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1.
Cell Genom ; 2(11): None, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36388766

RESUMO

Proteome-wide Mendelian randomization (MR) shows value in prioritizing drug targets in Europeans but with limited evidence in other ancestries. Here, we present a multi-ancestry proteome-wide MR analysis based on cross-population data from the Global Biobank Meta-analysis Initiative (GBMI). We estimated the putative causal effects of 1,545 proteins on eight diseases in African (32,658) and European (1,219,993) ancestries and identified 45 and 7 protein-disease pairs with MR and genetic colocalization evidence in the two ancestries, respectively. A multi-ancestry MR comparison identified two protein-disease pairs with MR evidence in both ancestries and seven pairs with specific effects in the two ancestries separately. Integrating these MR signals with clinical trial evidence, we prioritized 16 pairs for investigation in future drug trials. Our results highlight the value of proteome-wide MR in informing the generalizability of drug targets for disease prevention across ancestries and illustrate the value of meta-analysis of biobanks in drug development.

2.
Elife ; 112022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219204

RESUMO

Background: Polygenic scores (PGS) are becoming an increasingly popular approach to predict complex disease risk, although they also hold the potential to develop insight into the molecular profiles of patients with an elevated genetic predisposition to disease. Methods: We sought to construct an atlas of associations between 125 different PGS derived using results from genome-wide association studies and 249 circulating metabolites in up to 83,004 participants from the UK Biobank. Results: As an exemplar to demonstrate the value of this atlas, we conducted a hypothesis-free evaluation of all associations with glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA), an inflammatory biomarker. Using bidirectional Mendelian randomization, we find that the associations highlighted likely reflect the effect of risk factors, such as adiposity or liability towards smoking, on systemic inflammation as opposed to the converse direction. Moreover, we repeated all analyses in our atlas within age strata to investigate potential sources of collider bias, such as medication usage. This was exemplified by comparing associations between lipoprotein lipid profiles and the coronary artery disease PGS in the youngest and oldest age strata, which had differing proportions of individuals undergoing statin therapy. Lastly, we generated all PGS-metabolite associations stratified by sex and separately after excluding 13 established lipid-associated loci to further evaluate the robustness of findings. Conclusions: We envisage that the atlas of results constructed in our study will motivate future hypothesis generation and help prioritize and deprioritize circulating metabolic traits for in-depth investigations. All results can be visualized and downloaded at http://mrcieu.mrsoftware.org/metabolites_PRS_atlas. Funding: This work is supported by funding from the Wellcome Trust, the British Heart Foundation, and the Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Biomarcadores , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lipídeos , Herança Multifatorial
3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932451

RESUMO

Participant overlap can induce overfitting bias into Mendelian randomization (MR) and polygenic risk score (PRS) studies. Here, we evaluated a block jackknife resampling framework for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and PRS construction to mitigate overfitting bias in MR analyses and implemented this study design in a causal inference setting using data from the UK Biobank.

4.
Diabetologia ; 65(10): 1664-1675, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902387

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Metformin use has been associated with reduced incidence of dementia in diabetic individuals in observational studies. However, the causality between the two in the general population is unclear. This study uses Mendelian randomisation (MR) to investigate the causal effect of metformin targets on Alzheimer's disease and potential causal mechanisms in the brain linking the two. METHODS: Genetic proxies for the effects of metformin drug targets were identified as variants in the gene for the corresponding target that associated with HbA1c level (N=344,182) and expression level of the corresponding gene (N≤31,684). The cognitive outcomes were derived from genome-wide association studies comprising 527,138 middle-aged Europeans, including 71,880 with Alzheimer's disease or Alzheimer's disease-by-proxy. MR estimates representing lifelong metformin use on Alzheimer's disease and cognitive function in the general population were generated. Effect of expression level of 22 metformin-related genes in brain cortex (N=6601 donors) on Alzheimer's disease was further estimated. RESULTS: Genetically proxied metformin use, equivalent to a 6.75 mmol/mol (1.09%) reduction on HbA1c, was associated with 4% lower odds of Alzheimer's disease (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.95, 0.98], p=1.06×10-4) in non-diabetic individuals. One metformin target, mitochondrial complex 1 (MCI), showed a robust effect on Alzheimer's disease (OR 0.88, p=4.73×10-4) that was independent of AMP-activated protein kinase. MR of expression in brain cortex tissue showed that decreased MCI-related gene (NDUFA2) expression was associated with lower Alzheimer's disease risk (OR 0.95, p=4.64×10-4) and favourable cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metformin use may cause reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in the general population. Mitochondrial function and the NDUFA2 gene are plausible mechanisms of action in dementia protection.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Metformina , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Encéfalo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 31(23): 4034-4054, 2022 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796550

RESUMO

Despite early interest, the evidence linking fatty acids to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remains controversial. We used Mendelian randomization to explore the involvement of polyunsaturated (PUFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids biosynthesis in the etiology of several CVD endpoints in up to 1 153 768 European (maximum 123 668 cases) and 212 453 East Asian (maximum 29 319 cases) ancestry individuals. As instruments, we selected single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to genes with well-known roles in PUFA (i.e. FADS1/2 and ELOVL2) and MUFA (i.e. SCD) biosynthesis. Our findings suggest that higher PUFA biosynthesis rate (proxied by rs174576 near FADS1/2) is related to higher odds of multiple CVDs, particularly ischemic stroke, peripheral artery disease and venous thromboembolism, whereas higher MUFA biosynthesis rate (proxied by rs603424 near SCD) is related to lower odds of coronary artery disease among Europeans. Results were unclear for East Asians as most effect estimates were imprecise. By triangulating multiple approaches (i.e. uni-/multi-variable Mendelian randomization, a phenome-wide scan, genetic colocalization and within-sibling analyses), our results are compatible with higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (and possibly glucose) being a downstream effect of higher PUFA biosynthesis rate. Our findings indicate that PUFA and MUFA biosynthesis are involved in the etiology of CVDs and suggest LDL cholesterol as a potential mediating trait between PUFA biosynthesis and CVDs risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Asiáticos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
6.
PLoS Med ; 19(6): e1004020, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649229

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003757.].

7.
Wellcome Open Res ; 7: 41, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35592546

RESUMO

Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) seek to quantify associations between traits/exposures and DNA methylation measured at thousands or millions of CpG sites across the genome. In recent years, the increase in availability of DNA methylation measures in population-based cohorts and case-control studies has resulted in a dramatic expansion of the number of EWAS being performed and published. To make this rich source of results more accessible, we have manually curated a database of CpG-trait associations (with p<1x10 -4) from published EWAS, each assaying over 100,000 CpGs in at least 100 individuals. From January 7, 2022, The EWAS Catalog contained 1,737,746 associations from 2,686 EWAS. This includes 1,345,398 associations from 342 peer-reviewed publications. In addition, it also contains summary statistics for 392,348 associations from 427 EWAS, performed on data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The database is accompanied by a web-based tool and R package, giving researchers the opportunity to query EWAS associations quickly and easily, and gain insight into the molecular underpinnings of disease as well as the impact of traits and exposures on the DNA methylome. The EWAS Catalog data extraction team continue to update the database monthly and we encourage any EWAS authors to upload their summary statistics to our website. Details of how to upload data can be found here: http://www.ewascatalog.org/upload. The EWAS Catalog is available at http://www.ewascatalog.org.

8.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104112, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent omic studies prioritised several drug targets associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. However, little evidence was provided to systematically estimate the effect of drug targets on COVID-19 severity in multiple ancestries. METHODS: In this study, we applied Mendelian randomization (MR) and colocalization approaches to understand the putative causal effects of 16,059 transcripts and 1608 proteins on COVID-19 severity in European and effects of 610 proteins on COVID-19 severity in African ancestry. We further integrated genetics, clinical and literature evidence to prioritise drug targets. Additional sensitivity analyses including multi-trait colocalization and phenome-wide MR were conducted to test for MR assumptions. FINDINGS: MR and colocalization prioritized four protein targets, FCRL3, ICAM5, ENTPD5 and OAS1 that showed effect on COVID-19 severity in European ancestry. One protein target, SERPINA1 showed a stronger effect in African ancestry but much weaker effect in European ancestry (odds ratio [OR] in Africans=0.369, 95%CI=0.203 to 0.668, P = 9.96 × 10-4; OR in Europeans=1.021, 95%CI=0.901 to 1.157, P = 0.745), which suggested that increased level of SERPINA1 will reduce COVID-19 risk in African ancestry. One protein, ICAM1 showed suggestive effect on COVID-19 severity in both ancestries (OR in Europeans=1.152, 95%CI=1.063 to 1.249, P = 5.94 × 10-4; OR in Africans=1.481, 95%CI=1.008 to 2.176; P = 0.045). The OAS1, SERPINA1 and ICAM1 effects were replicated using updated COVID-19 severity data in the two ancestries respectively, where alternative splicing events in OAS1 and ICAM1 also showed marginal effects on COVID-19 severity in Europeans. The phenome-wide MR of the prioritised targets on 622 complex traits provided information on potential beneficial effects on other diseases and suggested little evidence of adverse effects on major complications. INTERPRETATION: Our study identified six proteins as showing putative causal effects on COVID-19 severity. OAS1 and SERPINA1 were targets of existing drugs in trials as potential COVID-19 treatments. ICAM1, ICAM5 and FCRL3 are related to the immune system. Across the six targets, OAS1 has no reliable instrument in African ancestry; SERPINA1, FCRL3, ICAM5 and ENTPD5 showed a different level of putative causal evidence in European and African ancestries, which highlights the importance of more powerful ancestry-specific GWAS and value of multi-ancestry MR in informing the effects of drug targets on COVID-19 across different populations. This study provides a first step towards clinical investigation of beneficial and adverse effects of COVID-19 drug targets. FUNDING: No.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
PLoS Genet ; 18(6): e1010162, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653391

RESUMO

Diet is considered as one of the most important modifiable factors influencing human health, but efforts to identify foods or dietary patterns associated with health outcomes often suffer from biases, confounding, and reverse causation. Applying Mendelian randomization in this context may provide evidence to strengthen causality in nutrition research. To this end, we first identified 283 genetic markers associated with dietary intake in 445,779 UK Biobank participants. We then converted these associations into direct genetic effects on food exposures by adjusting them for effects mediated via other traits. The SNPs which did not show evidence of mediation were then used for MR, assessing the association between genetically predicted food choices and other risk factors, health outcomes. We show that using all associated SNPs without omitting those which show evidence of mediation, leads to biases in downstream analyses (genetic correlations, causal inference), similar to those present in observational studies. However, MR analyses using SNPs which have only a direct effect on the exposure on food exposures provided unequivocal evidence of causal associations between specific eating patterns and obesity, blood lipid status, and several other risk factors and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Variação Genética , Causalidade , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Risco
10.
Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci ; 5: 1-17, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363507

RESUMO

statistics for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are increasingly available for downstream analyses. Meanwhile, the popularity of causal inference methods has grown as we look to gather robust evidence for novel medical and public health interventions. This has led to the development of methods that use GWAS summary statistics for causal inference. Here, we describe these methods in order of their escalating complexity, from genetic associations to extensions of Mendelian randomization that consider thousands of phenotypes simultaneously. We also cover the assumptions and limitations of these approaches before considering the challenges faced by researchers performing causal inference using GWAS data. GWAS summary statistics constitute an important data source for causal inference research that offers a counterpoint to nongenetic methods when triangulating evidence. Continued efforts to address the challenges in using GWAS data for causal inference will allow the full impact of these approaches to be realized.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Causalidade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Fenótipo
12.
Diabetologia ; 65(5): 790-799, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35129650

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic CVD share many risk factors. This study aimed to systematically assess a broad range of continuous traits to separate their direct effects on coronary and peripheral artery disease from those mediated by type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Our main analysis was a two-step Mendelian randomisation for mediation to quantify the extent to which the associations observed between continuous traits and liability to atherosclerotic CVD were mediated by liability to type 2 diabetes. To support this analysis, we performed several univariate Mendelian randomisation analyses to examine the associations between our continuous traits, liability to type 2 diabetes and liability to atherosclerotic CVD. RESULTS: Eight traits were eligible for the two-step Mendelian randomisation with liability to coronary artery disease as the outcome and we found similar direct and total effects in most cases. Exceptions included fasting insulin and hip circumference where the proportion mediated by liability to type 2 diabetes was estimated as 56% and 52%, respectively. Six traits were eligible for the analysis with liability to peripheral artery disease as the outcome. Again, we found limited evidence to support mediation by liability to type 2 diabetes for all traits apart from fasting insulin (proportion mediated: 70%). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Most traits were found to affect liability to atherosclerotic CVD independently of their relationship with liability to type 2 diabetes. These traits are therefore important for understanding atherosclerotic CVD risk regardless of an individual's liability to type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doença Arterial Periférica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(6): 1995-2010, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was to systematically test whether previously reported risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are causally related to CKD in European and East Asian ancestries using Mendelian randomization. METHODS: A total of 45 risk factors with genetic data in European ancestry and 17 risk factors in East Asian participants were identified as exposures from PubMed. We defined the CKD by clinical diagnosis or by estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Ultimately, 51 672 CKD cases and 958 102 controls of European ancestry from CKDGen, UK Biobank and HUNT, and 13 093 CKD cases and 238 118 controls of East Asian ancestry from Biobank Japan, China Kadoorie Biobank and Japan-Kidney-Biobank/ToMMo were included. RESULTS: Eight risk factors showed reliable evidence of causal effects on CKD in Europeans, including genetically predicted body mass index (BMI), hypertension, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nephrolithiasis. In East Asians, BMI, T2D and nephrolithiasis showed evidence of causality on CKD. In two independent replication analyses, we observed that increased hypertension risk showed reliable evidence of a causal effect on increasing CKD risk in Europeans but in contrast showed a null effect in East Asians. Although liability to T2D showed consistent effects on CKD, the effects of glycaemic phenotypes on CKD were weak. Non-linear Mendelian randomization indicated a threshold relationship between genetically predicted BMI and CKD, with increased risk at BMI of >25 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Eight cardiometabolic risk factors showed causal effects on CKD in Europeans and three of them showed causality in East Asians, providing insights into the design of future interventions to reduce the burden of CKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Distribuição Aleatória , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética
14.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057415

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Previous results from observational, interventional studies and in vitro experiments suggest that certain micronutrients possess anti-viral and immunomodulatory activities. In particular, it has been hypothesized that zinc, selenium, copper and vitamin K1 have strong potential for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. We aimed to test whether genetically predicted Zn, Se, Cu or vitamin K1 levels have a causal effect on COVID-19 related outcomes, including risk of infection, hospitalization and critical illness. Methods: We employed a two-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis. Our genetic variants derived from European-ancestry GWAS reflected circulating levels of Zn, Cu, Se in red blood cells as well as Se and vitamin K1 in serum/plasma. For the COVID-19 outcome GWAS, we used infection, hospitalization or critical illness. Our inverse-variance weighted (IVW) MR analysis was complemented by sensitivity analyses including a more liberal selection of variants at a genome-wide sub-significant threshold, MR-Egger and weighted median/mode tests. Results: Circulating micronutrient levels show limited evidence of association with COVID-19 infection, with the odds ratio [OR] ranging from 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87-1.08, p-value = 0.55) for zinc to 1.07 (95% CI: 1.00-1.14, p-value = 0.06)-i.e., no beneficial effect for copper was observed per 1 SD increase in exposure. Similarly minimal evidence was obtained for the hospitalization and critical illness outcomes with OR from 0.98 (95% CI: 0.87-1.09, p-value = 0.66) for vitamin K1 to 1.07 (95% CI: 0.88-1.29, p-value = 0.49) for copper, and from 0.93 (95% CI: 0.72-1.19, p-value = 0.55) for vitamin K1 to 1.21 (95% CI: 0.79-1.86, p-value = 0.39) for zinc, respectively. Conclusions: This study does not provide evidence that supplementation with zinc, selenium, copper or vitamin K1 can prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, critical illness or hospitalization for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Cobre/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Vitamina K 1/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Brancos/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(1): 16-27, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670800

RESUMO

The effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk may be partly mediated by sex steroid hormones. This review synthesized and appraised the evidence for an effect of physical activity on sex steroid hormones. Systematic searches were performed using MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), and SPORTDiscus to identify experimental studies and prospective cohort studies that examined physical activity and estrogens, progestins, and/or androgens, as well as sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and glucocorticoids in pre- and postmenopausal women. Meta-analyses were performed to generate effect estimates. Risk of bias was assessed, and the GRADE system was used to appraise quality of the evidence. Twenty-eight randomized controlled trials (RCT), 81 nonrandomized interventions, and six observational studies were included. Estrogens, progesterone, and androgens mostly decreased, and SHBG increased, in response to physical activity. Effect sizes were small, and evidence quality was graded moderate or high for each outcome. Reductions in select sex steroid hormones following exercise supports the biological plausibility of the first part of the physical activity-sex hormone-breast cancer pathway. The confirmed effect of physical activity on decreasing circulating sex steroid hormones supports its causal role in preventing breast cancer.See related reviews by Lynch et al., p. 11 and Drummond et al., p. 28.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(1): 28-37, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670801

RESUMO

We undertook a systematic review and appraised the evidence for an effect of circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) on breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. Systematic searches identified prospective studies relevant to this review. Meta-analyses estimated breast cancer risk for women with the highest compared with the lowest level of sex hormones, and the DRMETA Stata package was used to graphically represent the shape of these associations. The ROBINS-E tool assessed risk of bias, and the GRADE system appraised the strength of evidence. In premenopausal women, there was little evidence that estrogens, progesterone, or SHBG were associated with breast cancer risk, whereas androgens showed a positive association. In postmenopausal women, higher estrogens and androgens were associated with an increase in breast cancer risk, whereas higher SHBG was inversely associated with risk. The strength of the evidence quality ranged from low to high for each hormone. Dose-response relationships between sex steroid hormone concentrations and breast cancer risk were most notable for postmenopausal women. These data support the plausibility of a role for sex steroid hormones in mediating the causal relationship between physical activity and the risk of breast cancer.See related reviews by Lynch et al., p. 11 and Swain et al., p. 16.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Humanos , Pré-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 31(1): 11-15, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670802

RESUMO

Epidemiologic research suggests that physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, but the causal nature of this link is not clear. Investigating mechanistic pathways can provide evidence of biological plausibility and improve causal inference. This project will examine three putative pathways (sex steroid hormones, insulin signaling, and inflammation) in a series of two-stage systematic reviews. Stage 1 used Text Mining for Mechanism Prioritisation (TeMMPo) to identify and prioritize relevant biological intermediates. Stage 2 will systematically review the findings from studies of (i) physical activity and intermediates and (ii) intermediates and breast cancer. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SPORTDiscus will be searched using a combination of subject headings and free-text terms. Human intervention and prospective, observational studies will be eligible for inclusion. Meta-analysis will be performed where possible. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool, or the ROBINS-I or ROBINS-E tool, depending on study type. Strength of evidence will be assessed using the GRADE system. In addition to synthesizing the mechanistic evidence that links physical activity with breast cancer risk, this project may also identify priority areas for future research and help inform the design and implementation of physical activity interventions.See related reviews by Swain et al., p. 16 and Drummond et al., p. 28.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Causalidade , Mineração de Dados , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6120, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675202

RESUMO

Drug target Mendelian randomization (MR) studies use DNA sequence variants in or near a gene encoding a drug target, that alter the target's expression or function, as a tool to anticipate the effect of drug action on the same target. Here we apply MR to prioritize drug targets for their causal relevance for coronary heart disease (CHD). The targets are further prioritized using independent replication, co-localization, protein expression profiles and data from the British National Formulary and clinicaltrials.gov. Out of the 341 drug targets identified through their association with blood lipids (HDL-C, LDL-C and triglycerides), we robustly prioritize 30 targets that might elicit beneficial effects in the prevention or treatment of CHD, including NPC1L1 and PCSK9, the targets of drugs used in CHD prevention. We discuss how this approach can be generalized to other targets, disease biomarkers and endpoints to help prioritize and validate targets during the drug development process.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was to systematically test whether previously reported risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are causally related to CKD in European and East Asian ancestries using Mendelian randomization. METHODS: A total of 45 risk factors with genetic data in European ancestry and 17 risk factors in East Asian participants were identified as exposures from PubMed. We defined the CKD by clinical diagnosis or by estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Ultimately, 51 672 CKD cases and 958 102 controls of European ancestry from CKDGen, UK Biobank and HUNT, and 13 093 CKD cases and 238 118 controls of East Asian ancestry from Biobank Japan, China Kadoorie Biobank and Japan-Kidney-Biobank/ToMMo were included. RESULTS: Eight risk factors showed reliable evidence of causal effects on CKD in Europeans, including genetically predicted body mass index (BMI), hypertension, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nephrolithiasis. In East Asians, BMI, T2D and nephrolithiasis showed evidence of causality on CKD. In two independent replication analyses, we observed that increased hypertension risk showed reliable evidence of a causal effect on increasing CKD risk in Europeans but in contrast showed a null effect in East Asians. Although liability to T2D showed consistent effects on CKD, the effects of glycaemic phenotypes on CKD were weak. Non-linear Mendelian randomization indicated a threshold relationship between genetically predicted BMI and CKD, with increased risk at BMI of >25 kg/m2. CONCLUSIONS: Eight cardiometabolic risk factors showed causal effects on CKD in Europeans and three of them showed causality in East Asians, providing insights into the design of future interventions to reduce the burden of CKD.

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