Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 135
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In a screened population, breast cancer-specific mortality is lower for screen-detected versus symptom-detected breast cancers; however, it is unclear whether this association varies by follow-up time and/or tumor characteristics. To further understand the prognostic utility of mode of detection, we examined its association with breast cancer-specific mortality, overall and by follow-up time, estrogen receptor status, tumor size, and grade. METHODS: In the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, 3975 routinely screened women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (1992-2015). Among 2686 screen-detected and 1289 symptom-detected breast cancers, 206 and 209 breast cancer deaths, respectively, occurred up to 24 years post diagnosis. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Controlling for prognostic factors, symptom detection was associated with higher risk of breast cancer-specific death up to 5 years after diagnosis (HR≤5years = 1.88, 95% CI 1.21-2.91) this association was attenuated in subsequent follow-up (HR>5years = 1.26, 95% CI 0.98-1.63). Within tumor characteristic strata, there was a 1.3-2.7-fold higher risk of breast cancer death associated with symptom-detected cancers ≤ 5 years of follow-up, although associations were only significant for women with tumors < 2 cm (HR≤5years = 2.42, 95% CI 1.19-4.93) and for women with grade 1 or 2 tumors (HR≤5years = 2.72, 95% CI 1.33-5.57). In subsequent follow-up, associations were closer to the null. CONCLUSIONS: Screen detection is a powerful prognostic factor for short-term survival. Among women who survived at least 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis, other clinical factors may be more predictive of breast cancer survival.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
4.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.

6.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 99, 2018 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has established that the prevalence of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants across all of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) Secondary Findings (SF) genes is approximately 0.8-5%. We investigated the prevalence of P/LP variants in the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes in a family-based cancer research cohort (n = 1173) and in cancer-free ethnicity-matched controls (n = 982). METHODS: We used InterVar to classify variants and subsequently conducted a manual review to further examine variants of unknown significance (VUS). RESULTS: In the 24 genes on the ACMG SF v2.0 list associated with a cancer phenotype, we observed 8 P/LP unique variants (8 individuals; 0.8%) in controls and 11 P/LP unique variants (14 individuals; 1.2%) in cases, a non-significant difference. We reviewed 115 VUS. The median estimated per-variant review time required was 30 min; the first variant within a gene took significantly (p = 0.0009) longer to review (median = 60 min) compared with subsequent variants (median = 30 min). The concordance rate was 83.3% for the variants examined by two reviewers. CONCLUSION: The 115 VUS required database and literature review, a time- and labor-intensive process hampered by the difficulty in interpreting conflicting P/LP determinations. By rigorously investigating the 24 ACMG SF v2.0 cancer genes, our work establishes a benchmark P/LP variant prevalence rate in a familial cancer cohort and controls.


Assuntos
Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Cancer Res ; 78(20): 6011-6021, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185547

RESUMO

Various subtypes of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 exhibit etiologic differences in reproductive factors, but associations with other risk factors are inconsistent. To clarify etiologic heterogeneity, we pooled data from nine cohort studies. Multivariable, joint Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for molecular subtypes. Of 606,025 women, 11,741 invasive breast cancers with complete tissue markers developed during follow-up: 8,700 luminal A-like (ER+ or PR+/HER2-), 1,368 luminal B-like (ER+ or PR+/HER2+), 521 HER2-enriched (ER-/PR-/HER2+), and 1,152 triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) disease. Ever parous compared with never was associated with lower risk of luminal A-like (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.73-0.83) and luminal B-like (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87) as well as a higher risk of triple-negative disease (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.50; P value for overall tumor heterogeneity < 0.001). Direct associations with luminal-like, but not HER2-enriched or triple-negative, tumors were found for age at first birth, years between menarche and first birth, and age at menopause (P value for overall tumor heterogeneity < 0.001). Age-specific associations with baseline body mass index differed for risk of luminal A-like and triple-negative breast cancer (P value for tumor heterogeneity = 0.02). These results provide the strongest evidence for etiologic heterogeneity of breast cancer to date from prospective studies.Significance: These findings comprise the largest study of prospective data to date and contribute to the accumulating evidence that etiological heterogeneity exists in breast carcinogenesis. Cancer Res; 78(20); 6011-21. ©2018 AACR.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117163

