Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 149
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for women at high risk of symptom-detected breast cancers that were missed by screening would enable targeting of enhanced screening regimens. To this end, we examined associations of breast cancer risk factors by mode of detection in screened women from the Cancer Prevention Study (CPS)-II Nutrition Cohort. METHODS: Among 77,206 women followed for a median of 14.8 years, 2711 screen-detected and 1281 symptom-detected breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Multivariable-adjusted associations were estimated using joint Cox proportional hazards regression models with person-time calculated contingent on screening. RESULTS: Factors associated with higher risks of symptom-detected and screen-detected breast cancer included current combined hormone therapy (HT) use (HR 2.07, 95% CI 1.72-2.48 and 1.45, 1.27-1.65, respectively) and history of benign breast disease (1.85, 1.64-2.08 and 1.43, 1.31-1.55, respectively). Current estrogen-only HT use was associated with symptom-detected (1.40, 1.15-1.71) but not screen-detected (0.95, 0.83-1.09) breast cancer. Higher risk of screen-detected but not symptom-detected breast cancer was observed for obese vs. normal body mass index (1.22, 1.01-1.48 and 0.76, 0.56-1.01, respectively), per 3 h/day sitting time (1.10, 1.04-1.16 and 0.97, 0.89-1.06, respectively), and ≥ 2 drinks per day vs. nondrinker (1.40, 1.16-1.69 and 1.27, 0.97-1.66, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in risk factors for symptom-detected vs. screen-detected breast cancer were observed and most notably, use of combined and estrogen-only HT and a history of benign breast disease were associated with increased risk of symptomatic detected breast cancer. IMPACT: If confirmed, these data suggest that such women may benefit from more intensive screening to facilitate early detection.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 307-319, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers. METHODS: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e. inverse-variance meta-analysis, co-localization, and M-values), and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data. RESULTS: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers (rG = 0.43, P = 2.66 × 10-5). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers (PBonferroni < 2.4 × 10-9). In addition, four novel sub-genome wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12 and 11q13.3 were identified (P < 5 × 10-7). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation. CONCLUSION: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis. IMPACT: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Excess body fatness and physical activity independently influence the risk of several types of cancer. However, few studies have examined whether physical activity mitigates the excess risk associated with higher body mass index (BMI). METHODS: We examined the individual and joint associations between BMI (kg/m2) and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, MET-hours/week) with the risk of three established excess body fatness-related cancers (breast, colon, and endometrial) among 43,795 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort (1992/1993-2015). Further exclusions for women without an intact uterus resulted in 31,805 women for endometrial cancer analyses. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with interaction terms to assess multiplicative interaction. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was calculated to assess additive interaction. RESULTS: BMI and MVPA were individually associated with breast and endometrial cancer risk, but only BMI was associated with colon cancer risk. In joint analyses, increasing levels of MVPA did not lower the risk of these cancers among obese women. For example, compared to the common referent (BMI 18.5- < 25 kg/m2, MVPA > 0- < 7.5 MET-hours/week), BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among women with low MVPA (> 0-< 7.5 MET-hours/week: HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.22 - 1.67) and high MVPA (≥ 15 MET-hours/week: HR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.25 - 1.87; RERI = 0.20, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.54, multiplicative Pinteraction = 0.64). CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that leisure-time physical activity mitigates the excess risk associated with higher BMI for risk of breast, endometrial, or colon cancer among postmenopausal women.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2383-2386, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence of a potential inverse association between coffee, particularly caffeinated coffee, consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, and few studies have examined this association by tumor hormone receptor status. To provide further evidence, we examined total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption in relation to postmenopausal invasive breast cancer incidence overall, and by tumor estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) subtype. METHODS: Among 57,075 postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort who were cancer free and reported coffee intake in 1999, we identified 2,980 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during follow-up through June 2015. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Neither total, caffeinated, nor decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with invasive breast cancer risk; HRs (95% CIs) comparing consumption of ≥2 cups per day with <1 cup per month were 0.99 (0.89-1.11), 0.96 (0.87-1.06), and 1.06 (0.95-1.19), respectively. Similarly, coffee consumption was not associated with risk of hormone receptor-positive (ER+ or PR+) or hormone receptor-negative (ER- and PR-) breast tumors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support an association between coffee consumption and invasive breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. IMPACT: This large prospective study contributes to the limited evidence on coffee consumption and breast cancer risk, finding no association overall or by tumor receptor subtype.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.

7.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3110-3118, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506449

RESUMO

Cadmium and lead are persistent environmental toxins that are known or probable carcinogens, based on evidence for causality for nonhematologic cancers. Associations of these metals with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are unknown but biologically plausible. To examine the associations of circulating levels of lead and cadmium exposure with risk of B-cell NHL (B-NHL) and multiple myeloma, we conducted a nested case-control study among 299 incident B-cell NHLs and 76 MM cases within the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II NC). Each case was incidence-density matched to two eligible controls on age, race, sex and blood draw date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lymphoid malignancies overall and stratified by subtype. We observed a significant positive association between high erythrocyte lead concentration and risk of lymphoid malignancies overall (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33 per 17.6 µg/L (1 standard deviation [SD])) and follicular lymphoma in particular (RR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.80 per SD). In contrast, there was no association between erythrocyte cadmium and risk of B-NHL (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.75-1.06 per 0.37 µg/L [1 SD]), or any B-NHL subtypes; but a strong inverse association with MM risk (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, per SD). Results from our study suggest a positive association between erythrocyte lead level and risk of lymphoid malignancies and a possible inverse association between cadmium and myeloma. Additional research is needed to confirm and further explore these findings.

8.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(1): 95-103, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802322

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Histopathologic grade provides an integrated measure of biologic features which affects cancer prognosis. In invasive ductal breast cancer (IDBC), the grade of the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive components are usually concordant, suggesting grade is established early in tumorigenesis and may be linked to etiologic factors. In this study, we used prospectively collected data from postmenopausal women in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort to compare risk factor associations among low-grade and high-grade DCIS, as well as low-grade and high-grade IDBC. METHODS: Among 73,825 cancer-free women at enrollment in the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort in 1992-1993 (mean age: 62.1 years), we verified 802 diagnosed with DCIS (C50 8500/2; n = 430 low-grade and 372 high-grade) and 3,125 with IDBC (C50 8500/3; n = 2,221 low-grade and 904 high-grade) through June 2013. Person-time contribution was conditional on screening mammograms self-reported on biennial surveys. Multivariable-adjusted joint Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A personal history of benign breast disease was more strongly associated with higher risk of low-grade DCIS (HR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.81-2.67; p for heterogeneity = 0.0004) than high-grade DCIS. Consumption of two or more alcoholic drinks/day was only associated with a higher risk of low-grade IDBC (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.33-1.88; p for heterogeneity = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest heterogeneity by grade for breast cancer etiology. Identification of potential risk factor differences among low-grade and high-grade DCIS and IDBC may help to clarify associations, and ultimately, improve breast cancer risk prediction models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/prevenção & controle , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/prevenção & controle , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pós-Menopausa , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(9): 929-937, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess body weight is an established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but it is unknown if weight loss reduces risk. METHODS: Associations between weight change and risk of breast cancer were examined among women aged 50 years and older in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In 10 cohorts, weight assessed on three surveys was used to examine weight change patterns over approximately 10 years (interval 1 median = 5.2 years; interval 2 median = 4.0 years). Sustained weight loss was defined as no less than 2 kg lost in interval 1 that was not regained in interval 2. Among 180 885 women, 6930 invasive breast cancers were identified during follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with women with stable weight (±2 kg), women with sustained weight loss had a lower risk of breast cancer. This risk reduction was linear and specific to women not using postmenopausal hormones (>2-4.5 kg lost: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.96; >4.5-<9 kg lost: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.90; ≥9 kg lost: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.93). Women who lost at least 9 kg and gained back some (but not all) of it were also at a lower risk of breast cancer. Other patterns of weight loss and gain over the two intervals had a similar risk of breast cancer to women with stable weight. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sustained weight loss, even modest amounts, is associated with lower breast cancer risk for women aged 50 years and older. Breast cancer prevention may be a strong weight-loss motivator for the two-thirds of American women who are overweight or obese.

11.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 32, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583272

RESUMO

Among women diagnosed with stage I-IIIa, node-negative, hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer (BC), Oncotype DX recurrence scores (ODX RS) inform chemotherapy treatment decisions. Differences in recurrence scores or testing may contribute to racial disparities in BC mortality among women with HR+ tumors. We identified 12,081 non-Hispanic White (NHW) and non-Hispanic Black (NHB) BC patients in Georgia (2010-2014), eligible to receive an ODX RS. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of chemotherapy receipt by race and ODX RS. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) comparing BC mortality rates by race and recurrence score. Receipt of Oncotype testing was consistent between NHB and NHW women. Receipt of chemotherapy was generally comparable within strata of ODX RS-although NHB women with low scores were slightly more likely to receive chemotherapy (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.77, 1.75), and NHB women with high scores less likely to receive chemotherapy (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.48, 1.24), than NHW counterparts. NHB women with a low recurrence score had the largest hazard of BC mortality (HR = 2.47 95% CI 1.22, 4.99) compared to NHW women. Our data suggest that additional tumor heterogeneity, or other downstream treatment factors, not captured by ODX, may be drivers of racial disparities in HR+ BC.

12.
CA Cancer J Clin ; 69(6): 438-451, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577379

RESUMO

This article is the American Cancer Society's biennial update on female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Over the most recent 5-year period (2012-2016), the breast cancer incidence rate increased slightly by 0.3% per year, largely because of rising rates of local stage and hormone receptor-positive disease. In contrast, the breast cancer death rate continues to decline, dropping 40% from 1989 to 2017 and translating to 375,900 breast cancer deaths averted. Notably, the pace of the decline has slowed from an annual decrease of 1.9% during 1998 through 2011 to 1.3% during 2011 through 2017, largely driven by the trend in white women. Consequently, the black-white disparity in breast cancer mortality has remained stable since 2011 after widening over the past 3 decades. Nevertheless, the death rate remains 40% higher in blacks (28.4 vs 20.3 deaths per 100,000) despite a lower incidence rate (126.7 vs 130.8); this disparity is magnified among black women aged <50 years, who have a death rate double that of whites. In the most recent 5-year period (2013-2017), the death rate declined in Hispanics (2.1% per year), blacks (1.5%), whites (1.0%), and Asians/Pacific Islanders (0.8%) but was stable in American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, by state, breast cancer mortality rates are no longer declining in Nebraska overall; in Colorado and Wisconsin in black women; and in Nebraska, Texas, and Virginia in white women. Breast cancer was the leading cause of cancer death in women (surpassing lung cancer) in four Southern and two Midwestern states among blacks and in Utah among whites during 2016-2017. Declines in breast cancer mortality could be accelerated by expanding access to high-quality prevention, early detection, and treatment services to all women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 679-689, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In a screened population, breast cancer-specific mortality is lower for screen-detected versus symptom-detected breast cancers; however, it is unclear whether this association varies by follow-up time and/or tumor characteristics. To further understand the prognostic utility of mode of detection, we examined its association with breast cancer-specific mortality, overall and by follow-up time, estrogen receptor status, tumor size, and grade. METHODS: In the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, 3975 routinely screened women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (1992-2015). Among 2686 screen-detected and 1289 symptom-detected breast cancers, 206 and 209 breast cancer deaths, respectively, occurred up to 24 years post diagnosis. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Controlling for prognostic factors, symptom detection was associated with higher risk of breast cancer-specific death up to 5 years after diagnosis (HR≤5years = 1.88, 95% CI 1.21-2.91) this association was attenuated in subsequent follow-up (HR>5years = 1.26, 95% CI 0.98-1.63). Within tumor characteristic strata, there was a 1.3-2.7-fold higher risk of breast cancer death associated with symptom-detected cancers ≤ 5 years of follow-up, although associations were only significant for women with tumors < 2 cm (HR≤5years = 2.42, 95% CI 1.19-4.93) and for women with grade 1 or 2 tumors (HR≤5years = 2.72, 95% CI 1.33-5.57). In subsequent follow-up, associations were closer to the null. CONCLUSIONS: Screen detection is a powerful prognostic factor for short-term survival. Among women who survived at least 5 years after breast cancer diagnosis, other clinical factors may be more predictive of breast cancer survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mamografia , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Carga Tumoral
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
17.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(3): pkz053, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328557

RESUMO

Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer (BC) outcomes persist where non-Hispanic black (NHB) women are more likely to die from BC than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women, and the extent of this disparity varies geographically. We evaluated tumor, treatment, and patient characteristics that contribute to racial differences in BC mortality in Atlanta, Georgia, where the disparity was previously characterized as especially large. Methods: We identified 4943 NHW and 3580 NHB women in the Georgia Cancer Registry with stage I-IV BC diagnoses in Atlanta (2010-2014). We used Cox proportional hazard regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing NHB vs NHW BC mortality by tumor, treatment, and patient characteristics on the additive and multiplicative scales. We additionally estimated the mediating effects of these characteristics on the association between race and BC mortality. Results: At diagnosis, NHB women were younger-with higher stage, node-positive, and triple-negative tumors relative to NHW women. In age-adjusted models, NHB women with luminal A disease had a 2.43 times higher rate of BC mortality compared to their NHW counterparts (95% CI = 1.99 to 2.97). High socioeconomic status (SES) NHB women had more than twice the mortality rates than their white counterparts (HR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.65 to 4.33). Racial disparities among women without insurance, in the lowest SES index, or diagnosed with triple-negative BC were less pronounced. Conclusions: In Atlanta, the largest racial disparities are observed in luminal tumors and most pronounced among women of high SES. More research is needed to understand drivers of disparities within these treatable features.

19.
Int J Cancer ; 144(5): 1010-1016, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117163

RESUMO

Cadmium and lead have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, their associations with breast cancer risk are unknown despite their persistence in the environment and ubiquitous human exposure. We examined associations of circulating levels of cadmium and lead with breast cancer risk in three case-control studies nested within the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) LifeLink Cohort, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Italy (EPIC-Italy) and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) cohorts. Metal levels were measured in stored erythrocytes from 1,435 cases and 1,433 controls using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models with each study result weighted by the within- and between-study variances. I2 values were calculated to estimate proportion of between study variation. Using common cut-points, cadmium levels were not associated with breast cancer risk in the CPS-II cohort (continuous RR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.76-1.34), but were inversely associated with risk in the EPIC- Italy (continuous RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.03) and NSHDS cohorts (continuous RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97). The inverse association was also evident in the meta-analysis (continuous RR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.69-1.01) with low between-study heterogeneity. Large differences in lead level distributions precluded a meta-analysis of their association with breast cancer risk; no associations were found in the three studies. Adult cadmium and lead levels were not associated with higher risk of breast cancer in our large meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Cádmio/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
20.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 58-69, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561796

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Paridade , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA