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1.
Nurs Inq ; 27(1): e12316, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398774

RESUMO

Although many studies have previously examined medicalisation, we add a new dimension to the concept as we explore how contemporary oncological medicine shapes the dying self as predominantly medical. Through an analysis of multiple case studies collected within a comprehensive cancer centre in Ontario, Canada, we examine how people with late-stage cancer and their healthcare providers enacted the process of medicalisation through engaging in the search for oncological treatments, such as experimental drug trials, despite the incurability of their disease. The seven cases included 20 interviews with patients, family, physicians and nurses, the analysis of 30 documents and 5 hr of field observation. A poststructural perspective informed our study. We propose that searching for life extension enacts medicalisation by shaping the dying person afflicted with terminal cancer into new medical subjectivities that are knowledgeable, active, entrepreneurial and curative. Participants initially took up medical thinking from the formal oncology system, but then began to apply and internalise medical rationalities to alter their personhood, thereby generating new curative possibilities for themselves. For people seeking life extension, the embodied and day-to-day experiences of suffering and being close to death became expressed and moderated in fundamentally medicalised terms.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226261, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After the early detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), medical surveillance of the precancerous lesions is carried out to control risk factors to avoid the development of cervical cancer. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of medical surveillance on the personal and social lives of women undergoing CIN follow-up and treatment. METHODOLOGY: A generic qualitative study using a poststructuralist perspective of risk management was carried out in a gynecology clinic in a public hospital of the Galician Health Care System (Spain). Participants were selected through purposive sampling. The sample consisted of 21 women with a confirmed diagnosis of CIN. Semistructured interviews were recorded and transcribed, and a thematic analysis was carried out, including researcher triangulation to verify the results of the analysis. FINDINGS: Two main themes emerged from the participants' experiences: CIN medical surveillance encounters and risk management strategies are shaped by the biomedical discourse, and the effects of "risk treatment" for patients include (a) profound changes expected of patients, (b) increased patient risk management, and (c) resistance to risk management. While doctors' surveillance aimed to prevent the development of cervical cancer, women felt they were sick because they had to follow strict recommendations over an unspecified period of time and live with the possibility of a life-threatening disease. Clinical risk management resulted in the medicalization of women's personal and social lives and produced great uncertainty. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to conceptualize CIN medical surveillance as an illness experience for patients. It also problematizes the effects of preventative practices in women's lives. Patients deal with great uncertainty, as CIN medical surveillance performed by gynecologists simultaneously trivializes the changes expected of patients and underestimates the effects of medical recommendations on patients' personal wellbeing and social relations.

3.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 112, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lack knowledge about their disease, which limits their ability to take responsibility for self-care and creates negative psychosocial effects, including marital problems. Normally, screening is performed in primary care, and in case of abnormal results, the patient is referred to specialized care for follow-up and treatment. Given the lack of international literature regarding patients' experiences in primary and specialized healthcare, our study aims to: (a) investigate how women with CIN perceive the communication and management of information by healthcare providers at different moments of their healthcare and (b) identify these women's informational needs. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory study was carried out in a gynecology unit of a public hospital of the Galician Health Care Service (Spain). Participants were selected through purposive sampling. The sample consisted of 21 women aged 21 to 52 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of CIN. Semistructured interviews were recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis was carried out, including triangulation of researchers for analysis verification. RESULTS: Two analytical themes were identified. The first was communication gaps in the diagnosis and management of information in primary and specialized healthcare. These gaps occurred in the following moments of the healthcare process: (a) cervical cancer screening in primary care, (b) waiting time until referral to specialized care, (c) first consultation in specialized care, and (d) after consultation in specialized care. The second theme was participants' unmatched informational needs. The doubts and informational needs of women during their healthcare process related to the following subthemes: (a) HPV transmission, (b) HPV infection symptoms and consequences, and (c) CIN treatment and follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that women who have a diagnosis of CIN experience important healthcare informational challenges when accessing primary and specialized care that have several implications for their wellbeing. The information given is limited, which makes it difficult for women to understand and participate in the decision making regarding the prevention and treatment of CIN. Service coordination among different levels of care and the availability of educational materials at any given time would improve the patients' healthcare experience.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Assistência ao Paciente , Navegação de Pacientes/organização & administração , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3454, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371726

RESUMO

Copy-number variants of the CYFIP1 gene in humans have been linked to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), two neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by defects in brain connectivity. Here, we show that CYFIP1 plays an important role in brain functional connectivity and callosal functions. We find that Cyfip1-heterozygous mice have reduced functional connectivity and defects in white matter architecture, similar to phenotypes found in patients with ASD, SCZ and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Cyfip1-deficient mice also present decreased myelination in the callosal axons, altered presynaptic function, and impaired bilateral connectivity. Finally, Cyfip1 deficiency leads to abnormalities in motor coordination, sensorimotor gating and sensory perception, which are also known neuropsychiatric disorder-related symptoms. These results show that Cyfip1 haploinsufficiency compromises brain connectivity and function, which might explain its genetic association to neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Axônios , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Associação Genética , Haploinsuficiência , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Sistema Nervoso/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Desempenho Psicomotor , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/genética , Filtro Sensorial , Substância Branca
5.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 51(5): 269-277, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180875

RESUMO

Objetivo: Explorar la percepción acerca de la presencia de familiares durante la reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) en pacientes adultos, de los propios pacientes y familiares, enfermeras y médicos. Diseño: Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo exploratorio y un análisis temático. Emplazamiento: Atención Primaria, Atención Hospitalaria y Servicio de Emergencias del Servicio Vasco de Salud. Participantes: La selección de los participantes se realizó a través de muestreo intencional. Se desarrollaron 4 grupos de discusión: uno de pacientes y familiares, 2 de enfermeras y uno de médicos. Método: Se realizó un análisis temático. Se utilizaron técnicas de triangulación entre investigadores e investigador-informante. Se utilizó el programa informático Open Code 4.1. Resultados: Se identificaron 3 categorías significativas: impacto de la actuación en la familia; peso de la responsabilidad ética y legal; poder, lugar donde sucede la parada y supuestos culturales. Conclusiones: La RCP es un constructo social influido por los valores de los contextos socioculturales específicos. En este estudio, los pacientes y familiares describieron temor y resistencia a presenciar la RCP. Por su parte, los profesionales sanitarios consideran que su decisión reviste complejidad, siendo necesario valorar cada caso de forma independiente e integrando a pacientes y familiares en la toma de decisiones. Como líneas de investigación futuras sería recomendable profundizar sobre la experiencia subjetiva de familiares que hayan presenciado la RCP y el impacto de los elementos contextuales y socioculturales en sus percepciones


Objective: To determine the perception of nurses, doctors, patients and family or relatives being present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in adult patients. Design: A qualitative exploratory study and thematic analysis were developed. Site: Primary Care, Hospital Care and Emergency Service of the Basque Health Service. Participants.The selection of the participants was made through intentional sampling. Four focus groups were developed: one of patients and family, 2 of nurses, and one of physicians. Method: Thematic analysis was performed. Triangulation techniques were used between investigators and investigator-participant member. The Open code 4.1 statistics software was used. Results: Three significant categories were identified: the impact on the family; the weight of ethical and legal responsibility; power, place of death, and cultural assumptions. Conclusions: CPR is a social construct influenced by values which are situated in specific socio-cultural contexts. In this study, patients and family members describe the fear and resistance to being present during CPR. Health professionals consider that their decision is complex, and each case must be assessed independently, and patients and relatives must be integrated into decision-making. Future research should explore in greater depth the subjective experience of relatives who have witnessed CPR and the impact of contextual and sociocultural elements from the perspectives of relatives


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acompanhantes Formais em Exames Físicos/normas , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Tratamento de Emergência/normas , Temas Bioéticos/normas , Percepção Social , Medo , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais/métodos
6.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 34(1): e142-e156, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488981

