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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate temporal trends in quality of life (QoL) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in randomized clinical trials, and a quantitative comparison from before surgery to up to five years after surgery. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO from 2010-2020 to identify studies that included the measurement of QoL in patients undergoing CABG. The primary outcome was Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), and secondary outcomes were the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and EuroQol Questionnaire (EQ-5D). We pooled the means and the weighted mean differences over the follow-up period. RESULTS: 2,586 studies were screened and 18 full-text studies were included in the meta-analysis. There was a significant trend towards higher QoL scores from before surgery to 1 year post-operatively for the SAQ Angina Frequency (AF), SAQ Quality of Life (QoL), SF-36 Physical Component (PC) and EQ-5D; whereas the SF-36 Mental Component (MC) did not improve significantly. The weighted mean differences from before surgery to the one-year after for the SAQ AF was 24 (95% CI: 21.6-26.4), 31 (95% CI: 27.5-34.6) for the SAQ QoL, 9.8 (95% CI: 7.1-12.8) for the SF-36 PC, 7.1 (95% CI: 4.2-10.0) for the SF-36 MC, and 0.1 (95% CI: 0.06-0.14) for the EQ-5D. There was no evidence of publication bias or small study effect. CONCLUSIONS: CABG had both short and long-term improvements on disease-specific QoL and generic QoL, with the largest improvement in angina frequency.

2.
J Card Surg ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599522

RESUMO

The use of the radial artery (RA) as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been steadily increasing since the early 1990s and based on the most recent data may well become the standard of care for patients with multivessel coronary artery disease requiring multiple arterial grafts. The transradial access (TRA) approach for cardiac catherization has also increased steadily in use by interventional cardiologists owing to its reduction in bleeding and vascular complications when compared with the femoral approach and is now considered the preferred arterial access. However, prior use of TRA for cardiac catherization is a contraindication for the use of the RA for CABG because of high rates of structural damage to the vascular wall and potential for graft failure. In this issue of the Journal of Cardiac Surgery Clarke et al. examine the RA of two patients who had TRA for coronary angiography 8 and 12 years prior and note that both patients had chronic injury with dissection and obstruction of the lumen secondary to fibrosis suggesting that TRA causes long-term and irreversible damage rendering them unsuitable as conduits for CABG.

3.
Circulation ; 144(14): 1160-1171, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606302

RESUMO

Transit time flow measurement (TTFM) allows quality control in coronary artery bypass grafting but remains largely underused, probably because of limited information and the lack of standardization. We performed a systematic review of the evidence on TTFM and other methods for quality control in coronary artery bypass grafting following PRISMA standards and elaborated expert recommendations by using a structured process. A panel of 19 experts took part in the consensus process using a 3-step modified Delphi method that consisted of 2 rounds of electronic voting and a final face-to-face virtual meeting. Eighty percent agreement was required for acceptance of the statements. A 2-level scale (strong, moderate) was used to grade the statements based on the perceived likelihood of a clinical benefit. The existing evidence supports an association between TTFM readings and graft patency and postoperative clinical outcomes, although there is high methodological heterogeneity among the published series. The evidence is more robust for arterial, rather than venous, grafts and for grafts to the left anterior descending artery. Although TTFM use increases the duration and the cost of surgery, there are no data to quantify this effect. Based on the systematic review, 10 expert statements for TTFM use in clinical practice were formulated. Six were approved at the first round of voting, 3 at the second round, and 1 at the virtual meeting. In conclusion, although TTFM use may increase the costs and duration of the procedure and requires a learning curve, its cost/benefit ratio seems largely favorable, in view of the potential clinical consequences of graft dysfunction. These consensus statements will help to standardize the use of TTFM in clinical practice and provide guidance in clinical decision-making.

4.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611327

RESUMO

Patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are susceptible to bypass graft failure and progression of native coronary artery disease. Although the saphenous vein graft (SVG) was traditionally the most-used conduit, arterial grafts (including the left and right internal thoracic arteries and the radial artery) have improved patency rates. However, the need for secondary revascularization remains common, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the most common modality of secondary revascularization after CABG surgery. Procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes differ considerably from those associated with PCI in patients without previous CABG surgery, owing to altered coronary anatomy and differences in conduit pathophysiology. In particular, SVG PCI carries an increased risk of complications, and operators are shifting their focus towards embolic protection strategies and complex native-vessel interventions, increasingly using SVGs as conduits to facilitate native-vessel PCI rather than pursuing SVG PCI. In this Review, we discuss the differences in conduit pathophysiology, changes in CABG surgery techniques, and the latest evidence in terms of PCI in patients with previous CABG surgery, with a particular emphasis on safety and long-term efficacy. We explore the subject of contemporary CABG surgery and subsequent percutaneous revascularization in this complex patient population.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600831

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: No systematic studies on retractions in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia exist. The aim of this analysis was to identify characteristics and trends of retractions in this field over the past three decades. DESIGN: A search of the Retraction Watch Database for retracted articles published between 1990 and 2020 in the field of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia was performed. SETTING: A bibliometric study. PARTICIPANTS: Five thousand three hundred forty-four retractions with the term "medicine" in the subject code were selected. Retractions of full-length English articles reporting findings in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia were included. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 63 articles published in 31 journals from January 1990 to August 2020 were retracted. The majority were original articles (n = 60, 95.2%) and retracted for scientific misconduct (n = 50, 79.4%). The percentage of retractions due to misconduct increased from 2010, with a spike in 2011 (n = 26/50, 52.0%), and reached a plateau in 2014. The three most common reasons for retraction were misconduct by the author (n = 31, 49.2%), duplication (n = 12, 19.0%), and errors within the manuscript (n = 11, 17.5%). The median time from publication to retraction was 4.3 years (IQR: 1.7-9.4) and decreased significantly over time (p < 0.001). The median impact factor (IF) of the journals that published retracted articles was 3.5 (IQR 2.0-4.5) and decreased significantly over the study period (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Scientific misconduct represents the most common reason for retraction in cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. The median time to retraction and journal IF decreased significantly over time. While this is promising, future efforts should be made to screen for falsified data and standardize the processes after retraction to highlight problematic manuscripts.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is widely used to guide decision-making for mitral repair. The relative impact of surgical mitral valve repair (MVr) and MitraClip on annular remodeling is unknown. The aim was to determine the impact of both mitral repair strategies on annular geometry, including the primary outcome of annular circumference and area. DESIGN: This was a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent mitral intervention between 2016 and 2020. SETTING: Weill Cornell Medicine, a single, large, academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: The population comprised 50 patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) undergoing MVr. INTERVENTIONS: Elective MVr and TEE. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients undergoing MitraClip or surgical MVr were matched (1:1) for sex and coronary artery disease. Mitral annular geometry indices were quantified on intraprocedural three-dimensional TEE. Mild or less MR on follow-up transthoracic echocardiography defined optimal response. Patients undergoing MitraClip were older (80 ± eight v 66 ± six years; p < 0.001) but were otherwise similar to surgical patients. Patients undergoing MitraClip had larger baseline left atrial and ventricular sizes, increased tenting height, and volume (p < 0.01), with a trend toward increased annular area (p = 0.23). MitraClip and surgery both induced immediate mitral annular remodeling, including decreased area, circumference, and tenting height (p < 0.001), with greater remodeling with surgical repair. At follow-up (4.1 ± 9.0 months) optimal response (≤ mild MR) was ∼twofold more common with surgery than MitraClip (81% v 46%; p = 0.02). The relative reduction in annular circumference (odds ratio [OR] 1.05 [1.00-1.09] per cm; p = 0.04) and area (OR 1.03 [1.00-1.05] per cm2; p = 0.049) were both associated with optimal response. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical MVr and MitraClip both reduce annular size, but repair-induced remodeling is greater with surgery and associated with an increased likelihood of optimal response.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to investigate the impact of multiple arterial grafting on long-term all-cause mortality in women undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed to identify observational studies reporting outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting reported by sex and stratified into multiple arterial grafting versus single arterial grafting strategies. Articles were considered for inclusion if they were written in English and were propensity-matched observational studies. Included studies were then pooled in a meta-analysis performed using the generic inverse variance method. The primary outcome was long-term all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were operative mortality and spontaneous myocardial infarction. Meta-regression was used to explore the effects of preoperative and intraoperative variables on the primary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies with 32,793 women (25,714 single arterial grafting and 7079 multiple arterial grafting) were included. Women who received multiple arterial grafting had lower long-term mortality (incidence rate ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.96; P = .007) and spontaneous myocardial infarction (incidence rate ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.93; P = .003) compared with women who received single arterial grafting, but the difference in mortality disappeared when including only the 3 largest studies. There was no difference between groups in operative mortality (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.17; P = .91). Meta-regression did not identify any associations with the incidence rate ratio for long-term mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The use of multiple arterial grafting in women undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with lower long-term mortality, although the difference is mostly driven by small series. Further studies, including randomized trials, are needed to evaluate the efficacy of multiple arterial grafting in women undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous reports have found females are a higher risk of morbidity and mortality following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Here, we describe the differences in outcomes following isolated CABG between males and females. METHODS: Following a systematic literature search, studies reporting sex-related outcomes following isolated CABG were pooled in a meta-analysis performed using the generic inverse variance method. The primary outcome was operative mortality. Secondary outcomes included rates of stroke, repeat revascularization, myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiac events, and late mortality. Subgroup analyses were performed for studies published before and after the year 2000 and for the type of risk adjustment. RESULTS: Eighty-four studies were included with a total of 903 346 patients. Females were at higher risk for operative mortality (odds ratio: 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.64-1.92, P < 0.001). At subgroup analysis, there was no difference in operative or late mortality between studies published prior and after 2000 or between studies using risk adjustment. Females were at a higher risk of late mortality (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.06-1.26, P < 0.001), major adverse cardiac events (IRR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.19-1.66, P < 0.001), myocardial infarction (IRR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.45, P < 0.001) and stroke (IRR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.51, P > 0.001) but not repeat revascularization (IRR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.76-1.29, P = 0.95). The use of the off-pump technique or multiple arterial grafts was not associated with the primary outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Females undergoing CABG are at higher risk for operative and late mortality as well as postoperative events including major adverse cardiac events, myocardial infarction and stroke. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42020187556.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562573

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cardiovascular disease worldwide, affecting over 18 million American adults. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the standard of care for patients with left main or triple vessel CAD. Historically, the saphenous vein (SV) has been utilized to bypass the majority of the coronary vessels in patients undergoing CABG, but more recent data suggest that the use of the radial artery (RA), rather than the SV, is associated with improved cardiac outcomes and better survival. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the use of RA and SV for CABG in patients with multivessel CAD.

14.
Curr Opin Cardiol ; 36(6): 740-747, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475329

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the number of patients with reduced ejection fraction secondary to ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) increases, coronary artery bypass grafting is being used with increasing frequency. In this review, we summarize the different operative considerations in this vulnerable patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: Preoperative optimization with mechanical circulatory support devices, especially in the setting of hemodynamic instability, can reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. The advantage of advanced techniques, such as off-pump CABG and multiple arterial grafting remains unclear. Concomitant procedures, such as ablation for atrial fibrillation remain important considerations that should be tailored to the individual patients risk profile. SUMMARY: Despite improvements in perioperative care of patients undergoing CABG, patients with a reduced ejection fraction remain at elevated risk of major morbidity and mortality. Preoperative optimization and careful selection of intraoperative techniques can lead to improved outcomes.

15.
J Card Surg ; 36(11): 4308-4319, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When transfemoral (TF) access is contraindicated in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), alternate access strategies are considered. The choice of one alternate access over the other remains controversial. METHODS: Following a comprehensive literature search, studies comparing any combination of TF, transapical (TA), transaortic (TAo), transcarotid (TC), and trans-subclavian (TS) TAVR were identified. Data were pooled using fixed- and random-effects network meta-analysis. Rank scores with probability ranks of different treatment groups were calculated. RESULTS: Eighty-four studies (26,449 patients) were included. Compared to TF access, TA and TAo accesses were associated with higher 30-day mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-1.94; OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.66, respectively), while the TC and TS showed no difference (OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.64-1.95; OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.67-2.27, respectively); TF access ranked best followed by TC. There was no significant difference in 30-day stroke; TC access ranked best followed by TS. At a weighted mean follow-up of 1.6 years, TA and TAo accesses were associated with higher long-term mortality versus TF (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.18-1.45; IRR 1.41, 95% CI 1.11-1.79, respectively); there was no difference between TC and TS versus TF access (IRR 1.02, 95% CI 0.70-1.47; IRR 1.16, 95% CI 0.82-1.66, respectively); TF access ranked best followed by TC. At a weighted mean follow-up of 1.4 years, only TA access was associated with higher long-term stroke compared to TF (IRR 3.01, 95% CI 1.15-7.87); TF access ranked as the best strategy followed by TAo. CONCLUSION: TC and TS approaches are associated with superior postoperative outcomes compared to other TAVR alternate access strategies. Randomized trials definitively assessing the safety and efficacy of alternate access strategies are needed.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586338

RESUMO

Importance: Recent evidence has suggested that skeletonization of the internal thoracic artery (ITA) is associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Objective: To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of skeletonized and pedicled ITA for CABG. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Arterial Revascularization Trial (ART) was a 2-group, multicenter trial comparing the use of a bilateral ITA vs a single ITA for CABG at 10 years. Patients in the ART trial were stratified by ITA harvesting technique: skeletonized vs pedicled. Data were collected from June 2004 to December 2017, and data were analyzed from June to July 2021. Interventions: In this analysis, the 10-year clinical outcomes were compared between patients who received skeletonized vs pedicled ITAs. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes were a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and repeated revascularization and a composite including MACE and sternal wound complication (SWC). Cox regression and propensity score matching were used. Results: Of 2161 included patients, 295 (13.7%) were female, and the median (interquartile range) age was 65.0 (58.0-70.0) years. At 10 years, the risk of all-cause mortality was not significantly different between the pedicled and skeletonized groups (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% CI, 0.92-1.36; P = .27). However, the long-term risks of the secondary outcomes were significantly higher in the skeletonized group compared with the pedicled group (MACE: HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.47; P = .01; MACE and SWC: HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.05-1.43; P = .01). The difference was not seen when considering only patients operated on by surgeons who enrolled 51 patients or more in the trial (MACE: HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.82-1.39; P = .62; MACE and SWC: HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.80-1.34; P = .78). Conclusions and Relevance: While the long-term survival of patients was not different between groups, the rate of adverse cardiovascular events was consistently higher in the skeletonized group and the difference was associated with surgeon-related factors. Further evidence on the outcome of skeletonized ITA is needed.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparative data after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease according to lesion site (ostial/shaft vs distal) are scant. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate outcomes after PCI or CABG for ULMCA disease according to lesion site. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and adjusted observational studies that compared PCI versus CABG in patients with ULMCA disease and reported outcomes according to lesion site were systematically identified. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeat revascularization) and all-cause death were the co-primary end points. Individual components of MACE were secondary end points. Sensitivity analysis including RCTs only were performed for each outcome. RESULTS: Nine studies (3 RCTs, 6 adjusted observational), encompassing 6296 patients (2274 and 4022 treated for ostial/shaft or distal ULMCA, respectively) were included. At the 5-year follow-up, there were no significant differences between CABG and PCI for MACE, death, or any other secondary outcome for ostial/shaft ULMCA lesions (MACE: hazard ratio [HR], 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-1.27]; death: HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.84-1.46]). For distal ULMCA, PCI was associated with an increased risk of MACE (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.58), death (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.19-2.04), and revascularization (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.5-2.84). The benefit of CABG for MACE and revascularization was confirmed in the analysis limited to RCTs, whereas the benefit for mortality was not. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with distal ULMCA disease, CABG is associated with lower incidence of MACE and revascularization compared with PCI, whereas no differences in outcomes were observed for ostial/shaft ULMCA disease.

19.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405875

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to compare long-term all-cause mortality between patients receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using multiple (MAG) or single arterial grafting (SAG). METHODS AND RESULTS: The current study is a post hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival Study, which compared PCI with CABG in patients with three-vessel (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) and evaluated survival with ≥10 years of follow-up. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at maximum follow-up (median 11.9 years) assessed in the as-treated population. Of the 1743 patients, 901 (51.7%) underwent PCI, 532 (30.5%) received SAG, and 310 (17.8%) had MAG. At maximum follow-up, all-cause death occurred in 305 (33.9%), 175 (32.9%), and 70 (22.6%) patients in the PCI, SAG, and MAG groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Multiple arterial grafting [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.89], but not SAG (adjusted HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.67-1.03), was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality compared with PCI. In patients with 3VD, both MAG (adjusted HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37-0.81) and SAG (adjusted HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.91) were associated with significantly lower mortality than PCI, whereas in LMCAD patients, no significant differences between PCI and MAG (adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.56-1.46) or SAG (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.81-1.53) were observed. In patients with revascularization of all three major myocardial territories, a positive correlation was observed between the number of myocardial territories receiving arterial grafts and survival (Ptrend = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that MAG might be the more desirable configuration for CABG to achieve lower long-term all-cause mortality than PCI in patients with 3VD and/or LMCAD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on clinicaltrial.gov. SYNTAXES: NCT03417050 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03417050); SYNTAX: NCT00114972 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00114972).

20.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 139: 199-209, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The fragility index is a clinically interpretable metric increasingly used to interpret the robustness of clinical trials results that is generally not incorporated in sample size calculation and applied post-hoc. In this manuscript, we propose to base the sample size calculation on the fragility index in a way that supplements the classical prefixed alpha and power cutoffs and we provide a dedicated R software package for the design and analysis tools. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This approach follows from a novel hypothesis testing framework that is based on the fragility index and builds on the classical testing approach. As case studies, we re-analyse the design of two important trials in cardiovascular medicine, the FAME and FAMOUS-NSTEMI trials. RESULTS: The analyses show that approach returns sample sizes which results in a higher power for the P value based test and most importantly a lower and context dependent Type I error rate for the fragility index based test compared to standard tests. CONCLUSION: Our method allows clinicians to control for the fragility index during clinical trial design.

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