Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 10 de 10
Filtrar
1.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(234): 212-216, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506456

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization strongly recommend that people wear face masks to cover their mouths and noses while they are out and about in any other public area. There are a lot of masks available on the market, and people get a lot of mixed messages about what is safe. This article explores what kind of facemasks are readily available in Nepali General stores and what are the things to keep in mind before buying a mask. We will also discuss how many times a face mask can be used, proper ways to store them, correct ways to use facemasks, and the rationale behind its use.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Máscaras , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(238): 597-600, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508408

RESUMO

Hereditary vitamin D dependent rickets type II is a rare genetic disorder in children characterized by early onset of rickets and deranged biochemical parameters. Low serum calcium level, high alkaline phosphatase, high parathyroid hormone, and high values of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D are characteristic biochemical findings. We are reporting a rare case of Vitamin D Dependent Rickets and subsequent improvement after addition of cinacalcet. This is a case report of a 2.5-year-child with Hereditary Vitamin D Dependent Rickets type II receiving cinacalcet as adjunct to oral calcium and calcitriol. Oral cinacalcet (0.25mg/kg/day) was added to the regimen as an adjunct after treatment failure with high dose of oral calcium and calcitriol. A significant improvement in radiological findings and normal homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone was achieved after initiation of cinacalcet.


Assuntos
Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar , Cálcio , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/diagnóstico , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/tratamento farmacológico , Raquitismo Hipofosfatêmico Familiar/genética , Humanos , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Vitamina D , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
3.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(237): 486-489, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508432

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lentivirus that causes human immunodeficiency virus infection and over time, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cluster of Differentiation 4+ T cell count of people living with this infection play a vital role to determine infection progression and necessary treatment changes. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of low Cluster of Differentiation 4+ T Cell Count in the People Living with human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between June to August 2018 in the Human Immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis Reference Unit of National Public Health Laboratory, Ministry of Health and Population Teku. Ethical approval was taken (Reference Number 2912) and a total of 550 seropositive cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 undergoing antiretroviral therapy were studied. Convenient sampling technique was used. Data was analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. RESULTS: Seventeen (3.1%) of patients had Cluster of Differentiation 4+ T cell counts below 100 cells/mm3 of blood. The mean Cluster of Differentiation 4+ T cell count was 509.3 cells/mm3 of blood. Of the total samples, 280 (50.9%) were males, 268 (48.7%) were females, and the rest 2 (0.4%) were of other gender. CONCLUSIONS: Majority of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were found immune-competent.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Infecções por HIV , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Contagem de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laboratórios , Masculino
4.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(229): 690-695, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068093

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is caused by a new strain of SARS CoV-2 virus, which transmits directly from person-to-person and has become a pandemic. To counteract this, actions related to mass quarantines or stay-at-home orders have been used termed as lockdown. This study aims to study lifestyle, behaviour, perception and practice of people regarding during the lockdown. METHODS: An online survey was conducted with structured questionnaire in Google forms after ethical approval from Nepal Health Research Council (Ref-2631). The attributes of knowledge, attitude and practices were explored using multiple-choice questions and results were statistically analysed using Microsoft excel. RESULTS: Five hundred fifty-five respondents completed the survey with 280 (50.5%) males and 275 (49.5%) female. The knowledge regarding viral pandemic was increased in 496 (89.3%) respondents. 424 (76.4%) people developed stress due to pandemic. Three hundred fifty three (63.6%) were adversely affected by professional works or suffered economic loss in business. More than 42% participants are using their time for study in personal development, online classes etc. Conclusions: The knowledge of viral pandemic as well as personal hygiene habits have improved in majority of people but many also developed stress. They were convinced that lockdown lowered transmission of infection which in turn affected lifestyle behaviour and practices. Practicing social distancing becomes too difficult for the poor in the absence of proper social security system and government support. E-Learning has become more acceptable due to lockdown. Further studies with in-person interviews are warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Status Econômico , Educação à Distância , Emprego , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras , Higiene das Mãos , Higienizadores de Mão , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 59, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth and exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age. Infant feeding practices, including suboptimal breastfeeding practices, are associated with stunting. Rate of stunting was highest in the Mid-western region and lowest in the Eastern region of Nepal. This study aimed to assess the breastfeeding practices in these two regions, as well as to identify factors associated with partial breastfeeding. METHODS: We conducted a health facility-based cross-sectional study in the Mid-western and Eastern regions of Nepal from December 2017 to May 2018. Investigators administered a pre-tested questionnaire among consecutive 574 mother-infant dyads at different levels of health facilities. We dichotomized the breastfeeding pattern to partial breastfeeding and full (exclusive or predominant) breastfeeding. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with partial breastfeeding within 6 months of age. RESULTS: There were 574 infants included in the study, all of which received at least some breastfeeding. Only 23.2% of infants were exclusively breastfed until 6 months, with 28.2% predominantly breastfed and 48.6% partially breastfed. Partial breastfeeding rate was 52.3% in the Mid-western region and 44.4% in the Eastern region. Breastfeeding was initiated within an hour from birth in 67.2% of infants. One-quarter of infants were given pre-lacteal feed, honey being the commonest. Knowledge of the recommended duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inadequate in 16, and 65% of mothers reported breastfeeding problems in the first 6 months. Firstborn and low birth weight infants had a significantly higher rate of partial breastfeeding. Partial breastfeeding was also higher when infants were not breastfed within 1 hour from birth, mothers reported having breastfeeding-related problems or had inadequate knowledge of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of the infants were fully breastfed at 6 months of age in Nepal. The rate of partial breastfeeding was higher with inadequate knowledge on duration of exclusive breastfeeding or late initiation of breastfeeding or perceived breastfeeding problems. Hence, programs should address knowledge and practice gaps in breastfeeding practices, particularly among mothers of low birth weight and firstborn infants.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Nepal/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 58(232): 988-991, 2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506391

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cholelithiasisis is a common surgical problem worldwide. Gall bladder perforation is a rare life-threatening complication with considerable mortality. This study aims to find the etiology, demography, type of perforation, and outcome of gall bladder perforation. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was done on patients above 18 years of age visiting the department of surgery of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS) who were diagnosed with isolated gall bladder perforation. The study was done from 1st January 2006 till 30 December 2016. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee (reference number. 34/074/075). The convenient sampling method was used. Data were entered in excel sheets and analyzed. RESULTS: Out of 49 patients included in the study, 28 (57.14%) were females and the commonest age group was 36 to 50 years 22 (44.9%) followed by 51 to 65 years 16 (32.6%). Most of the patients presented in emergency with pain in their abdomen. Diabetes mellitus was the commonest co-morbidity present in 10 (20.41%) patients. Operative management was done in 45 (91.84%) of the patient and conservative management in 4 (8.16%). After surgery of 45 patients, 43 (95.56%) improved and 2 (4.44%) expired. The most common type of perforation was Niemeier Type I in 21 (46.67%) followed by Type III 14 (31.11%). The most common histopathological diagnosis was acute cholecystitis 20 (44.44%). CONCLUSIONS: Isolated gall bladder perforation is not an uncommon complication. The most common etiological factor was acute cholecystitis with a slight female predominance. Most of the patients needed surgical intervention and they had good outcomes when diagnosed and managed on time.


Assuntos
Doenças da Vesícula Biliar , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/epidemiologia , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
7.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 17(1): 51-55, 2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been very limited studies regarding health of the cement factory workers in Nepal. This study aimed to find out the prevalence of health problems and the factors associated with respiratory symptoms among the workers of Udayapur cement factory. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study conducted from March to August 2015 in Udayapur cement factory in eastern Nepal. All the workers working in the factory more than a year were included in the study. Thedata was collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic characteristics,type of work, reported health problems, use of personal protective measures.Chi-square test was used to determine the association of respiratory symptoms with related variables. RESULTS: A total of 295 workers were included in this study with mean age of 45.9 years (SD=7.7). Majority 279 (94.6%) were males. The most common health problems were musculoskeletal pain (55.6%) followed by eye problems (33.2%). Among them, 17(21.1%) reported that they had at least one respiratory problem and chest tightness while running/climbing and wheeze were the most common. A total of 233 participants (79%) used at least one form of personal protective equipment. Low education, longer duration of work and smoking were found to be positively associated with respiratory symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory problems were high among the workers of the cement factory. Proper use of PPEs and dust control measures should be promoted among the workers.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção/efeitos adversos , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 57(215): 14-19, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080239

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to dusts and hard physical work is common in developing industrialized countries. Acute and chronic respiratory illnesses are highly been reported from jute and textile industry. This study was undertaken to explore status of respiratory health among the workers of jute and textile industries. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 315 workers from each of textile and jute industry of Eastern Nepal. Almost all the workers were selected from the textile industry whereas those from dust prone areas of jute industry. Workers were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaires. Measurement of height, weight and peak expiratory flow rate was done. RESULTS: Majority were non-smokers in both the industries 230 (73%) in Jute vs. 223 (70.8%) in Textile. Most of the workers had the working experience of less than five years; jute 134 (42.5%) vs. textile 180 (57.1%). Upper respiratory disorder was found in more than 1/5 of workers (68) in jute vs. 1/20 of workers (18) in textile industry. One and two workers suffered from chronic bronchitis in the jute and the textile industry respectively. Chest tightness was reported among 4 (1.3%) in jute vs. 17 (5.4%) in textile workers, cough symptoms among 86 (27.3%) in jute vs. 26 (8.3%) in textile industry. Low practice of personal protective measure was seen in both industries. The mean score of PEFR of workers in jute mill was lower than the workers in textile industry. CONCLUSIONS: Workers with acute respiratory disorders were more in the jute industry while chest tightness was more in the textile industry. Chronic respiratory problems did not appear to be alarming in both the industries. Use of personal protective measures should be promoted among the dust exposed workers.


Assuntos
Poeira , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Indústria Têxtil , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 56(212): 804-807, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387474

RESUMO

Male breast carcinoma is a rare malignancy (<1% of all breast carcinomas, 0.2% of all male malignancies). Its common histopathological type is infiltrating carcinoma, not otherwise specified. Three male patients aged 56 (stage -IIIB), 64 (T4bN0M0) and 78 (T2N0MO) years presented with a breast lump within a year. Their hematological and biochemical parameters were within normal limits. Two of them had palpable regional lymph nodes. Male breast carcinoma occurs in older males as in our cases. Two cases showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified on histopathological evaluation, and one showed special type with apocrine differentiation. Their two-year follow-up was uneventful after modified radical mastectomy and chemotherapy. Male breast carcinoma is associated with risk factors different from and overlapping with female breast carcinoma. Male breast carcinoma differs from female breast carcinoma on clinical presentation, biological behaviour and prognosis. Male breast carcinoma as a separate clinical entity with its own biological behaviour is manageable by surgery and chemotherapy. Keywords: female breast carcinoma; infiltrating carcinoma; male breast carcinoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal
10.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 16(2): 118-123, 2018 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nepal is witnessing rise in non-communicable chronic diseases. Costs of the medicine, availability of the medicine for free in public health sectors and variation of price of medicines may play an important role in the management of chronic disease. The study was undertaken to find out the variation in price of drugs used for treating non communicable diseases among private pharmacies and availability of free essential medicines in public facilities. METHODS: Randomly selected 33 public health centers and 13 pharmacies were included for the study. Availability of free essential medicines for treating selected chronic diseases was assessed in public health centers and percentage price variation in various branded drugs used for treating these diseases was assessed at the consumer level. RESULTS: Out of 89 different formulations, variations between maximum and minimum priced brands of more than 100% were observed in 37 formulations and that of > 200% in 22 formulations. Thirty-seven formulations had more than 100% inter-pharmacy variation. The most commonly available free essential medicines was 4 mg salbutamol (88.57%) while the least available free essential drug was levothyroxine 5 mg (9.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Considerable variation in prices is seen among similar drugs and in prices of same drug in different pharmacies. These factors may have implications in the management of chronic disease in Nepal offsetting the government's effort to control chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribuição , Doenças não Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Nepal , Setor Público
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...