5): 2324-2334, 2019 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165163

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has developed resistance to transgenic corn that produces the insecticidal toxin Cry3Bb1 derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt), with cross-resistance extending to corn with Bt toxins mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab. Additionally, some populations of western corn rootworm have evolved resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 corn. We conducted a 2-yr field and laboratory study that included three field locations: 1) Bt-susceptible population, 2) field with a recent history of Cry3Bb1 resistance, and 3) field with a long-term history of Cry3Bb1 resistance. The population with recently evolved Cry3Bb1 resistance showed resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in both laboratory bioassays and field evaluations; by contrast, the population with a long-term history of Cry3Bb1 resistance showed resistance, in both laboratory and field experiments to Cry3Bb1 corn and corn with a pyramid of mCry3A plus eCry3.1Ab corn. Field-based evaluations also showed that the field population with a long-term history of Cry3Bb1 resistance imposed higher root injury to Cry3Bb1 corn and the pyramid of mCry3A plus eCry3.1Ab compared with the susceptible control. The results of this study are discussed in the context of developing strategies to manage western corn rootworm in areas where populations have evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias , Endotoxinas , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays
11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212696, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822329

RESUMO

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Knowledge of insect dispersal is of critical importance for models of resistance evolution. Larval density affects survival in the field, and stress from crowding often affects facultative long-distance dispersal of adult insects. In this study, we used laboratory flight mills to characterize western corn rootworm flight performance as a function of larval rearing density. Larvae were reared under three densities and the resulting adult females were either allowed to fly voluntarily for 22 h or forced to fly specified durations. For both experiments we also measured lifetime fecundity following flight. The three rearing densities placed differential levels of stress on individuals, as evidenced by decreased survival to adulthood and decreased size of adults at greater rearing density. When larvae were reared under crowded conditions the resulting females were more likely to engage in flight activity, including long uninterrupted flights lasting >10 min, than those reared under low density conditions. Flight and egg production are both energy intensive processes. However, we found no evidence in either voluntary or forced flight experiments of a tradeoff between flight activity and female fecundity. The results suggest that females emerging from high density populations in cornfields are more likely to disperse and disperse farther than those emerging from low density populations. These results are important because they imply that variation in population density in the landscape will affect dispersal, which may in turn require computer models of resistance evolution to incorporate multiple dispersal rates arising from varying larval densities among fields.


Assuntos
Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
12.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200156, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969492

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has evolved resistance to transgenic maize, Zea maize L., that produces the insecticidal protein Cry3Bb1, which is derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. We hypothesized that the level of Cry3Bb1 resistance in populations of western corn rootworm could be influenced by farming practices. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of field history on resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm. In 2013 and 2014, rootworm adults were collected from the four types of maize fields: 1) current problem fields, 2) past problem fields, 3) rotated maize fields, and 4) continuous maize fields. Those field populations along with seven Bt-susceptible control populations were tested for Cry3Bb1 resistance with both plant-based and diet-based bioassays. All field populations were resistant to Cry3Bb1 regardless of field history, however, some variation in the degree of resistance was found. For all categories of field populations, larval survivorship on Cry3Bb1 maize was significantly higher than control populations, and did not differ from survival on non-Bt maize. Evidence of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize in plant-based bioassays was further supported by diet-based bioassays and we found a positive relationship between LC50 values from diet-based bioassays and the larval survivorship in plant-based bioassays. This study provides evidence of Cry3Bb1 resistance throughout the agricultural landscape studied, irrespective of the field history, and highlights the need for improved resistance management approaches, such as better use of integrated pest management to better delay pest resistance.


