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1.
Hum Resour Health ; 18(1): 34, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of appropriate and relevant nurse-sensitive indicators provides an opportunity to demonstrate the unique contributions of nurses to patient outcomes. The aim of this work was to develop relevant metrics to assess the quality of nursing care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where they are scarce. MAIN BODY: We conducted a scoping review using EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE databases of studies published in English focused on quality nursing care and with identified measurement methods. Indicators identified were reviewed by a diverse panel of nursing stakeholders in Kenya to develop a contextually appropriate set of nurse-sensitive indicators for Kenyan hospitals specific to the five major inpatient disciplines. We extracted data on study characteristics, nursing indicators reported, location and the tools used. A total of 23 articles quantifying the quality of nursing care services met the inclusion criteria. All studies identified were from high-income countries. Pooled together, 159 indicators were reported in the reviewed studies with 25 identified as the most commonly reported. Through the stakeholder consultative process, 52 nurse-sensitive indicators were recommended for Kenyan hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Although nurse-sensitive indicators are increasingly used in high-income countries to improve quality of care, there is a wide heterogeneity in the way indicators are defined and interpreted. Whilst some indicators were regarded as useful by a Kenyan expert panel, contextual differences prompted them to recommend additional new indicators to improve the evaluations of nursing care provision in Kenyan hospitals and potentially similar LMIC settings. Taken forward through implementation, refinement and adaptation, the proposed indicators could be more standardised and may provide a common base to establish national or regional professional learning networks with the common goal of achieving high-quality care through quality improvement and learning.

2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(1): e001937, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133169

RESUMO

There are global calls for research to support health system strengthening in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). To examine the nature and magnitude of gaps in access and quality of inpatient neonatal care provided to a largely poor urban population, we combined multiple epidemiological and health services methodologies. Conducting this work and generating findings was made possible through extensive formal and informal stakeholder engagement linked to flexibility in the research approach while keeping overall goals in mind. We learnt that 45% of sick newborns requiring hospital care in Nairobi probably do not access a suitable facility and that public hospitals provide 70% of care accessed with private sector care either poor quality or very expensive. Direct observations of care and ethnographic work show that critical nursing workforce shortages prevent delivery of high-quality care in high volume, low-cost facilities and likely threaten patient safety and nurses' well-being. In these challenging settings, routines and norms have evolved as collective coping strategies so health professionals maintain some sense of achievement in the face of impossible demands. Thus, the health system sustains a functional veneer that belies the stresses undermining quality, compassionate care. No one intervention will dramatically reduce neonatal mortality in this urban setting. In the short term, a substantial increase in the number of health workers, especially nurses, is required. This must be combined with longer term investment to address coverage gaps through redesign of services around functional tiers with improved information systems that support effective governance of public, private and not-for-profit sectors.

3.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 29(1): 19-30, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved hospital care is needed to reduce newborn mortality in low/middle-income countries (LMIC). Nurses are essential to the delivery of safe and effective care, but nurse shortages and high patient workloads may result in missed care. We aimed to examine nursing care delivered to sick newborns and identify missed care using direct observational methods. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using direct-observational methods for 216 newborns admitted in six health facilities in Nairobi, Kenya, was used to determine which tasks were completed. We report the frequency of tasks done and develop a nursing care index (NCI), an unweighted summary score of nursing tasks done for each baby, to explore how task completion is related to organisational and newborn characteristics. RESULTS: Nursing tasks most commonly completed were handing over between shifts (97%), checking and where necessary changing diapers (96%). Tasks with lowest completion rates included nursing review of newborns (38%) and assessment of babies on phototherapy (15%). Overall the mean NCI was 60% (95% CI 58% to 62%), at least 80% of tasks were completed for only 14% of babies. Private sector facilities had a median ratio of babies to nurses of 3, with a maximum of 7 babies per nurse. In the public sector, the median ratio was 19 babies and a maximum exceeding 25 babies per nurse. In exploratory multivariable analyses, ratios of ≥12 babies per nurse were associated with a 24-point reduction in the mean NCI compared with ratios of ≤3 babies per nurse. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of nursing care is missed with potentially serious effects on patient safety and outcomes in this LMIC setting. Given that nurses caring for fewer babies on average performed more of the expected tasks, addressing nursing is key to ensuring delivery of essential aspects of care as part of improving quality and safety.

4.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although substantial progress has been made in increasing access to care during childbirth, reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality have been slower. Poor-quality care may be to blame. In this study, we measure the quality of labour and delivery services in Kenya and Malawi using data from observations of deliveries and explore factors associated with levels of competent and respectful care. METHODS: We used data from nationally representative health facility assessment surveys. A total of 1100 deliveries in 392 facilities across Kenya and Malawi were observed and quality was assessed using two indices: the quality of the process of intrapartum and immediate postpartum care (QoPIIPC) index and a previously validated index of respectful maternity care. Data from standardised observations of care were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariable random-intercept regression models to examine factors associated with variation in quality of care. We also quantified the variance in quality explained by each domain of covariates (patient-, provider- and facility-level and subnational divisions). RESULTS: Only 61-66% of basic elements of competent and respectful care were performed. In adjusted models, better-staffed facilities, private hospitals and morning deliveries were associated with higher levels of competent and respectful care. In Malawi, younger, primipara and HIV-positive women received higher-quality care. Quality also differed substantially across regions in Kenya, with a 25 percentage-point gap between Nairobi and the Coast region. Quality was also higher in higher-volume facilities and those with caesarean section capacity. Most of the explained variance in quality was due to regions in Kenya and to facility, and patient-level characteristics in Malawi. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest considerable scope for improvement in quality. Increasing staffing and shifting births to higher-volume facilities - along with promotion of respectful care in these facilities - should be considered in sub-Saharan Africa to improve outcomes for mothers and newborns.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0221145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: True burden of tuberculosis (TB) in children is unknown. Hospitalised children are low-hanging fruit for TB case detection as they are within the system. We aimed to explore the process of recognition and investigation for childhood TB using a guideline-linked cascade of care. METHODS: This was an observational study of 42,107 children admitted to 13 county hospitals in Kenya from 01Nov 15-31Oct 16, and 01Nov 17-31Oct 18. We estimated those that met each step of the cascade, those with an apparent (or "Working") TB diagnosis and modelled associations with TB tests amongst guideline-eligible children. RESULTS: 23,741/42,107 (56.4%) met step 1 of the cascade (≥2 signs and symptoms suggestive of TB). Step 2(further screening of history of TB contact/full respiratory exam) was documented in 14,873/23,741 (62.6%) who met Step 1. Step 3(chest x-ray or Mantoux test) was requested in 2,451/14,873 (16.5%) who met Step 2. Step 4(≥1 bacteriological test) was requested in 392/2,451 (15.9%) who met Step 3. Step 5("Working TB" diagnosis) was documented in 175/392 (44.6%) who met Step 4. Factors associated with request of TB tests in patients who met Step 1 included: i) older children [AOR 1.19(CI 1.09-1.31)]; ii) co-morbidities of HIV, malnutrition or pneumonia [AOR 3.81(CI 3.05-4.75), 2.98(CI 2.69-3.31) and 2.98(CI 2.60-3.40) respectively]; iii) sicker children, readmitted/referred [AOR 1.24(CI 1.08-1.42) and 1.15(CI 1.04-1.28) respectively]. "Working TB" diagnosis was made in 2.9%(1,202/42,107) of all admissions and 0.2%(89/42,107) were bacteriologically-confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of all paediatric admissions had symptoms associated with TB and nearly two-thirds had more specific history documented. Only a few amongst them got TB tests requested. TB was diagnosed in 2.9% of all admissions but most were inadequately investigated. Major challenges remain in identifying and investigating TB in children in hospitals with access to Xpert MTB/RIF and a review is needed of existing guidelines.

6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(5): e001715, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544003

RESUMO

Introduction: There were almost 1 million deaths in children aged between 5 and 14 years in 2017, and pneumonia accounted for 11%. However, there are no validated guidelines for pneumonia management in older children and data to support their development are limited. We sought to understand risk factors for mortality among children aged 5-14 years hospitalised with pneumonia in district-level health facilities in Kenya. Methods: We did a retrospective cohort study using data collected from an established clinical information network of 13 hospitals. We reviewed records for children aged 5-14 years admitted with pneumonia between 1 March 2014 and 28 February 2018. Individual clinical signs were examined for association with inpatient mortality using logistic regression. We used existing WHO criteria (intended for under 5s) to define levels of severity and examined their performance in identifying those at increased risk of death. Results: 1832 children were diagnosed with pneumonia and 145 (7.9%) died. Severe pallor was strongly associated with mortality (adjusted OR (aOR) 8.06, 95% CI 4.72 to 13.75) as were reduced consciousness, mild/moderate pallor, central cyanosis and older age (>9 years) (aOR >2). Comorbidities HIV and severe acute malnutrition were also associated with death (aOR 2.31, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.84 and aOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.21, respectively). The presence of clinical characteristics used by WHO to define severe pneumonia was associated with death in univariate analysis (OR 2.69). However, this combination of clinical characteristics was poor in discriminating those at risk of death (sensitivity: 0.56, specificity: 0.68, and area under the curve: 0.62). Conclusion: Children >5 years have high inpatient pneumonia mortality. These findings also suggest that the WHO criteria for classification of severity for children under 5 years do not appear to be a valid tool for risk assessment in this older age group, indicating the urgent need for evidence-based clinical guidelines for this neglected population.

7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(2): e001195, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997163

RESUMO

Neonatal deaths contribute a growing proportion to childhood mortality, and increasing access to inpatient newborn care has been identified as a potential driver of improvements in child health. However, previous work by this research team identified substantial gaps in the coverage and standardisation of inpatient newborn care in Nairobi City County, Kenya. To address the issue in this particular setting, we sought to draft recommendations on the categorisation of neonatal inpatient services through a process of policy review, evidence collation and examination of guidance in other countries. This work supported discussions by a panel of local experts representing a diverse set of stakeholders, who focused on formulating pragmatic, context-relevant guidance. Experts in the discussions rapidly agreed on overarching priorities guiding their decision-making, and that three categories of inpatient neonatal care (standard, intermediate and intensive care) were appropriate. Through a modified nominal group technique, they achieved consensus on allocating 36 of the 38 proposed services to these categories and made linked recommendations on minimum healthcare worker requirements (skill mix and staff numbers). This process was embedded in the local context where the need had been identified, and required only modest resources to produce recommendations on the categorisation of newborn inpatient care that the experts agreed could be relevant in other Kenyan settings. Recommendations prioritised the strengthening of existing facilities linked to a need to develop effective referral systems. In particular, expansion of access to the standard category of inpatient neonatal care was recommended. The process and the agreed categorisations could inform discussion in other low-resource settings seeking to address unmet needs for inpatient neonatal care.

8.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(5-6): 882-893, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357971

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the knowledge of nurses of national guidelines for emergency maternity, routine newborn and small and sick newborn care in Nairobi County, Kenya. BACKGROUND: The vast majority of women deliver in a health facility in Nairobi. Yet, maternal and neonatal mortality remain high. Ensuring competency of health workers, in providing essential maternal and newborn interventions in health facilities will be key if further progress is to be made in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality in low-resource settings. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: Questionnaires comprised of clinical vignettes and direct questions and were administered in 2015-2016 to nurses (n = 125 in 31 facilities) on duty in maternity and newborn units in public and private facilities providing 24/7 inpatient neonatal services. Composite knowledge scores were calculated and presented as weighted means. Associations were explored using regression. STROBE guidelines were followed. RESULTS: Nurses scored best for knowledge on active management of the mother after birth and immediate routine newborn care. Performance was worst for questions on infant resuscitation, checking signs and symptoms of sick newborns, and managing hypertension in pregnancy. Overall knowledge of care for sick newborns was particularly low (score 0.62 of 1). Across all areas assessed, nurses who had received training since qualifying performed better than those who had not. Poorly resourced and low case-load facilities had lower average knowledge scores compared with better-resourced and busier facilities. CONCLUSION: Overall, we estimate that 31% of maternity patients, 3% of newborns and 39% of small and sick newborns are being cared for in an environment where nursing knowledge is very low (score <0.6). RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Focus on periodic training, ensuring retention of knowledge and skills among health workers in low-case load setting, and bridging the know-do gap may help to improve the quality of care delivered to mothers and newborns in Kenya.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/normas , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/educação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/enfermagem , Quênia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/normas , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
10.
BMC Nurs ; 17: 46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479560

RESUMO

Background: Sharing tasks with lower cadre workers may help ease the burden of work on the constrained nursing workforce in low- and middle-income countries but the quality and safety issues associated with shifting tasks are rarely critically evaluated. This research explored this gap using a Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) method as a novel approach to address this gap and inform task sharing policies in neonatal care settings in Kenya. Methods: We used Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) and the Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Approach (SHERPA) to analyse and identify the nature and significance of potential errors of nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding in a neonatal setting and to gain a preliminary understanding of informal task sharing. Results: A total of 47 end tasks were identified from the HTA. Sharing, supervision and risk levels of these tasks reported by subject matter experts (SMEs) varied broadly. More than half of the tasks (58.3%) were shared with mothers, of these, 31.7% (13/41) and 68.3% were assigned a medium and low level of risk by the majority (≥4) of SMEs respectively. Few tasks were reported as 'often missed' by the majority of SMEs. SHERPA analysis suggested omission was the commonest type of error, however, due to the low risk nature, omission would potentially result in minor consequences. Training and provision of checklists for NGT feeding were the key approaches for remedying most errors. By extension these strategies could support safer task shifting. Conclusion: Inclusion of mothers and casual workers in care provided to sick infants is reported by SMEs in the Kenyan neonatal settings. Ergonomics methods proved useful in working with Kenyan SMEs to identify possible errors and the training and supervision needs for safer task-sharing.

11.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 2(7): 516-524, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971245

RESUMO

Background: Diarrhoea causes many deaths in children younger than 5 years and identification of risk factors for death is considered a global priority. The effectiveness of currently recommended fluid management for dehydration in routine settings has also not been examined. Methods: For this observational, association study, we analysed prospective clinical data on admission, immediate treatment, and discharge of children age 1-59 months with diarrhoea and dehydration, which were routinely collected from 13 Kenyan hospitals. We analysed participants with full datasets using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression to assess risk factors for in-hospital death and effect of correct rehydration on early mortality (within 2 days). Findings: Between Oct 1, 2013, and Dec 1, 2016, 8562 children with diarrhoea and dehydration were admitted to hospital and eligible for inclusion in this analysis. Overall mortality was 9% (759 of 8562 participants) and case fatality was directly correlated with severity. Most children (7184 [84%] of 8562) with diarrhoea and dehydration had at least one additional diagnosis (comorbidity). Age of 12 months or younger (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1·71, 95% CI 1·42-2·06), female sex (1·41, 1·19-1·66), diarrhoea duration of more than 14 days (2·10, 1·42-3·12), abnormal respiratory signs (3·62, 2·95-4·44), abnormal circulatory signs (2·29, 1·89-2·77), pallor (2·15, 1·76-2·62), use of intravenous fluid (proxy for severity; 1·68, 1·41-2·00), and abnormal neurological signs (3·07, 2·54-3·70) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality across hospitals. Signs of dehydration alone were not associated with in-hospital deaths (AOR 1·08, 0·87-1·35). Correct fluid prescription significantly reduced the risk of early mortality (within 2 days) in all subgroups: abnormal respiratory signs (AOR 1·23, 0·68-2·24), abnormal circulatory signs (0·95, 0·53-1·73), pallor (1·70, 0·95-3·02), dehydration signs only (1·50, 0·79-2·88), and abnormal neurological signs (0·86, 0·51-1·48). Interpretation: Children at risk of in-hospital death are those with complex presentations rather than uncomplicated dehydration, and the prescription of recommended rehydration guidelines reduces risk of death. Strategies to optimise the delivery of recommended guidance should be accompanied by studies on the management of dehydration in children with comorbidities, the vulnerability of young girls, and the delivery of immediate care. Funding: The Wellcome Trust.

12.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e022020, 2018 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In many African countries, including Kenya, a major barrier to achieving child survival goals is the slow decline in neonatal mortality that now represents 45% of the under-5 mortality. In newborn care, nurses are the primary caregivers in newborn settings and are essential in the delivery of safe and effective care. However, due to high patient workloads and limited resources, nurses may often consciously or unconsciously prioritise the care they provide resulting in some tasks being left undone or partially done (missed care). Missed care has been associated with poor patient outcomes in high-income countries. However, missed care, examined by direct observation, has not previously been the subject of research in low/middle-income countries. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The aim of this study is to quantify essential neonatal nursing care provided to newborns within newborn units. We will undertake a cross-sectional study using direct observational methods within newborn units in six health facilities in Nairobi City County across the public, private-for-profit and private-not-for-profit sectors. A total of 216 newborns will be observed between 1 September 2017 and 30 May 2018. Stratified random sampling will be used to select random 12-hour observation periods while purposive sampling will be used to identify newborns for direct observation. We will report the overall prevalence of care left undone, the common tasks that are left undone and describe any sharing of tasks with people not formally qualified to provide care. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study has been granted by the Kenya Medical Research Institute Scientific and Ethics Review Unit. Written informed consent will be sought from mothers and nurses. Findings from this work will be shared with the participating hospitals, an expert advisory group that comprises members involved in policy-making and more widely to the international community through conferences and peer-reviewed journals.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/normas , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/normas , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/provisão & distribução , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração
13.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 72, 2018 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective coverage requires that those in need can access skilled care supported by adequate resources. There are, however, few studies of effective coverage of facility-based neonatal care in low-income settings, despite the recognition that improving newborn survival is a global priority. METHODS: We used a detailed retrospective review of medical records for neonatal admissions to public, private not-for-profit (mission) and private-for-profit (private) sector facilities providing 24×7 inpatient neonatal care in Nairobi City County to estimate the proportion of small and sick newborns receiving nationally recommended care across six process domains. We used our findings to explore the relationship between facility measures of structure and process and estimate effective coverage. RESULTS: Of 33 eligible facilities, 28 (four public, six mission and 18 private), providing an estimated 98.7% of inpatient neonatal care in the county, agreed to partake. Data from 1184 admission episodes were collected. Overall performance was lowest (weighted mean score 0.35 [95% confidence interval or CI: 0.22-0.48] out of 1) for correct prescription of fluid and feed volumes and best (0.86 [95% CI: 0.80-0.93]) for documentation of demographic characteristics. Doses of gentamicin, when prescribed, were at least 20% higher than recommended in 11.7% cases. Larger (often public) facilities tended to have higher process and structural quality scores compared with smaller, predominantly private, facilities. We estimate effective coverage to be 25% (estimate range: 21-31%). These newborns received high-quality inpatient care, while almost half (44.5%) of newborns needed care but did not receive it and a further 30.4% of newborns received an inadequate service. CONCLUSIONS: Failure to receive services and gaps in quality of care both contribute to a shortfall in effective coverage in Nairobi City County. Three-quarters of small and sick newborns do not have access to high-quality facility-based care. Substantial improvements in effective coverage will be required to tackle high neonatal mortality in this urban setting with high levels of poverty.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pacientes Internados , Quênia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(2): e000645, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29616146

RESUMO

Neonatal mortality currently accounts for 45% of all child mortality in Kenya, standing at 22 per 1000 live births. Access to basic but high quality inpatient neonatal services for small and sick newborns will be key in reducing neonatal mortality. Neonatal inpatient care is reliant on nursing care, yet explicit nursing standards for such care do not currently exist in Kenya. We reviewed the Nursing Council of Kenya 'Manual of Clinical Procedures' to identify tasks relevant for the care of inpatient neonates. An expert advisory group comprising major stakeholders, policy-makers, trainers, and frontline health-workers was invited to a workshop with the purpose of defining tasks for which nurses are responsible and the minimum standard with which these tasks should be delivered to inpatient neonates in Kenyan hospitals. Despite differences in opinions at the beginning of the process, consensus was reached on the minimum standards of neonatal nursing. The key outcome was a comprehensive list and grouping of neonatal nursing task and the minimum frequency with which these tasks should be performed. Second, a simple categorisation of neonatal patients based on care needs was agreed. In addition, acceptable forms of task sharing with other cadres and the patient's family for the neonatal nursing tasks were agreed and described. The process was found to be acceptable to policy-makers and practitioners, who recognised the value of standards in neonatal nursing to improve the quality of neonatal inpatient care. Such standards could form the basis for audit and quality evaluation.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196585, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Appropriate demand for, and supply of, high quality essential neonatal care is key to improving newborn survival but evaluating such provision has received limited attention in low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, specific local data are needed to support healthcare planning for this vulnerable population. METHODS: We conducted health facility assessments between July 2015-April 2016, with retrospective review of admission events between 1st July 2014 and 30th June 2015, and used estimates of population-based incidence of neonatal conditions in Nairobi to explore access and evaluate readiness of public, private not-for-profit (mission), and private-for-profit (private) sector facilities providing 24/7 inpatient neonatal care in Nairobi City County. RESULTS: In total, 33 (4 public, 6 mission, and 23 private) facilities providing 24/7 inpatient neonatal care in Nairobi City County were identified, 31 were studied in detail. Four public sector facilities, including the only three facilities in which services were free, accounted for 71% (8,630/12,202) of all neonatal admissions. Large facilities (>900 annual admissions) with adequate infrastructure tended to have high bed occupancy (over 100% in two facilities), high mortality (15%), and high patient to nurse ratios (7-15 patients per nurse). Twenty-one smaller, predominantly private, facilities were judged insufficiently resourced to provide adequate care. In many of these, nurses provided newborn and maternity care simultaneously using resources shared across settings, newborn care experience was likely to be limited (<50 cases per year), there was often no resident clinician, and sick babies were often referred onwards. Results suggest 44% (9,764/21,966) of Nairobi's small and sick newborns may not access any of the identified facilities and a further 9% (2,026/21,966) access facilities judged to be inadequately equipped. CONCLUSION: Over 50% of Nairobi's sick newborns may not access a facility with adequate resources to provide essential care. A very high proportion of care accessed is provided by four public and one low cost mission facility; these face major challenges of high patient acuity (high mortality), high patient to nurse ratios, and often overcrowding. Reducing high neonatal mortality in this urban, predominantly poor, population will require effective long-term, multi-sectoral planning and investment.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Geografia , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitalização , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pacientes Internados , Quênia , Admissão do Paciente , Setor Privado , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , População Urbana
16.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 32, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29495961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing focus on the strength of primary health care systems in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). There are important roles for higher quality district hospital care within these systems. These hospitals are also sources of information of considerable importance to health systems, but this role, as with the wider roles of district hospitals, has been neglected. KEY MESSAGES: As we make efforts to develop higher quality health systems in LMIC we highlight the critical importance of district hospitals focusing here on how data on hospital mortality offers value: i) in understanding disease burden; ii) as part of surveillance and impact monitoring; iii) as an entry point to exploring system failures; and iv) as a lens to examine variability in health system performance and possibly as a measure of health system quality in its own right. However, attention needs paying to improving data quality by addressing reporting gaps and cause of death reporting. Ideally enabling the collection of basic, standardised patient level data might support at least simple case-mix and case-severity adjustment helping us understand variation. Better mortality data could support impact evaluation, benchmarking, exploration of links between health system inputs and outcomes and critical scrutiny of geographic variation in quality and outcomes of care. Improved hospital information is a neglected but broadly valuable public good. CONCLUSION: Accurate, complete and timely hospital mortality reporting is a key attribute of a functioning health system. It can support countries' efforts to transition to higher quality health systems in LMIC enabling national and local advocacy, accountability and action.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
17.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 94: 1-7, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared characteristics and outcomes of children enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing oral amoxicillin and benzyl penicillin for the treatment of chest indrawing pneumonia vs. children who received routine care to determine the external validity of the trial results. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among children aged 2-59 months admitted in six Kenyan hospitals. Data for nontrial participants were extracted from inpatient records upon conclusion of the RCT. Mortality among trial vs. nontrial participants was compared in multivariate models. RESULTS: A total of 1,709 children were included, of whom 527 were enrolled in the RCT and 1,182 received routine care. History of a wheeze was more common among trial participants (35.4% vs. 11.2%; P < 0.01), while dehydration was more common among nontrial participants (8.6% vs. 5.9%; P = 0.05). Other patient characteristics were balanced between the two groups. Among those with available outcome data, 14/1,140 (1.2%) nontrial participants died compared to 4/527 (0.8%) enrolled in the trial (adjusted odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval: 0.2-2.1). CONCLUSION: Patient characteristics were similar, and mortality was low among trial and nontrial participants. These findings support the revised World Health Organization treatment recommendations for chest indrawing pneumonia.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(4): e000468, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104769

RESUMO

Background: Audit and feedback (A&F) is widely used in healthcare but there are few examples of how to deploy it at scale in low-income countries. Establishing the Clinical Information Network (CIN) in Kenya provided an opportunity to examine the effect of A&F delivered as part of a wider set of activities to promote paediatric guideline adherence. Methods: We analysed data collected from medical records on discharge for children aged 2-59 months from 14 Kenyan hospitals in the CIN. Hospitals joined CIN in phases and for each we analysed their initial 25 months of participation that occurred between December 2013 and March 2016. A total of 34 indicators of adherence to recommendations were selected for evaluation each classified by form of feedback (passive, active and none) and type of task (simple or difficult documentation and those requiring cognitive work). Performance change was explored graphically and using generalised linear mixed models with attention given to the effects of time and use of a standardised paediatric admission record (PAR) form. Results: Data from 60 214 admissions were eligible for analysis. Adherence to recommendations across hospitals significantly improved for 24/34 indicators. Improvements were not obviously related to nature of feedback, may be related to task type and were related to PAR use in the case of documentation indicators. There was, however, marked variability in adoption and adherence to recommended practices across sites and indicators. Hospital-specific factors, low baseline performance and specific contextual changes appeared to influence the magnitude of change in specific cases. Conclusion: Our observational data suggest some change in multiple indicators of adherence to recommendations (aspects of quality of care) can be achieved in low-resource hospitals using A&F and simple job aides in the context of a wider network approach.

19.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(4): e000472, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177099

RESUMO

Universal access to quality newborn health services will be essential to meeting specific Sustainable Development Goals to reduce neonatal and overall child mortality. Data for decision making are crucial for planning services and monitoring progress in these endeavours. However, gaps in local population-level and facility-based data hinder estimation of health service requirements for effective planning in many low-income and middle-income settings. We worked with local policy makers and experts in Nairobi City County, an area with a population of four million and the highest neonatal mortality rate amongst counties in Kenya, to address this gap, and developed a systematic approach to use available data to support policy and planning. We developed a framework to identify major neonatal conditions likely to require inpatient neonatal care and identified estimates of incidence through literature review and expert consultation, to give an overall estimate for the year 2017 of the need for inpatient neonatal care, taking account of potential comorbidities. Our estimates suggest that almost 1 in 5 newborns (183/1000 live births) in Nairobi City County may need inpatient care, resulting in an estimated 24 161 newborns expected to require care in 2017. Our approach has been well received by local experts, who showed a willingness to work together and engage in the use of evidence in healthcare planning. The process highlighted the need for co-ordinated thinking on admission policy and referral care especially in a pluralistic provider environment helping build further appetite for data-informed decision making.

20.
BMC Pediatr ; 17(1): 99, 2017 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospital mortality data can inform planning for health interventions and may help optimize resource allocation if they are reliable and appropriately interpreted. However such data are often not available in low income countries including Kenya. METHODS: Data from the Clinical Information Network covering 12 county hospitals' paediatric admissions aged 2-59 months for the periods September 2013 to March 2015 were used to describe mortality across differing contexts and to explore whether simple clinical characteristics used to classify severity of illness in common treatment guidelines are consistently associated with inpatient mortality. Regression models accounting for hospital identity and malaria prevalence (low or high) were used. Multiple imputation for missing data was based on a missing at random assumption with sensitivity analyses based on pattern mixture missing not at random assumptions. RESULTS: The overall cluster adjusted crude mortality rate across hospitals was 6 · 2% with an almost 5 fold variation across sites (95% CI 4 · 9 to 7 · 8; range 2 · 1% - 11 · 0%). Hospital identity was significantly associated with mortality. Clinical features included in guidelines for common diseases to assess severity of illness were consistently associated with mortality in multivariable analyses (AROC =0 · 86). CONCLUSION: All-cause mortality is highly variable across hospitals and associated with clinical risk factors identified in disease specific guidelines. A panel of these clinical features may provide a basic common data framework as part of improved health information systems to support evaluations of quality and outcomes of care at scale and inform health system strengthening efforts.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais de Condado/estatística & dados numéricos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais de Condado/normas , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
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