RESUMO

Cadmium and lead have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, their associations with breast cancer risk are unknown despite their persistence in the environment and ubiquitous human exposure. We examined associations of circulating levels of cadmium and lead with breast cancer risk in three case-control studies nested within the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) LifeLink Cohort, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Italy (EPIC-Italy) and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) cohorts. Metal levels were measured in stored erythrocytes from 1,435 cases and 1,433 controls using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models with each study result weighted by the within- and between-study variances. I2 values were calculated to estimate proportion of between study variation. Using common cut-points, cadmium levels were not associated with breast cancer risk in the CPS-II cohort (continuous RR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.76-1.34), but were inversely associated with risk in the EPIC- Italy (continuous RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.03) and NSHDS cohorts (continuous RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97). The inverse association was also evident in the meta-analysis (continuous RR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.69-1.01) with low between-study heterogeneity. Large differences in lead level distributions precluded a meta-analysis of their association with breast cancer risk; no associations were found in the three studies. Adult cadmium and lead levels were not associated with higher risk of breast cancer in our large meta-analysis.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3166, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093612

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.

10.
J Nutr ; 148(6): 932-943, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767735

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies suggest that untargeted metabolomics is a promising tool to identify novel biomarkers of individual foods. However, few large cross-sectional studies with comprehensive data on habitual diet and circulating metabolites have been conducted. Objective: We aimed to identify potential food biomarkers and evaluate their predictive accuracy. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of consumption of 91 food groups or items, assessed by a 152-item food-frequency questionnaire, in relation to 1186 serum metabolites measured by mass spectrometry-based platforms from 1369 nonsmoking postmenopausal women (mean age = 68.3 y). Diet-metabolite associations were selected by Pearson's partial correlation analysis (P < 4.63 × 10-7, |r| > 0.2). The predictive accuracy of the selected food metabolites was evaluated from the area under the curve (AUC) calculated from receiver operating characteristic analysis conducted among women in the top and bottom quintiles of dietary intake. Results: We identified 379 diet-metabolite associations. Forty-two food groups or items were correlated with 199 serum metabolites. We replicated 63 metabolites as biomarkers of habitual food intake reported in previous cross-sectional studies. Among those not previously shown to be associated with habitual diet, several are biologically plausible and were reported in acute feeding studies including: banana and dopamine 3-O-sulfate (r = 0.34, AUC = 76%) and dopamine 4-O-sulfate (r = 0.33, AUC = 74%), garlic and alliin (r = 0.24, AUC = 69%), N-acetylalliin (r = 0.27, AUC = 70%), and S-allylcysteine (r = 0.23, AUC = 69). Two unannotated metabolites were the strongest predictors for dark fish (X-02269, r = 0.51, AUC = 94%) and coffee intake (X-21442, r = 0.62, AUC = 98%). Conclusion: In this comprehensive, cross-sectional analysis of habitual food intake and serum metabolites among postmenopausal women, we identified several potentially novel food biomarkers and replicated others. Our findings contribute to the limited literature on food-based biomarkers and highlight the significant and promising role that large cohort studies with archived blood samples could play in this field. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03282812.

11.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 68(4): 284-296, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29809280

RESUMO

In 2018, there will be approximately 22,240 new cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed and 14,070 ovarian cancer deaths in the United States. Herein, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of ovarian cancer occurrence based on incidence data from nationwide population-based cancer registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. The status of early detection strategies is also reviewed. In the United States, the overall ovarian cancer incidence rate declined from 1985 (16.6 per 100,000) to 2014 (11.8 per 100,000) by 29% and the mortality rate declined between 1976 (10.0 per 100,000) and 2015 (6.7 per 100,000) by 33%. Ovarian cancer encompasses a heterogenous group of malignancies that vary in etiology, molecular biology, and numerous other characteristics. Ninety percent of ovarian cancers are epithelial, the most common being serous carcinoma, for which incidence is highest in non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) (5.2 per 100,000) and lowest in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (APIs) (3.4 per 100,000). Notably, however, APIs have the highest incidence of endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas, which occur at younger ages and help explain comparable epithelial cancer incidence for APIs and NHWs younger than 55 years. Most serous carcinomas are diagnosed at stage III (51%) or IV (29%), for which the 5-year cause-specific survival for patients diagnosed during 2007 through 2013 was 42% and 26%, respectively. For all stages of epithelial cancer combined, 5-year survival is highest in APIs (57%) and lowest in NHBs (35%), who have the lowest survival for almost every stage of diagnosis across cancer subtypes. Moreover, survival has plateaued in NHBs for decades despite increasing in NHWs, from 40% for cases diagnosed during 1992 through 1994 to 47% during 2007 through 2013. Progress in reducing ovarian cancer incidence and mortality can be accelerated by reducing racial disparities and furthering knowledge of etiology and tumorigenesis to facilitate strategies for prevention and early detection. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:284-296. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 142(6): 1182-1188, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29114882

RESUMO

We assessed the association between 1,414 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in synthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1, and risk of breast cancer in situ (BCIS), with the aim of determining whether any of these were disease specific. This was carried out using 1,062 BCIS cases and 10,126 controls as well as 6,113 invasive breast cancer cases from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). Three SNPs showed at least one nominally significant association in homozygous minor versus homozygous major models. ACVR2A-rs2382112 (ORhom = 3.05, 95%CI = 1.72-5.44, Phom = 1.47 × 10-4 ), MAST2-rs12124649 (ORhom = 1.73, 95% CI =1.18-2.54, Phom = 5.24 × 10-3 ), and INSR-rs10500204 (ORhom = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.44-2.67, Phom =1.68 × 10-5 ) were associated with increased risk of BCIS; however, only the latter association was significant after correcting for multiple testing. Furthermore, INSR-rs10500204 was more strongly associated with the risk of BCIS than invasive disease in case-only analyses using the homozygous minor versus homozygous major model (ORhom = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.30-2.44, Phom = 3.23 × 10-4 ). The SNP INSR-rs10500204 is located in an intron of the INSR gene and is likely to affect binding of the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. The PML gene is known as a tumor suppressor and growth regulator in cancer. However, it is not clear on what pathway the A-allele of rs10500204 could operate to influence the binding of the protein. Hence, functional studies are warranted to investigate this further.


Assuntos
Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/genética , Antígenos CD/genética , Carcinoma de Mama in situ/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Idoso , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteína da Leucemia Promielocítica/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(1): 113-115, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284671

RESUMO

Background: The glycemic potential and energy density (ED) of diet may influence endometrial cancer risk. Although glycemic load (GL) is considered a probable risk factor for endometrial cancer, no studies have evaluated the association of total dietary ED with risk.Methods: We evaluated associations of ED, GL, and glycemic index (GI) with postmenopausal endometrial cancer incidence. Analyses included 30,997 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of cancer or diabetes, who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999 and were followed for cancer incidence through June 2013. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for quartiles (Q) of total dietary ED, GL, and GI in relation to endometrial cancer incidence using Cox proportional hazards regression models.Results: During a median follow-up time of 13.6 years, 425 endometrial cancer cases were identified. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g [interquartile range (IQR) = 1.3-1.7 kcal/g]. Median (IQR) GL and GI were 113.7 (100.5-126.8) and 52.5 (50.4-54.5), respectively. After adjustment for age, use of hormone replacement therapy, physical activity, and body mass index (kg/m2), neither ED, GL, nor GI were associated with endometrial cancer risk.Conclusions: We found no associations of ED, GL, or GI with endometrial cancer risk.Impact: These results do not support an association between total dietary ED, GL, or GI and risk of postmenopausal endometrial cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(1); 113-5. ©2017 AACR.

14.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 167(1): 133-145, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28856470

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nearly half of the 3.5 million female breast cancer survivors in the US are aged 65 years or older at diagnosis, yet little is known about associations of obesity and physical activity with breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) among older survivors. METHODS: Between 1992 and 2013, 5254 women in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort were diagnosed with local or regional breast cancer among whom 1771 deaths (505 breast cancer deaths) occurred. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine associations of pre- and post-diagnosis body mass index (BMI) and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MET-hours/week) with mortality outcomes stratified by age at diagnosis (<65, ≥65 years). RESULTS: Among women ≥65 years of age at diagnosis (n = 4226), pre- and post-diagnosis BMI (per 5 kg/m2) were associated with a higher risk of BCSM (pre-diagnosis, HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.14-1.41; post-diagnosis, HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04, 1.36); neither pre- nor post-diagnosis physical activity was associated with BCSM. Among women <65 years of age at diagnosis (n = 1028), BMI at both time points were not significantly associated with BCSM; however, there was a significant inverse trend of post-diagnosis physical activity with BCSM (P-trend = 0.01). Among both age groups, BMI and physical activity, regardless of when assessed, were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI, pre- or post-diagnosis, was associated with a higher risk of BCSM in older patients, independent of comorbidities and stage at diagnosis. Weight management should be discussed even with women aged 65 years or older to lower rates of BCSM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Exercício , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mama/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
15.
Metabolomics ; 14(10): 129, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830406

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Processing delays after blood collection is a common pre-analytical condition in large epidemiologic studies. It is critical to evaluate the suitability of blood samples with processing delays for metabolomics analysis as it is a potential source of variation that could attenuate associations between metabolites and disease outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of metabolites over extended processing delays up to 48 h. We also aimed to test the reproducibility of the metabolomics platform. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 18 healthy volunteers. Blood was stored in the refrigerator and processed for plasma at 0, 15, 30, and 48 h after collection. Plasma samples were metabolically profiled using an untargeted, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) platform. Reproducibility of 1012 metabolites over processing delays and reproducibility of the platform were determined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with variance components estimated from mixed-effects models. RESULTS: The majority of metabolites (approximately 70% of 1012) were highly reproducible (ICCs ≥ 0.75) over 15-, 30- or 48-h processing delays. Nucleotides, energy-related metabolites, peptides, and carbohydrates were most affected by processing delays. The platform was highly reproducible with a median technical ICC of 0.84 (interquartile range 0.68-0.93). CONCLUSION: Most metabolites measured by the UPLC-MS/MS platform show acceptable reproducibility up to 48-h processing delays. Metabolites of certain pathways need to be interpreted cautiously in relation to outcomes in epidemiologic studies with prolonged processing delays.

16.
Metabolomics ; 14(7): 97, 2018 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830410

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Postmenopausal hormone use is linked to several health outcomes and the risk associated with some may differ depending on whether estrogen is used alone or in combination with progestin. OBJECTIVE: Metabolomic analyses of postmenopausal hormone use and differences between hormone regimes was done to identify metabolites associated with each type of hormone treatment. METHODS: Untargeted metabolomics analysis was done on serum from 1336 women enrolled in the Cancer Prevention II Nutrition Cohort. Levels of 781 named metabolites were compared between 667 nonusers with 332 estrogen-only and with 337 estrogen plus progestin users using linear regression. Metabolite levels were also compared between estrogen-only and estrogen plus progestin users. RESULTS: Compared to nonusers, 276 metabolites were statistically significantly (P < 6.40 × 10- 5) associated with estrogen-only use and 222 were associated with estrogen plus progestin use. The metabolites associated with both types of hormones included numerous lipids, acyl carnitines, and amino acids as well as the thyroid hormone thyroxine and the oncometabolite fumarate. The 65 metabolites that differed significantly between estrogen-only and estrogen plus progestin users included 19 steroids and 12 lipids that contained the bioactive fatty acid arachidonic acid. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that postmenopausal hormone use influences metabolic pathways linked to a variety of cellular processes, including the regulation of metabolism and stress responses, energy production, and inflammation. The differential association of numerous lipids which influence cellular signaling suggests that differences in signal transduction may contribute to the disparate risks for some diseases between estrogen-only and estrogen plus progestin users.

17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(6): 1814-1822, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232439

RESUMO

Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.11, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.22, P = 0.03). We observed no association for ER-negative cases (HR = 1.00, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% CI 0.89-1.13, P = 0.95). Conclusions: Our findings suggest a causal effect of increased BMI on reduced breast cancer survival for ER-positive breast cancer. There is no evidence of a causal effect of higher BMI on survival for ER-negative breast cancer cases.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Causalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metanálise como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 28(12): 1357-1368, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940119

RESUMO

Physical activity has been associated with lower lung cancer risk in numerous studies with estimates ranging from 20 to 50% lower risk in the most versus the least active study participants. Underweight and obesity have also been associated with lower lung cancer risk, with a nonlinear, inverted U-shaped relationship. However, associations of physical activity and obesity with lung cancer are likely significantly confounded by smoking since individuals who smoke are generally less active and leaner than non-smokers, but few studies have examined these associations stratified by smoking status. Using data from 162,679 men and women who were cancer-free at enrollment (1992-1993) in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, we examined associations of baseline recreational physical activity (MET-hours per week; none, 0.1 to <8.75 (reference), 8.75-17.4, 17.5+ MET-hours/week), baseline body mass index (BMI, weight (kg)/height (m2); <18.5, 18.5-22.0 (reference), 22.1-24.9, 25.0-29.9, 30.0+ kg/m2), and waist circumference (measured in 1997; sex-specific quartiles) in relation to lung cancer risk stratified by smoking status and years since quitting among former smokers (never, current, former <10 years, former, 10-19 years, former 20+ years). Cox proportional hazards modeling computed hazard rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) while adjusting for potential confounders. During 2,384,546 person years of follow-up time, 4,669 men and women were diagnosed with lung cancer (453 among never smokers; 1,452 among current smokers; 1,194 among former smokers <10 years since quitting; 725 among former 10-19 years; and 845 among former 20+ years). Physical activity was not associated with lung cancer risk within any of the smoking strata except in former smokers less than 10 years since quitting (RR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.67-0.90 for 17.5+ MET-hours/week). Similarly, BMI was inversely associated with lung cancer in former smokers less than 10 years since quitting (RR = 0.68; 95% CI 0.55-0.84 for 30+ kg/m2) and more modestly in former smokers who quit 10-19 and 20+ years ago. Waist circumference was not associated with lung cancer risk in any smoking category. While being physically active and maintaining a healthy body weight are important for prevention of various chronic diseases, including several types of cancer, our results suggest that physical activity, BMI, and waist circumference are not associated with lung cancer risk, regardless of smoking status.


Assuntos
Exercício , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
19.
Hum Mutat ; 38(12): 1723-1730, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861920

RESUMO

Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal-dominant cancer predisposition disorder associated with pathogenic germline variants in TP53, with a high penetrance over an individual's lifetime. The actual population prevalence of pathogenic germline TP53 mutations is still unclear, most likely due to biased selection of cancer affected families. The aim of this study was to estimate the population prevalence of potentially pathogenic TP53 exonic variants in three sequencing databases, totaling 63,983 unrelated individuals. Potential pathogenicity was defined using an original algorithm combining bioinformatic prediction tools, suggested clinical significance, and functional data. We identified 34 different potentially pathogenic TP53 variants in 131 out of 63,983 individuals (0.2%). Twenty-eight (82%) of these variants fell within the DNA-binding domain of TP53, with an enrichment for specific variants that were not previously identified as LFS mutation hotspots, such as the p.R290H and p.N235S variants. Our findings reveal that the population prevalence of potentially pathogenic TP53 variants may be up to 10 times higher than previously estimated from family-based studies. These results point to the need for further studies aimed at evaluating cancer penetrance modifiers as well as the risk associated between cancer and rare TP53 variants.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Variação Genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Família , Feminino , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância , Prevalência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Int J Cancer ; 141(9): 1830-1840, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670784

RESUMO

Investigating the most likely causal variants identified by fine-mapping analyses may improve the power to detect gene-environment interactions. We assessed the interplay between 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified by genetic fine-scale mapping of susceptibility loci and 11 epidemiological breast cancer risk factors in relation to breast cancer. Analyses were conducted on up to 58,573 subjects (26,968 cases and 31,605 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, in one of the largest studies of its kind. Analyses were carried out separately for estrogen receptor (ER) positive (ER+) and ER negative (ER-) disease. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP) was computed to assess the noteworthiness of the results. Four potential gene-environment interactions were identified as noteworthy (BFDP < 0.80) when assuming a true prior interaction probability of 0.01. The strongest interaction result in relation to overall breast cancer risk was found between CFLAR-rs7558475 and current smoking (ORint = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67-0.88, pint = 1.8 × 10-4 ). The interaction with the strongest statistical evidence was found between 5q14-rs7707921 and alcohol consumption (ORint =1.36, 95% CI: 1.16-1.59, pint = 1.9 × 10-5 ) in relation to ER- disease risk. The remaining two gene-environment interactions were also identified in relation to ER- breast cancer risk and were found between 3p21-rs6796502 and age at menarche (ORint = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-1.43, pint =1.8 × 10-4 ) and between 8q23-rs13267382 and age at first full-term pregnancy (ORint = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.95, pint = 5.2 × 10-4 ). While these results do not suggest any strong gene-environment interactions, our results may still be useful to inform experimental studies. These may in turn, shed light on the potential interactions observed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína Reguladora de Apoptosis Semelhante a CASP8 e FADD/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA