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1.
Curr Oncol ; 28(6): 4485-4503, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898574

RESUMO

Nuclear protein of testis (NUT), a protein product of the NUTM1 gene (located on the long arm of chromosome 15) with highly restricted physiologic expression in post-meiotic spermatids, is the oncogenic driver of a group of emerging neoplasms when fused with genes involved in transcription regulation. Although initially identified in a group of lethal midline carcinomas in which NUT forms fusion proteins with bromodomain proteins, NUTM1-rearrangement has since been identified in tumors at non-midline locations, with non-bromodomain partners and with varied morphology. The histologic features of these tumors have also expanded to include sarcoma, skin adnexal tumors, and hematologic malignancies that harbor various fusion partners and are associated with markedly different clinical courses varying from benign to malignant. Most of these tumors have nondescript primitive morphology and therefore should be routinely considered in any undifferentiated neoplasm. The diagnosis is facilitated by the immunohistochemical use of the monoclonal C52 antibody, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and, recently, RNA-sequencing. The pathogenesis is believed to be altered expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes by NUT-mediated genome-wide histone modification. NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms respond poorly to classical chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Targeted therapies such as bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitor (BETi) therapy are being developed. This current review provides an update on NUTM1-rearranged neoplasms, focusing on the correlation between basic sciences and clinical aspects.

3.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 21(11): 1235-1243, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study reports analytical and clinical validation of a molecular signature response classifier (MSRC) that identifies rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who are non-responders to tumor necrosis factor-ɑ inhibitors (TNFi). METHODS: The MSRC integrates patient-specific data from 19 gene expression features, anti-cyclic citrullinated protein serostatus, sex, body mass index, and patient global assessment into a single score. RESULTS: The MSRC results stratified samples (N = 174) according to non-response prediction with a positive predictive value of 87.7% (95% CI: 78-94%), sensitivity of 60.2% (95% CI: 50-69%), and specificity of 77.3% (95% CI: 65-87%). The 25-point scale was subdivided into three thresholds: signal not detected (<10.6), high (≥10.6), and very high (≥18.5). The MSRC relies on sequencing of RNA extracted from blood; this assay displays high gene expression concordance between inter- and intra-assay sample (R2 > 0.977) and minimal variation in cumulative gene assignment diversity, read mapping location, or gene-body coverage. The MSRC accuracy was 95.8% (46/48) for threshold concordance (no signal, high, very high). Intra- and inter-assay precision studies demonstrated high repeatability (92.6%, 25/27) and reproducibility (100%, 35/35). CONCLUSION: The MSRC is a robust assay that accurately and reproducibly detects an RA patient's molecular signature of non-response to TNFi therapies.

4.
J Gastrointest Oncol ; 12(5): 2423-2437, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790403

RESUMO

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) is an uncommon malignancy with limited therapeutic options. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab show promising results in patients with SCCA. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative tumors are frequently TP53-mutated (TP53-MT) and often resistant to therapy. Methods: We present a large molecularly-profiled cohort of SCCA, exploring the underlying biology of SCCA, differences between TP53-wild type (TP53-WT) and TP53-MT tumors, and differences between local and metastatic tumors. SCCA specimens (n=311) underwent multiplatform testing with immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Tumor mutational burden (TMB) was calculated using only somatic nonsynonymous missense mutations. Chi-square testing was used for comparative analyses. Results: The most frequently mutated genes included PIK3CA (28.1%), KMT2D (19.5%), FBXW7 (12%), TP53 (12%) and PTEN (10.8%). The expression of PD-1 was seen in 68.8% and PD-L1 in 40.5% of tumors. High TMB was present in 6.7% of specimens. HER2 IHC was positive in 0.9%, amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) was seen 1.3%, and mutations in ERBB2 were present in 1.8% of tumors. The latter mutation has not been previously described in SCCA. When compared with TP53-WT tumors, TP53-MT tumors had higher rates of CDKN2A, EWSR1, JAK1, FGFR1 and BRAF mutations. PD-1 and PD-L1 expression were similar, and high TMB did not correlate with PD-1 (P=0.50) or PD-L1 (P=0.52) expression. Conclusions: Molecular profiling differences between TP53-MT and TP53-WT SCCA indicate different carcinogenic pathways which may influence response to therapy. Low frequency mutations in several druggable genes may provide therapeutic opportunities for patients with SCCA.

6.
Mod Pathol ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521993

RESUMO

A distinct renal tumor has recently been described as "high-grade oncocytic renal tumor" and "sporadic renal cell carcinoma with eosinophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm". The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) consensus proposed a unifying name "eosinophilic vacuolated tumor" (EVT) for this emerging entity. In this multi-institutional study, we evaluated 19 EVTs, particularly their molecular features and mutation profile, using next-generation sequencing. All cases were sporadic and none of the patients had a tuberous sclerosis complex. There were 8 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 47 years (median 50; range 15-72 years). Average tumor size was 4.3 cm (median 3.8 cm; range 1.5-11.5 cm). All patients with available follow-up data (18/19) were alive and without evidence of disease recurrence or progression during the follow-up, ranging from 12 to 198 months (mean 56.3, median 41.5 months). The tumors were well circumscribed, but lacked a well-formed capsule, had nested to solid growth, focal tubular architecture, and showed ubiquitous, large intracytoplasmic vacuoles, round to oval nuclei, and prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, cathepsin K, CD117, CD10, and antimitochondrial antigen were expressed in all cases. Other positive stains included: PAX8, AE1/AE3 and CK18. CK7 was typically restricted only to rare scattered cells. Vimentin, HMB45, melan-A, and TFE3 were negative in all cases. All tumors showed retained SDHB. All cases (19/19) showed non-overlapping mutations of the mTOR pathway genes: TSC1 (4), TSC2 (7), and MTOR (8); one case with MTOR mutation showed a coexistent RICTOR missense mutation. Low mutational rates were found in all samples (ranged from 0 to 6 mutations/Mbp). Microsatellite instability and copy number variations were not found in any of the 17 analyzable cases. EVT represents an emerging renal entity that shows a characteristic and readily identifiable morphology, consistent immunohistochemical profile, indolent behavior, and mutations in either TSC1, TSC2, or MTOR genes.

8.
Acta Med Acad ; 50(1): 47-57, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075763

RESUMO

This review provides a brief overview of the state-of-the-art molecular pathology approaches emphasizing the increasingly important pathology role in clinical precision cancer medicine. Recent advances in molecular biology and genetics have tremendously affected the practice of anatomic pathology, gradually transforming it from a morphology-based into a molecularbased discipline. Molecular diagnostics has a long tradition in pathology, especially in clinical pathology. The improvement of methodology for genomic testing in recent years has made it one of the cornerstones of precision cancer medicine. The decisions related to cancer treatments are no longer solely based on the histopathological diagnosis. Various genomic analyses of human cancers are being incorporated into diagnostic and decision-making algorithms. CONCLUSION: The pathologists continue to play an essential role in developing and implementing molecular and genomic tests in practice and communicate the results and their relevance with clinicians. Such activities are of utmost importance for successfully translating scientific advancements into a benefit to patients ("next-generation pathologists").


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Medicina de Precisão , Genômica , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Patologia Molecular
9.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181512

RESUMO

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent a new class of highly potent antineoplastic drugs built by attaching a small molecule of an anticancer drug (payload) or another therapeutic agent to an antibody recognizing an epitope on the targeted cells. Trophoblast cell-surface antigen-2 (Trop-2) was originally described in trophoblasts and fetal tissues, but subsequently, its overexpression has been demonstrated in various solid malignancies. Sacituzumab govitecan, a conjugate of anti-Trop-2 antibody and SN-38 payload (an active metabolite of irinotecan), is the first in the class that has been clinically validated and approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic triple-negative breast (2020) and urothelial carcinomas (2021). In the current review, we summarize and critically appraise the most recent advances with Sacituzumab govitecan, emphasizing the predictive biomarker analysis.

11.
Rheumatol Ther ; 8(3): 1159-1176, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Timely matching of patients to beneficial targeted therapy is an unmet need in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A molecular signature response classifier (MSRC) that predicts which patients with RA are unlikely to respond to tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNFi) therapy would have wide clinical utility. METHODS: The protein-protein interaction map specific to the rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology and gene expression data in blood patient samples was used to discover a molecular signature of non-response to TNFi therapy. Inadequate response predictions were validated in blood samples from the CERTAIN cohort and a multicenter blinded prospective observational clinical study (NETWORK-004) among 391 targeted therapy-naïve and 113 TNFi-exposed patient samples. The primary endpoint evaluated the ability of the MSRC to identify patients who inadequately responded to TNFi therapy at 6 months according to ACR50. Additional endpoints evaluated the prediction of inadequate response at 3 and 6 months by ACR70, DAS28-CRP, and CDAI. RESULTS: The 23-feature molecular signature considers pathways upstream and downstream of TNFα involvement in RA pathophysiology. Predictive performance was consistent between the CERTAIN cohort and NETWORK-004 study. The NETWORK-004 study met primary and secondary endpoints. A molecular signature of non-response was detected in 45% of targeted therapy-naïve patients. The MSRC had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.64 and patients were unlikely to adequately respond to TNFi therapy according to ACR50 at 6 months with an odds ratio of 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0-8.3, p value 0.0001). Odds ratios (3.4-8.8) were significant (p value < 0.01) for additional endpoints at 3 and 6 months, with AUC values up to 0.74. Among TNFi-exposed patients, the MSRC had an AUC of up to 0.83 and was associated with significant odds ratios of 3.3-26.6 by ACR, DAS28-CRP, and CDAI metrics. CONCLUSION: The MSRC stratifies patients according to likelihood of inadequate response to TNFi therapy and provides patient-specific data to guide therapy choice in RA for targeted therapy-naïve and TNFi-exposed patients.

12.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 231, 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gliosarcoma (GS) refers to the presence of mesenchymal differentiation (as seen using light microscopy) in the setting of glioblastoma (GB, an astrocytoma, WHO Grade 4). Although the same approach to treatment is typically adopted for GS and GB, there remains some debate as to whether GS should be considered a discrete pathological entity. Differences between these tumors have not been clearly established at the molecular level. METHODS: Patients with GS (n=48) or GB (n=1229) underwent molecular profiling (MP) with a pan-cancer panel of tests as part of their clinical care. The methods employed included next-generation sequencing (NGS) of DNA and RNA, copy number variation (CNV) of DNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The MP comprised 1153 tests in total, although results for each test were not available for every tumor profiled. We analyzed this data retrospectively in order to determine if our results were in keeping with what is known about the pathogenesis of GS by contrast with GB. We also sought novel associations between the MP and GS vs. GB which might improve our understanding of pathogenesis of GS. RESULTS: Potentially meaningful associations (p<0.1, Fisher's exact test (FET)) were found for 14 of these tests in GS vs. GB. A novel finding was higher levels of proteins mediating immuno-evasion (PD-1, PD-L1) in GS. All of the differences we observed have been associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in other tumor types. Many of the changes we saw in GS are novel in the setting of glial tumors, including copy number amplification in LYL1 and mutations in PTPN11. CONCLUSIONS: GS shows certain characteristics of EMT, by contrast with GB. Treatments targeting immuno-evasion may be of greater therapeutic value in GS relative to GB.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/patologia , Gliossarcoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Gliossarcoma/genética , Gliossarcoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Oncogene ; 40(30): 4894-4905, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163031

RESUMO

Frequent mutations of genes in the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2 (KMT2) family members were identified in gastric cancers (GCs). Understanding how gene mutations of KMT2 family affect cancer progression and tumor immune microenvironment may provide new treatment strategies. A total of 1245 GCs were analyzed using next-generation sequencing, whole transcriptome sequencing, immunohistochemistry (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ). The overall mutation rate of genes in the KMT2 family was 10.6%. Compared to KMT2-wild-type GCs, genes involved in epigenetic modification, receptor tyrosine kinases/MAPK/PI3K, and DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways had higher mutation rates in KMT2-mutant GCs (p < 0.05). Significantly higher rates of high tumor mutational burden, microsatellite instability-high/mismatch-repair deficiency (dMMR), and PD-L1 positivity were observed in KMT2-mutant GCs (p < 0.01), compared to KMT2-wild-type GCs. The association between PD-L1 positivity and KMT2 mutations remained significant in the proficient-MMR and microsatellite stable subgroup. Based on transcriptome data from the TCGA, cell cycle, metabolism, and interferon-α/ß response pathways were significantly upregulated in KMT2-mutant GCs than in KMT2-wild-type GCs. Patients with KMT2 mutation treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors had longer median overall survival compared to KMT2-wild-type patients with metastatic solid tumors (35 vs. 16 months, HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.62-0.87, p = 0.0003). In conclusion, this is the largest study to investigate the distinct molecular features between KMT2-mutant and KMT2-wild-type GCs to date. Our data indicate that GC patients with KMT2 mutations may benefit from ICIs and drugs targeting DDR, MAPK/PI3K, metabolism, and cell cycle pathways.

14.
J Cutan Pathol ; 48(9): 1139-1149, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adnexal skin tumors are diagnostically challenging with few known molecular signatures. Recently, however, YAP1-MAML2 and YAP1-NUTM1 fusions were identified in poroid adnexal skin tumors. METHODS: Herein, we subjected eight poroid adnexal skin tumors (three poromas and five porocarcinomas) to fusion gene analysis by whole transcriptome sequencing and next-generation DNA sequencing analysis. RESULTS: YAP1 fusions were identified in six cases. YAP1-NUTM1 fusions were identified in two poromas and three porocarcinomas. A single case of porocarcinoma harbored a YAP1-MAML2 fusion. Two cases were negative for gene fusion. All cases that harbored YAP1-NUTM1 fusions showed nuclear protein in testis (NUT) expression by immunohistochemistry, with NUT being negative in the YAP1-MAML2-positive case. In this case series, we provide a detailed histopathologic description of six YAP1-fused poroid skin tumors, which we show harbor reproducible histopathologic features, to include broad, bulbous tumor tongues with admixtures of basaloid, poroid cells punctuated by squamatized cuticles and ductules, with uniform tumor nuclei featuring frequent grooves and pseudonuclear inclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of the characteristic histopathologic features of YAP1-fused poroid adnexal skin tumor is a step toward a more reproducible classification of adnexal skin tumors as well as a step toward targeted therapy for metastatic and/or unresectable examples of this poroid group of neoplasms.

15.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 19(4): 333-338, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metastatic Leydig cell tumors (LCT) are rare, difficult-to-treat malignancies without known underlying molecular-genetic events. An index case of metastatic LCT showed an LDLR-TERT gene fusion upon routine genetic profiling for detection of therapeutic targets, which was then followed by an investigation into a cohort of additional LCTs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine LCT (27 male and 2 female patients) were profiled using next-generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: TERT gene fusions were detected only in testicular metastatic LCTs, in 3 of 7 successfully analyzed cases (RMST:TERT, LDLR:TERT, and B4GALT5:TERT). TOP1 and CCND3 amplifications were identified in the case with a B4GALT5:TERT fusion. A TP53 mutation was detected in 1 metastatic tumor without a TERT fusion. Five primary (4 testicular and 1 ovarian) LCTs showed multiple gene amplifications, without a consistent pattern. A single metastatic ovarian LCT showed BAP1 mutation and copy number amplifications affecting the NPM1, PCM1, and SS18 genes. At the protein level, 4 of 7 metastatic and 6 of 10 primary testicular LCTs overexpressed Topo1. Androgen receptor was overexpressed in 10 of 13 primary testicular tumors and 2 of 5 metastatic testicular LCTs (without detectable ARv7 messenger RNA or ARv7 protein). Only 1 metastatic testicular LCT exhibited a high tumor mutational burden; all tested cases were microsatellite instability stable and did not express programmed cell death ligand 1. CONCLUSIONS: Our study for the first time identified TERT gene fusions as a main genetic alteration and a potential therapeutic target in metastatic LCTs. Topo1 and androgen receptor may guide decisions on chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy for selected individual patients.


Assuntos
Tumor de Células de Leydig , Telomerase , Neoplasias Testiculares , Feminino , Fusão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Telomerase/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase
16.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 72: 146-154, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883913

RESUMO

Breast cancer was traditionally not considered a particularly immunogenic tumor. However, recent developments have shown that some aggressive triple-negative breast cancers are immunogenic, exhibit a resistance to chemotherapy and have a poor prognosis. These cancers have been shown to express molecules identified as targets for immunotherapy. Despite the advances, the challenges are many, and include identifying the patients that may benefit from immunotherapy. The best methods to analyze these samples and to evaluate immunogenicity are also major challenges. Therefore, the most accurate and reliable assessment of immune cells as potential targets is one of the most important aims in the current research in breast immunotherapy. In the present review, we briefly discuss the mechanisms of the regulation of checkpoint inhibitors (PD-1/PD-L1) in breast cancer and explore the predictive aspects in the PD-L1 testing.

17.
Bosn J Basic Med Sci ; 21(1): 1-4, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530388

RESUMO

Functional activation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been shown to strongly promote carcinogenesis, leading to the investigation of HER2-directed agents in cancers with HER2 genomic alterations. This has been best documented in the context of HER2 gene amplification in breast and gastric/gastroesophageal junction carcinomas for which several HER2-directed agents are available and have become a part of standard treatment regimens. Somatic HER2 gene mutations have been recently described at low frequency in a variety of human cancers and have emerged as a novel predictive biomarker for HER2-directed therapies. Preclinical data also indicate that activating HER2 mutations are potent oncogenic drivers in a manner that is analogous to HER2 amplification. HER2 mutations may clinically confer sensitivity to HER2-directed agents as recently shown in a phase II clinical trial with antibody-drug conjugate against HER2 trastuzumab deruxtecan in patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung carcinoma.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , Imunoconjugados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2 , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Camptotecina/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética
18.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 29(4): 299-304, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208671

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix (NEC) is a rare and highly aggressive cervical malignancy. Given that no targeted therapy has been approved specifically to NEC, we investigated the presence of novel, potentially targetable biomarkers in a large cohort of NEC. Sixty-two NEC were molecularly profiled for biomarkers of targeted therapies including antibody-drug conjugates [delta-like canonical notch ligand 3 (DLL3), a trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP-2), and folate receptor 1 (FOLR1)], NTRK1-3 gene fusions, and immune checkpoint inhibitors [programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), tumor mutational burden, and microsatellite instability] using immunohistochemistry and DNA/RNA next-generation sequencing assays. A cohort of squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix (n=599) was used for comparison for immune-oncology biomarkers. DLL3 expression was observed in 81% of the cases. DLL3 expression was inversely correlated with commonly observed pathogenic mutations in PIK3CA (17%) (P=0.018) and PTEN (10%) (P=0.006). Other more frequently seen pathogenic mutations (TP53 17%, KRAS 11%, and CTNNB1 5%) were not associated with DLL3 expression. TROP-2 expression was detected in only 1 case and no case expressed FOLR1. Although NTRK protein expression was observed in 21% of the cases, none of these had an NTRK gene fusion. PD-L1 expression (10%) and high tumor mutational burden (3%) were significantly less frequent in NEC compared with the squamous cell carcinoma cohort (79% and 11%, respectively). None of the NEC exhibited high microsatellite instability status. Despite frequent DLL3 expression in NEC, a potential therapeutic benefit of DLL3-targeted drugs remains uncertain given the recent failure of the Rova-T therapeutic trial in small cell lung carcinomas. Small cohorts of NEC enriched in PIK3CA/PTEN/AKT and programmed cell death protein 1/PD-L1 alterations indicate therapeutic roles for their respective inhibitors.

19.
Mod Pathol ; 34(4): 770-785, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012788

RESUMO

The knowledge of clinical features and, particularly, histopathological spectrum of EWSR1-PATZ1-rearranged spindle and round cell sarcomas (EPS) remains limited. For this reason, we report the largest clinicopathological study of EPS to date. Nine cases were collected, consisting of four males and five females ranging in age from 10 to 81 years (average: 49 years). Five tumors occurred in abdominal wall soft tissues, three in the thorax, and one in the back of the neck. Tumor sizes ranged from 2.5 to 18 cm (average 6.6 cm). Five patients had follow-up with an average of 38 months (range: 18-60 months). Two patients had no recurrence or metastasis 19 months after diagnosis. Four patients developed multifocal pleural or pulmonary metastasis and were treated variably by surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The latter seemed to have little to no clinical benefit. One of the four patients was free of disease 60 months after diagnosis, two patients were alive with disease at 18 and 60 months, respectively. Morphologically, low, intermediate, and high-grade sarcomas composed of a variable mixture of spindled, ovoid, epithelioid, and round cells were seen. The architectural and stromal features also varied, resulting in a broad morphologic spectrum. Immunohistochemically, the following markers were most consistently expressed: S100-protein (7/9 cases), GFAP (7/8), MyoD1 (8/9), Pax-7 (4/5), desmin (7/9), and AE1/3 (4/9). By next-generation sequencing, all cases revealed EWSR1-PATZ1 gene fusion. In addition, 3/6 cases tested harbored CDKN2A deletion, while CDKN2B deletion and TP53 mutation were detected in one case each. Our findings confirm that EPS is a clinicopathologic entity, albeit with a broad morphologic spectrum. The uneventful outcome in some of our cases indicates that a subset of EPS might follow a more indolent clinical course than previously appreciated. Additional studies are needed to validate whether any morphological and/or molecular attributes have a prognostic impact.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Proteína EWS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fusão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Sarcoma/química , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/química , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
20.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027319

RESUMO

Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare malignancy. According to 2019 WHO classification, apocrine cellular features and a characteristic steroid receptor profile (Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and androgen receptor (AR)-positive) define apocrine carcinoma. Her-2/neu protein expression is reported in ∼30-50% of apocrine carcinomas, while NGS analysis showed frequent PIK3CA/PTEN/AKT and TP53 mutations Followed by deregulation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway components (mutations of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF). A recent miRNA study indicates various miRNAs (downregulated hsa-miR-145-5p and upregulated 14 miRNAs such as hsa-miR-182-5p, hsa-miR-3135b, and hsa-miR-4417) may target the commonly altered pathways in apocrine carcinomas such as ERBB2/HER2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Although AR expression is a hallmark of apocrine carcinoma, little is known regarding the efficacy/resistance to antiandrogens. Success of bicalutamide, a non-steroidal anti-androgen, was reported in a case of Her2-negative apocrine carcinoma. Two recent studies, however, described presence of anti-androgen resistance biomarkers (a splice variant ARv7 and AR/NCOA2 co-amplification) in a subset of AR+ apocrine carcinomas, cautioning the use of anti-androgens in AR+ triple-negative breast carcinomas. Apocrine carcinomas rarely show biomarkers predictive of response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (PD-L1 expression, MSI-H status, and TMB-high). Therefore, a comprehensive cancer profiling of apocrine carcinomas is necessary to identify potential therapeutic targets for a truly individualized treatment approach.

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