RESUMO

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in public health have gained great attention in the global health literature over the last two decades. Evidence suggests that PPPs could contribute to mitigating complex health problems. There is, however, limited knowledge about the process and specific conditions in which PPPs for healthy eating, in particular, can be developed successfully. To address this gap, this article first summarizes the literature, and second, using qualitative content analysis, identifies factors deemed to influence the process of building PPPs for healthy eating. The literature search was undertaken in two stages. The first stage focused on PPPs in public health to understand what constitutes a PPP, and the types and characteristics of PPPs. The second stage sought empirical examples and conceptual papers related to PPPs for healthy eating to identify critical elements that could facilitate or hinder partnerships between the government and the food industry. The search yielded 38 articles on PPPs in public health and 20 on PPPs for healthy eating. The analysis generated 23 individual elements that have the potential to influence a successful process of building PPPs for healthy eating (eg, endorsement from an individual champion, equal representation from partner organizations on board committees). The analysis also yielded five factors that appeared to well-represent the 23 individual elements of PPP formation: motivation, enablers, governance, benefits, and barriers. These results constitute an important step to understand critical factors involved in the formation of PPPs in public health and should inform additional empirical research to validate them.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Comportamento Alimentar , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Motivação
7.
Aten Primaria ; 51(5): 269-277, 2019 05.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the perception of nurses, doctors, patients and family or relatives being present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in adult patients. DESIGN: A qualitative exploratory study and thematic analysis were developed. SITE: Primary Care, Hospital Care and Emergency Service of the Basque Health Service. PARTICIPANTS: The selection of the participants was made through intentional sampling. Four focus groups were developed: one of patients and family, 2 of nurses, and one of physicians. METHOD: Thematic analysis was performed. Triangulation techniques were used between investigators and investigator-participant member. The Open code 4.1 statistics software was used. RESULTS: Three significant categories were identified: the impact on the family; the weight of ethical and legal responsibility; power, place of death, and cultural assumptions. CONCLUSIONS: CPR is a social construct influenced by values which are situated in specific socio-cultural contexts. In this study, patients and family members describe the fear and resistance to being present during CPR. Health professionals consider that their decision is complex, and each case must be assessed independently, and patients and relatives must be integrated into decision-making. Future research should explore in greater depth the subjective experience of relatives who have witnessed CPR and the impact of contextual and sociocultural elements from the perspectives of relatives.

8.
Global Health ; 14(1): 124, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The "gig" economy connects consumers with contractors (or workers) through online platform businesses to perform tasks (or "gigs"). This innovation in technology provides businesses and consumers access to low-cost, on-demand labour, but gig workers' experiences are more complex. They have access to very flexible, potentially autonomous work, but also deal with challenges caused by the nature of the work, its precariousness, and their relationships with the platform businesses. Workers in the Global North and South may also experience these challenges very differently. Based on our report "Towards an Understanding of Canadian Workers in the Global Gig Economy", we present a commentary on the implications of a globalized online platform labour market on the health of gig workers in Canada and globally. MAIN BODY: Based on our scoping review of peer and grey literature, we categorized gig worker vulnerabilities in three ways: 1) occupational vulnerabilities, 2) precarity, and 3) platform-based vulnerabilities. Occupational vulnerabilities are connected to the work being performed (e.g. driving a car or computer work) and are not specific to platform labour. Precarity refers to the short-term, contingent nature of the work, characteristics that may be shared with other forms of work. Some examples of precariousness are lack of health insurance, collective bargaining, or career training and promotion. Finally, platform-based vulnerabilities are particular to the way platform labour is structured. These vulnerabilities include worker misclassification, information asymmetries, and the culture of surveillance. We suggest that, together, these vulnerabilities challenge gig workers' right to health. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that the experience of gig workers around the world must be understood in the context of neoliberalism, which has increased both the globalization and precaritization of work. While gig workers share some vulnerabilities, which have important negative consequences on their health, with other workers, the platform-specific vulnerabilities of workers require further inquiry. In particular, the specific health and overall experience of gig workers in different regions of the world - with different labour policies and sociopolitical contexts for work - must be disentangled as workers in the Global North and South experience this work very differently.


Assuntos
Comércio , Emprego/economia , Saúde Global , Internet , Canadá , Emprego/psicologia , Humanos
9.
Front Genet ; 9: 442, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450110

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is mostly caused by two distinct events that occur in the FMR1 gene (Xq27.3): an expansion above 200 repeats of a CGG triplet located in the 5'UTR of the gene, and methylation of the cytosines located in the CpG islands upstream of the CGG repeats. Here, we describe two unrelated families with one FXS child and another sibling presenting mild intellectual disability and behavioral features evocative of FXS. Genetic characterization of the undiagnosed sibling revealed mosaicism in both the CGG expansion size and the methylation levels in the different tissues analyzed. This report shows that in the same family, two siblings carrying different CGG repeats, one in the full-mutation range and the other in the premutation range, present methylation mosaicism and consequent decreased FMRP production leading to FXS and FXS-like features, respectively. Decreased FMRP levels, more than the number of repeats seem to correlate with the severity of FXS clinical phenotypes.

10.
Can J Public Health ; 109(1): 89-98, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to provide an insider perspective on the experiences of nine formerly homeless young people as they transitioned into independent (market rent) housing and attempted to achieve meaningful social integration. METHODS: The study was conducted in Toronto, Canada, and guided by the conceptual framework developed for the World Health Organization by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. A critical ethnographic methodology was used. Over the course of 10 months, the lead author met every other week with nine formerly homeless young people who had moved into their own homes within 30 days prior to study recruitment. RESULTS: Unaffordable housing, limited education, inadequate employment opportunities, poverty-level income, and limited social capital made it remarkably challenging for the young people to move forward. As the study progressed, the participants' ability to formulate long-range plans was impeded as they were forced to focus on day-to-day existence. Over time, living in a perpetual state of poverty led to feelings of "outsiderness," viewing life as a game of chance, and isolation. CONCLUSION: Rather than a secure, linear path from the streets to the mainstream, study participants were forced to take a precarious path full of structural gaps that left them stuck, spinning, and exhausted by the day-to-day struggle to meet basic needs. Despite their remarkable agency, it was almost impossible for the participants to achieve meaningful social integration given the structural inequities inherent in society. These observations have implications for practice, policy, and research.


Assuntos
Integração Comunitária , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá , Feminino , Metas , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(4): e00214516, 2018.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694542

RESUMO

The study aimed to compare the experiences with the organization of universal public healthcare systems in relation to health promotion in primary care units in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and Toronto, Ontario, Canada. This was a descriptive exploratory study with a qualitative approach in primary care units. Data were collected with semi-structured interviews containing questions on health promotion practices, with 25 health professionals in Florianópolis and 10 in Toronto. The data were discussed using thematic analysis, identifying the practices, difficulties, and facilities in health promotion. In the two cities, 60% of health professionals and health administrators had not received any specific knowledge on health promotion during their training. As for health promotion skills, health professionals in Toronto identified them with autonomy and social determinants, while in Florianópolis they were related to health education and community participation. In both cities, health promotion practices are targeted to individual and collective activities. The motivation to act comes from interdisciplinarity and the demands raised by the population. Health promotion is a relevant form of care and stimulus for individual and community autonomy, in light of social determinants. Such practices aim at comprehensive health for the community, but there are limits in the teams that still conduct disease-centered activities. Resources are limited, requiring inter-sector actions to improve quality of life. Healthcare centers on the hegemonic model, and progress is needed to achieve a positive approach to health and social determinants.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/classificação , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 22(64): 121-131, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-893469

RESUMO

Nosso artigo apresenta e discute as características da Pesquisa Apreciativa como metodologia de pesquisa, utilizando um exemplo de uma residência multiprofissional integrada em Saúde no Brasil. A Pesquisa Apreciativa, conhecida em inglês como Appreciative Inquiry, é uma metodologia usada para identificar as melhores práticas desenvolvidas e empregadas pelas pessoas que trabalham em uma instituição. Essa metodologia permite a participação e o engajamento de profissionais da área da Saúde em pesquisas relacionadas à sua área de atuação, com potencial para ser aplicada em múltiplas áreas. Além disso, a Pesquisa Apreciativa incentiva debates reflexivos e críticos por parte dos participantes, estabelecendo um espaço de discussão para que mudanças ocorram. Os profissionais da Saúde que participaram desse trabalho consideram pertinente a finalidade de encorajar as pessoas a adotarem uma abordagem positiva, construtiva e dialógica para propor mudanças institucionais.(AU)


In this paper we present and discuss the characteristics of Appreciative Inquiry as a research methodology, utilizing an example from an integrated multi-professional residency program in Health in Brazil. Appreciative Inquiry is a methodology used to identify the best practices developed and utilized by people who work in the same institution. This methodology allows the participation and engagement of Health professionals in studies related to their area of work, potentially able to be used in several areas. In addition, Appreciative Inquiry promotes critical and reflexive debates among participants, establishing a space for the production of change. The Health professionals involved in our study considered relevant the goal of encouraging people to adopt a positive, constructive, and dialogical approach to propose institutional changes.(AU)


Nuestro artículo presenta y discute las características de la Investigación Apreciativa como metodología de investigación, utilizando un ejemplo de una residencia multi-profesional integrada en Salud en Brasil. La Investigación Apreciativa, conocida en inglés como Appreciative Inquiry, es una metodología usada para identificar las mejores prácticas desarrolladas y empleadas por las personas que trabajan en una institución. Esa metodología permite la participación y el compromiso de profesionales del área de la Salud en investigaciones relacionadas a su área de actuación, con potencial de aplicación en múltiples áreas. Además, la Investigación Apreciativa incentiva debates reflexivos y críticos por parte de los participantes, estableciendo un espacio de discusión para que ocurran cambios. Los profesionales de la Salud que participaron en ese trabajo consideran pertinente la finalidad de alentar a las personas para que adopten un abordaje positivo, constructivo y dialógico para proponer cambios institucionales.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Prática Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 20(3): 759-761, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101516

RESUMO

Acculturation has been widely used in health research to explain oral health disparities between immigrants and their native born counterparts. However, immigrants' oral health studies have not clearly defined the acculturation construct. Also, a narrow focus on cultural oral health behaviours is likely to be inadequate for explaining immigrants' oral health inequities, which are also rooted in societal, political and economic factors produced across the globe. In this brief report, we discuss the use of the acculturation framework in the dental public health literature, note gaps in this approach, and argue for the need to incorporate the political economy lens to help better understand the complexities of immigrants' oral health.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Saúde Bucal , Aculturação , Cultura , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Política
14.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 34(4): e00214516, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-889954

RESUMO

Resumo: Compreender as experiências de organização dos sistemas públicos de saúde universais em relação à promoção da saúde em unidades de atenção primária de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, e Toronto, Ontário, Canadá. Pesquisa exploratória descritiva de abordagem qualitativa realizada em unidades da atenção primária. Para a coleta de dados foram utilizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com questões sobre as práticas de promoção, com 25 profissionais em Florianópolis, e 10, em Toronto. Os dados foram discutidos por meio de análise temática, identificando as práticas, dificuldades e facilidades da promoção da saúde. Nessas cidades, 60% dos profissionais e gestores não receberam conhecimento específico de promoção na sua formação. No que tange às habilidades promotoras de saúde, em Toronto identificou-se que os sujeitos reconhecem a autonomia e os determinantes sociais, já em Florianópolis as relacionam com a educação em saúde e participação popular. Em ambas as cidades, as práticas de promoção são direcionadas para atividades individuais e coletivas. A motivação para atuar provém da interdisciplinaridade e das demandas oriundas da população. Destaca-se a relevância da promoção, como forma de cuidado e estímulo à autonomia do indivíduo e da comunidade, considerando os determinantes sociais. Essas práticas alcançam a saúde integral da comunidade, porém, observam-se limites das equipes que ainda realizam atividades voltadas para a doença. Os recursos são escassos, necessitando de ações intersetoriais para a melhoria da qualidade de vida. A atenção à saúde está voltada para o modelo hegemônico, carecendo avançar para a concepção positiva da saúde e determinantes sociais.


Abstract: The study aimed to compare the experiences with the organization of universal public healthcare systems in relation to health promotion in primary care units in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, and Toronto, Ontario, Canada. This was a descriptive exploratory study with a qualitative approach in primary care units. Data were collected with semi-structured interviews containing questions on health promotion practices, with 25 health professionals in Florianópolis and 10 in Toronto. The data were discussed using thematic analysis, identifying the practices, difficulties, and facilities in health promotion. In the two cities, 60% of health professionals and health administrators had not received any specific knowledge on health promotion during their training. As for health promotion skills, health professionals in Toronto identified them with autonomy and social determinants, while in Florianópolis they were related to health education and community participation. In both cities, health promotion practices are targeted to individual and collective activities. The motivation to act comes from interdisciplinarity and the demands raised by the population. Health promotion is a relevant form of care and stimulus for individual and community autonomy, in light of social determinants. Such practices aim at comprehensive health for the community, but there are limits in the teams that still conduct disease-centered activities. Resources are limited, requiring inter-sector actions to improve quality of life. Healthcare centers on the hegemonic model, and progress is needed to achieve a positive approach to health and social determinants.


Resumen: Comprender las experiencias de organización de los sistemas públicos de salud universales, respecto a la promoción de la salud en unidades de atención primaria de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, y Toronto, Ontario, Canadá. Se trata de una investigación exploratoria descriptiva de enfoque cualitativo, realizada en unidades de la atención primaria. Para la recogida de datos se utilizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con cuestiones sobre las prácticas de promoción, con 25 profesionales en Florianópolis y 10, en Toronto. Los datos se discutieron mediante un análisis temático, identificando las prácticas, dificultades y facilidades de la promoción de la salud. En esas ciudades, un 60% de los profesionales y gestores no conocían específicamente las posibilidades de promoción en su formación. En lo que atañe a las habilidades promotoras de salud, en Toronto se identificó que los sujetos reconocen la autonomía y los determinantes sociales, ya en Florianópolis las relacionan con la educación en salud y participación popular. En ambas ciudades, las prácticas de promoción se dirigen a actividades individuales y colectivas. La motivación para actuar proviene de la interdisciplinaridad y de las demandas provenientes de la población. Se destaca la relevancia de la promoción, como forma de cuidado y estímulo a la autonomía del individuo y de la comunidad, considerando los determinantes sociales. Estas prácticas alcanzan la salud integral de la comunidad, no obstante, se observan los límites de los equipos que todavía realizan actividades dirigidas a la enfermedad. Los recursos son escasos, por lo que son necesarias acciones intersectoriales para la mejora de la calidad de vida. La atención a la salud está enfocada hacia el modelo hegemónico, careciendo avances hacia la concepción positiva de la salud y los determinantes sociales.

15.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 22(supl.2): 1635-1646, 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-975813

RESUMO

Resumo Nosso artigo, fundamentado na Pesquisa Apreciativa, apresenta e discute as melhores práticas de um grupo de preceptores de um programa de residência multiprofissional em Saúde. As melhores práticas identificadas são: a consulta multiprofissional, o acolhimento dos residentes e as ações integradas entre as diferentes ênfases da residência. Além dessas, identificaram-se as estratégias para desenvolver as práticas nos cenários de saúde que seguem os pressupostos da educação interprofissional, já que promovem a reflexão de diferentes atores do processo na construção de práticas que buscam maior atenção à saúde dos usuários do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).(AU)


Resumen Nuestro artículo, fundamentado en la investigación apreciativa, presenta y discute las mejores prácticas de un grupo de preceptores de un Programa de Residencia Multiprofesional en Salud. las mejores prácticas identificadas son: la consulta multiprofesional, la acogida de los residentes y las acciones integradas entre los diferentes énfasis de la residencia. Además de esas, se identificaron las estrategias para desarrollar las prácticas en los escenarios de Salud que siguen los supuestos de la educación interprofesional, puesto que promueven la reflexión de diferentes actores del proceso en la construcción de prácticas que buscan una mejor atención de la salud de los usuarios del Sistema Brasileño de Salud (SUS).(AU)


ABSTRACT In this article, based on Appreciative Inquiry, we present and discuss the best practices of a group of preceptors from a multiprofessional health residency program in Brazil. The best practices we identified are the multiprofessional consultation, the reception given to residents, and the integrated actions among different majors of the residency. In addition, we identified their strategies to develop the practices in health settings. The practices follow the presuppositions of interprofessional education, as they promote the reflection of different actors on the construction of practices that aim at the provision of better healthcare for users of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS).(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Mentores/educação , Educação em Saúde , Educação Continuada , Internato e Residência , Relações Interprofissionais
17.
Health Soc Care Community ; 25(2): 424-434, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732249

RESUMO

Although Spain has social and healthcare systems based on universal coverage, little is known about how undocumented immigrant women access and utilise them. This is particularly true in the case of Latin Americans who are overrepresented in the informal labour market, taking on traditionally female roles of caregivers and cleaners in private homes. This study describes access and utilisation of social and healthcare services by undocumented Latin American women working and living in rural and urban areas, and the barriers these women may face. An exploratory qualitative study was designed with 12 in-depth interviews with Latin American women living and working in three different settings: an urban city, a rural city and rural villages in the Pyrenees. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed, yielding four key themes: health is a tool for work which worsens due to precarious working conditions; lack of legal status traps Latin American women in precarious jobs; lack of access to and use of social services; and limited access to and use of healthcare services. While residing and working in different areas of the province impacted the utilisation of services, working conditions was the main barrier experienced by the participants. In conclusion, decent working conditions are the key to ensuring undocumented immigrant women's right to social and healthcare. To create a pathway to immigrant women's health promotion, the 'trap of illegality' should be challenged and the impact of being considered 'illegal' should be considered as a social determinant of health, even where the right to access services is legal.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Saúde da Mulher/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , América Latina/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha
18.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 19(1): 194-204, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880030