Assuntos
Besouros , Produção Agrícola , Endotoxinas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas , Iowa , Larva , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0194815, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566067

RESUMO

Terrestrial plants can harbor endophytic fungi that may induce changes in plant physiology that in turn affect interactions with herbivorous insects. We evaluated whether the application of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum to soybean seeds could become endophytic and affect interactions with soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura). It was found that A. glycines population sizes increased on plants with M. brunneum (strain F52) seed inoculum, but no significant effects were shown with analogous treatments with B. bassiana (strain GHA). Fungi recovered from soybean plant tissues indicate that endophytism was established, and that B. bassiana was more prevalent. Metarhizium brunneum was only recovered from stems, but B. bassiana was recovered from stems and leaves. This work confirms that some entomopathogenic fungi can be endophytic in soybean, however, some of these fungi may have a negative effect on the plants by increasing susceptibility of soybean to A. glycines. We also used DNA sequence data to identify species of Metarhizium obtained from agricultural fields in Iowa. Phylogenetic analyses, based on DNA sequence data, found that all isolates were Metarhizium robertsii, which is consistent with past studies indicating a cosmopolitan distribution and wide host range for this species. These results are important for understanding the dynamics of implementing environmentally sustainable measures for the control of pest insects.


Assuntos
Afídeos/microbiologia , Beauveria/patogenicidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Endófitos/patogenicidade , Metarhizium/patogenicidade , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Beauveria/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/fisiologia , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Fabaceae/parasitologia , Insetos/microbiologia , Metarhizium/genética , Filogenia , Soja/microbiologia , Soja/parasitologia
14.
Pest Manag Sci ; 74(4): 992-1000, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29160037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, are invasive, widespread and economically important pests of soybean, Glycine max, in North America. Management of these pests relies primarily on use of pesticides and soybean germplasm with genetic resistance. A 3-year field study and complementary greenhouse experiment were conducted to determine the benefits of host plant resistance (HPR) and pesticidal seed treatments for managing pest populations and preserving soybean yield. RESULTS: Host plant resistance significantly decreased the abundance of A. glycines and, in most study sites, suppressed H. glycines. Neonicotinoid seed treatment reduced A. glycines abundance on the cultivar that was susceptible to both aphids and nematodes, but abamectin nematicide seed treatment had no effect on H. glycines populations in the field or greenhouse. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the seed treatments included in our experiments may suppress pests, but not consistently for all soybean cultivars or study sites. Ultimately, HPR more consistently reduced pest numbers compared with the use of pesticidal seed treatments. The planting of HPR cultivars should be a primary tool for integrated pest management of both soybean pests. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbivoria/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Iowa , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Toxins (Basel) ; 9(5)2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492498

RESUMO

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.


Assuntos
Besouros/genética , Endotoxinas , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Animais , Endotoxinas/genética , Feminino , Larva/genética , Masculino , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética
16.
Environ Entomol ; 46(2): 284-290, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334190

RESUMO

Cover crops are beneficial to agroecosystems because they decrease soil erosion and nutrient loss while increasing within-field plant diversity. Greater plant diversity within cropping systems can positively affect beneficial arthropod communities. We hypothesized that increasing plant diversity within annually rotated corn and soybean with the addition of a rye cover crop would positively affect the beneficial ground and canopy-dwelling communities compared with rotated corn and soybean grown without a cover crop. From 2011 through 2013, arthropod communities were measured at two locations in Iowa four times throughout each growing season. Pitfall traps were used to sample ground-dwelling arthropods within the corn and soybean plots and sweep nets were used to measure the beneficial arthropods in soybean canopies. Beneficial arthropods captured were identified to either class, order, or family. In both corn and soybean, community composition and total community activity density and abundance did not differ between plots that included the rye cover crop and plots without the rye cover crop. Most taxa did not significantly respond to the presence of the rye cover crop when analyzed individually, with the exceptions of Carabidae and Gryllidae sampled from soybean pitfall traps. Activity density of Carabidae was significantly greater in soybean plots that included a rye cover crop, while activity density of Gryllidae was significantly reduced in plots with the rye cover crop. Although a rye cover crop may be agronomically beneficial, there may be only limited effects on beneficial arthropods when added within an annual rotation of corn and soybean.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Secale/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Iowa , Distribuição Aleatória , Estações do Ano
17.
Pest Manag Sci ; 73(1): 22-34, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27598030

RESUMO

Resistance has evolved to single transgenic traits engineered into crops for arthropod and herbicide resistances, and can be expected to evolve to the more recently introduced pathogen resistances. Combining transgenes against the same target pest is being promoted as the solution to the problem. This solution will work if used pre-emptively, but where resistance has evolved to one member of a stack, resistance should easily evolve for the second gene in most cases. We propose and elaborate criteria that could be used to evaluate the value of stacked traits for pest resistance management. Stacked partners must: target the same pest species; be in a tandem construct to preclude segregation; be synchronously expressed in the same tissues; have similar tissue persistence; target pest species that are still susceptible to at least two stacked partners. Additionally, transgene products must not be degraded in the same manner, and there should be a lack of cross-resistance to stacked transgenes or to their products. With stacked herbicide resistance transgenes, both herbicides must be used and have the same persistence. If these criteria are followed, and integrated with other pest management practices, resistance may be considerably delayed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Fatores de Tempo , Transgenes
18.
J Econ Entomol ; 109(5): 2096-104, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498115

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major pests of corn (Zea mays L.). Corn producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are widely used to manage Diabrotica spp.; however, Bt resistance by D. v. virgifera has led to high levels of feeding injury in the field. We tested whether field history affected root injury and abundance of adult Diabrotica spp. In 2013 and 2014, four types of cornfields were sampled: 1) recently rotated fields, 2) continuous cornfields, 3) fields with a history of injury to Bt corn (past problem fields), and 4) fields with greater than one node of injury to Bt corn at the time of sampling (current problem fields). Data were collected on field history, root injury, and the abundance of adult Diabrotica spp. from each field. Root injury and the abundance of D. v. virgifera were significantly greater in current problem fields compared to the other field types, while D. barberi were significantly more abundant in recently rotated fields. Root injury and the abundance of D. v. virgifera did not differ among recently rotated fields, continuous cornfields, and past problem fields. Analysis of field history showed that recently rotated fields were characterized by significantly less Bt corn, soil-applied insecticides, and years planted to corn continuously. These results suggest that greater cropping practice diversity can reduce management inputs for Diabrotica spp.; however, its effects on resistance evolution remain undetermined.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Zea mays/fisiologia , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbivoria , Iowa , Larva/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Dinâmica Populacional , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Environ Entomol ; 45(5): 1154-1160, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550160

RESUMO

Crop rotation alters agroecosystem diversity temporally, and increasing the number of crops in rotation schemes can increase crop yields and reduce reliance on pesticides. We hypothesized that increasing the number of crops in annual rotation schemes would positively affect ground-dwelling beneficial arthropod communities. During 2012 and 2013, pitfall traps were used to measure activity-density and diversity of ground-dwelling communities within three previously established, long-term crop rotation studies located in Wisconsin and Illinois. Rotation schemes sampled included continuous corn, a 2-yr annual rotation of corn and soybean, and a 3-yr annual rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat. Insects captured were identified to family, and non-insect arthropods were identified to class, order, or family, depending upon the taxa. Beneficial arthropods captured included natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. The beneficial community from continuous corn plots was significantly more diverse compared with the community in the 2-yr rotation, whereas the community in the 3-yr rotation did not differ from either rotation scheme. The activity-density of the total community and any individual taxa did not differ among rotation schemes in either corn or soybean. Crop species within all three rotation schemes were annual crops, and are associated with agricultural practices that make infield habitat subject to anthropogenic disturbances and temporally unstable. Habitat instability and disturbance can limit the effectiveness and retention of beneficial arthropods, including natural enemies, granivores, and detritivores. Increasing non-crop and perennial species within landscapes in conjunction with more diverse rotation schemes may increase the effect of biological control of pests by natural enemies.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Artrópodes/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Illinois , Densidade Demográfica , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Wisconsin , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 15: 111-5, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27436740

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm is a serious pest of maize. Beginning in 2003, management of western corn rootworm included transgenic maize that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The first Bt maize hybrids produced Cry3Bb1, but additional Bt toxins have since been introduced, including eCry3.1Ab, mCry3A and Cry34/35Ab1. Laboratory selection experiments found that western corn rootworm could develop resistance to all types of Bt maize following three to seven generations of selection. By 2009 cases of field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize had been identified, with populations also showing cross-resistance to mCry3A maize. Factors likely contributing to resistance were the lack of a high dose of Bt toxin for maize targeting rootworm and minimal fitness costs of resistance.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/fisiologia , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Besouros/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/normas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Zea mays/química
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