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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993093

RESUMO

According to the Directive 2007/43/EC, broiler farms can house animals up to 39 kg/m2, provided that specific environmental requirements are met. However, limited information is available about the effects of stocking density (SD) on broiler health and welfare, including the need for antimicrobial use. In this study, annual data on mortality, feed conversion rate, and antimicrobial use (AMU) are compared between broiler farms with stocking densities of 39 kg/m2 (N = 257) and 33 kg/m2 (N = 87). These farms were distributed throughout Italy and belonged to the same integrated poultry company. Antimicrobial use data were obtained from each farm and production cycle; AMU was expressed using the defined daily doses (DDD) method proposed by EMA. The annual AMU per farm was calculated as the median AMU over all cycles. Stratified analysis by sex and geographical area (Italy vs Northern Italy) showed no significant effect of stocking density on broiler mortality, feed conversion rate, and AMU. However, a higher AMU variability among farms with 39 kg/m2 stocking density vs. those with 33 kg/m2 was found. This study indicates that AMU does not apparently vary between animals reared at different stocking densities in intensive farms.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7289, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350378

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) control is mainly based on wide vaccine administration. Although effective, its efficacy is not absolute, the viral circulation is not prevented and some side effects cannot be denied. Despite this, the determinants of IBV epidemiology and the factors affecting its circulation are still largely unknown and poorly investigated. In the present study, 361 IBV QX (the most relevant field genotype in Italy) sequences were obtained between 2012 and 2016 from the two main Italian integrated poultry companies. Several biostatistical and bioinformatics approaches were used to reconstruct the history of the QX genotype in Italy and to assess the effect of different environmental, climatic and social factors on its spreading patterns. Moreover, two structured coalescent models were considered in order to investigate if an actual compartmentalization occurs between the two integrated poultry companies and the role of a third "ghost" deme, representative of minor industrial poultry companies and the rural sector. The obtained results suggest that the integration of the poultry companies is an effective barrier against IBV spreading, since the strains sampled from the two companies formed two essentially-independent clades. Remarkably, the only exceptions were represented by farms located in the high densely populated poultry area of Northern Italy. The inclusion of a third deme in the model revealed the likely role of other poultry companies and rural farms (particularly concentrated in Northern Italy) as sources of strain introduction into one of the major poultry companies, whose farms are mainly located in the high densely populated poultry area of Northern Italy. Accordingly, when the effect of different environmental and urban parameters on IBV geographic spreading was investigated, no factor seems to contribute to IBV dispersal velocity, being poultry population density the only exception. Finally, the different viral population pattern observed in the two companies over the same time period supports the pivotal role of management and control strategies on IBV epidemiology. Overall, the present study results stress the crucial relevance of human action rather than environmental factors, highlighting the direct benefits that could derive from improved management and organization of the poultry sector on a larger scale.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Genótipo , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Fazendas , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Itália , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(9): 2784-2787, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial usage (AMU) in livestock plays a key role in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Analysis of AMU data in livestock is therefore relevant for both animal and public health. OBJECTIVES: To assess AMU in 470 broiler and 252 turkey farms of one of Italy's largest poultry companies, accounting for around 30% of national poultry production, to identify trends and risk factors for AMU. METHODS: Antimicrobial treatments administered to 5827 broiler and 1264 turkey grow-out cycles in 2015-17 were expressed as DDDs for animals per population correction unit (DDDvet/PCU). A retrospective analysis was conducted to examine the effect of geographical area, season and prescribing veterinarian on AMU. Management and structural interventions implemented by the company were also assessed. RESULTS: AMU showed a 71% reduction in broilers (from 14 to 4 DDDvet/PCU) and a 56% reduction in turkeys (from 41 to 18 DDDvet/PCU) during the study period. Quinolones, macrolides and polymyxins decreased from 33% to 6% of total AMU in broilers, and from 56% to 32% in turkeys. Broiler cycles during spring and winter showed significantly higher AMU, as well as those in densely populated poultry areas. Different antimicrobial prescribing behaviour was identified among veterinarians. CONCLUSIONS: This study evidenced a decreasing trend in AMU and identified several correlates of AMU in broilers and turkeys. These factors will inform the design of interventions to further reduce AMU and therefore counteract antimicrobial resistance in these poultry sectors.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Galinhas , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Perus , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Itália/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
4.
Avian Dis ; 54(4): 1172-7, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21313836

RESUMO

Between May 2007 and October 2008, 34 outbreaks of mild to moderate forms of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) occurred in commercial broiler flocks in Italy. Affected birds showed watery eyes, conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, reduction of feed and water consumption, and gasping with expectoration of blood-stained mucus. The mortality rate was < 10%. Gross lesions consisted of conjunctivitis, excess of mucus, blood, or presence of diphtheritic membranes in trachea. A real-time PCR assay was performed to confirm the presence of ILT virus (ILTV) DNA in tracheal tissue homogenates. Twenty-three ILTV isolates were propagated on the chorion-allantoic membrane of embryonated chicken eggs showing typical plaques. PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing of isolates showed a high genetic correlation between field strains and chicken embryo origin vaccines.


Assuntos
Epidemias/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
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