RESUMO

This scoping review summarizes and analyzes relevant studies related to the evidence published on undocumented immigrant women's access to and utilization of health and social services in Spain. Scientific literature was identified by entering search terms in seven electronic databases which combined retrieved health sciences peer-reviewed articles (Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL Plus and Scopus) and grey literature databases (Europa OpenGrey, DART-Europe and Google Scholar) published between 2004 and 2014 and written in Spanish or in English presenting data about Spain. Those that fulfill the inclusion criteria were selected after a blind peer reviewed process when pertinence and quality was debated. A total of 16 publications were included, the main topics being socio-cultural differences in the access and utilization of social and health services and barriers faced by immigrant women. None of the studies focused exclusively on undocumented women, hence further research is needed in this area.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Imigrantes Indocumentados/estatística & dados numéricos , Barreiras de Comunicação , Características Culturais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Linguagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 30(3): 178-183, mayo-jun. 2016. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-152726

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evidenciar los conflictos éticos que pueden surgir entre los discursos legal y ético, a través de explorar el contenido del Real Decreto-Ley 16/2012 que modifica la ley sanitaria en España y los códigos éticos. Método: Revisión y análisis crítico del discurso de cinco códigos éticos de Enfermería de Barcelona, Cataluña, España, Europa e Internacional, y del discurso de la legislación sanitaria vigente en España en 2013, en los que se identificaron y compararon estructuras lingüísticas referentes a cinco principios y valores éticos del marco teórico de la ética de los cuidados: equidad, derechos humanos, derecho a la salud, accesibilidad y continuidad de los cuidados. Resultados: Mientras que el discurso ético define la función enfermera en función de la equidad, el reconocimiento de los derechos humanos, el derecho a la salud, la accesibilidad y la continuidad de los cuidados de la persona, el discurso legal se vertebra sobre el concepto de beneficiario o asegurado. Conclusiones: La divergencia entre el discurso ético y legal puede producir conflictos éticos que afecten negativamente a la práctica de la profesión enfermera. La aplicación del RDL 16/2012 promueve un marco de acción que impide que los profesionales enfermeros presten sus cuidados a colectivos no asegurados, lo que atenta contra los derechos humanos y los principios de la ética de los cuidados (AU)


Objective: To identify the ethical conflicts that may arise between the nursing codes of ethics and the Royal Decree-law 16/2012 modifying Spanish health regulations. Method: We conducted a review and critical analysis of the discourse of five nursing codes of ethics from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe and International, and of the discourse of the Spanish legislation in force in 2013. Language structures referring to five different concepts of the theoretical framework of care were identified in the texts: equity, human rights, right to healthcare, access to care, and continuity of care. Results: Codes of ethics define the function of nursing according to equity, acknowledgement of human rights, right to healthcare, access to care and continuity of care, while legal discourse hinges on the concept of beneficiary or being insured. Conclusions: The divergence between the code of ethics and the legal discourse may produce ethical conflicts that negatively affect nursing practice. The application of RDL 16/2012 promotes a framework of action that prevents nursing professionals from providing care to uninsured collectives, which violates human rights and the principles of care ethics (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ética em Enfermagem , Legislação de Enfermagem , Legislação como Assunto , Aplicação da Lei/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direito Sanitário , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
Gac Sanit ; 30(3): 178-83, 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26987278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the ethical conflicts that may arise between the nursing codes of ethics and the Royal Decree-law 16/2012 modifying Spanish health regulations. METHOD: We conducted a review and critical analysis of the discourse of five nursing codes of ethics from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe and International, and of the discourse of the Spanish legislation in force in 2013. Language structures referring to five different concepts of the theoretical framework of care were identified in the texts: equity, human rights, right to healthcare, access to care, and continuity of care. RESULTS: Codes of ethics define the function of nursing according to equity, acknowledgement of human rights, right to healthcare, access to care and continuity of care, while legal discourse hinges on the concept of beneficiary or being insured. CONCLUSIONS: The divergence between the code of ethics and the legal discourse may produce ethical conflicts that negatively affect nursing practice. The application of RDL 16/2012 promotes a framework of action that prevents nursing professionals from providing care to uninsured collectives, which violates human rights and the principles of care ethics.


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética em Enfermagem , Temas Bioéticos , Europa (Continente) , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Espanha
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