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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 805-816, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-843314

RESUMO

ResumenEl aumento de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos ha causado preocupación a nivel mundial, por lo que se ha promovido la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos. Debido a su abundancia y diversidad, el fitoplancton marino constituye una importante fuente potencial de tales compuestos. La investigación sobre dinoflagelados ha llevado al descubrimiento de inhibidores de crecimiento bacteriano. El dinoflagelado marino Lingulodinium polyedrum causa proliferaciones algales en diferentes regiones del mundo, incluyendo México, y también se sabe que regula el crecimiento de otras especies en las aguas costeras. En este trabajo, se investiga la taxonomía de este dinoflagelado y se caracteriza la capacidad de sus extractos para inhibir el crecimiento de dos bacterias de importancia médica (Vibrio vulnificus y Staphylococcus aureus) en placas de cultivo de agar. La caracterización taxonómica se realizó por PCR y amplificación del gen de ITS, y se confirmó que la especie aislada en la costa del Pacífico de México fue L. polyedrum. Para demostrar el efecto inhibidor de los extractos de L. polyedrum, los cultivos se cosecharon por centrifugación. Los pellets de tres abundancias celulares se extrajeron con agua, metanol, hexano y cloroformo. Los experimentos en V. vulnificus mostraron una inhibición alta del crecimiento para los cuatro extractos, variando entre 77 y 98 %. Sorprendentemente, la inhibición del crecimiento fue menor cuando los extractos se originaron a partir de una mayor abundancia de células L. polyedrum, varía de 0 a 34 %. Para S. aureus, la inhibición del crecimiento también fue alta, pero no estadísticamente diferente para todos los extractos y abundancias de células, con un rango de 62 hasta 99 %. Esto resultados son prometedores para futuras aplicaciones farmacológicas. La cepa mexicana de L. polyedrum no produjo yesotoxinas detectables.


AbstractThe increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics has caused global concern, prompting the search for new compounds. Because of their abundance and diversity, marine phytoplankton are an important potential source of such compounds. Research on dinoflagellates has led to the discovery of inhibitors of bacterial growth. The marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum blooms in different regions of the world, including Mexico, and is also known to regulate the growth of other species in coastal waters. Here, we investigated the taxonomy of this dinoflagellate and characterized the ability of its extracts to inhibit the growth of two bacteria of medical importance (Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus). Taxonomic characterization was performed by PCR and gene amplification of ITS, and confirmed that the species isolated off the Pacific coast of Mexico was L. polyedrum. To prove the inhibitory effect of L. polyedrum extracts, cultures were harvested by centrifugation. Pellets from three cellular abundances were extracted with water, methanol, hexane and chloroform. The experiments on V. vulnificus showed a high growth inhibition for the four extracts, ranging from 77 to 98 %. Surprisingly, the growth inhibition was lower when the extracts originated from a higher L. polyedrum cell abundance, ranging from 0 to 34 %. For S. aureus, the growth inhibition was also high, but not statistically different for all extracts and cell abundances, ranging from 62 to 99 %. This study obtained promising results for future pharmacological applications. Our Mexican strain of L. polyedrum did not produce any detectable yessotoxins. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 805-816. Epub 2016 June 01.

2.
Rev Biol Trop ; 64(2): 805-16, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451969

RESUMO

The increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics has caused global concern, prompting the search for new compounds. Because of their abundance and diversity, marine phytoplankton are an important potential source of such compounds. Research on dinoflagellates has led to the discovery of inhibitors of bacterial growth. The marine dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum blooms in different regions of the world, including Mexico, and is also known to regulate the growth of other species in coastal waters. Here, we investigated the taxonomy of this dinoflagellate and characterized the ability of its extracts to inhibit the growth of two bacteria of medical importance (Vibrio vulnificus and Staphylococcus aureus). Taxonomic characterization was performed by PCR and gene amplification of ITS, and confirmed that the species isolated off the Pacific coast of Mexico was L. polyedrum. To prove the inhibitory effect of L. polyedrum extracts, cultures were harvested by centrifugation. Pellets from three cellular abundances were extracted with water, methanol, hexane and chloroform. The experiments on V. vulnificus showed a high growth inhibition for the four extracts, ranging from 77 to 98 %. Surprisingly, the growth inhibition was lower when the extracts originated from a higher L. polyedrum cell abundance, ranging from 0 to 34 %. For S. aureus, the growth inhibition was also high, but not statistically different for all extracts and cell abundances, ranging from 62 to 99 %. This study obtained promising results for future pharmacological applications. Our Mexican strain of L. polyedrum did not produce any detectable yessotoxins.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/química , Oxocinas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio vulnificus/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoflagelados/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
3.
Rev Biol Trop ; 60(1): 173-86, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22458217

RESUMO

Gymnodinium bloom events are of concern, since they produce toxins, which have unfavorable consequences to marine ecosystems, human health and the economy. This report describes the physico-chemical conditions that were present during the algal bloom event on May 2010 in Bahía Manzanillo and Bahía Santiago, Colima, Mexico. For this, seawater nutrient analysis, phytoplankton counts, identification, and toxicity tests were undertaken. Nutrients in seawater were determined using colorimetric techniques, the higher concentrations (8.88 microM DIN, 0.78 microM PO4 and 24.34 microM SiO2) were related with upwelling waters that promoted the algal bloom that began after registering the year lowest sea-surface temperature, favoring the rapid growth of G. catenatum (up to 1.02 x 10(7) cells/L). Phytoplankton counting was carried out using sedimentation chambers and cells enumerated on appropriated area. The bloom persisted in the bays for approximately two weeks and was associated with toxicity (determined with HPLC) in local oysters (1525.8 microg STXeq/100g), and in phytoplankton (10.9 pg STXeq/cells) samples. Strong variations in cell toxicity (1.4 to 10.9pg STXeq/cells), most likely reflected the availability of inorganic nutrients. The toxin profile of the phytoplankton samples consisted of 11 toxins and resembled those recorded for several strains of G. catenatum isolated from other coastal areas of Mexico.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eutrofização/fisiologia , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Baías , Dinoflagelados/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , México , Densidade Demográfica , Água do Mar
4.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(1): 173-186, Mar. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-657771

RESUMO

Gymnodinium bloom events are of concern, since they produce toxins, which have unfavorable consequences to marine ecosystems, human health and the economy. This report describes the physico-chemical conditions that were present during the algal bloom event on May 2010 in Bahía Manzanillo and Bahía Santiago, Colima, Mexico. For this, seawater nutrient analysis, phytoplankton counts, identification, and toxicity tests were undertaken. Nutrients in seawater were determined using colorimetric techniques, the higher concentrations (8.88μM DIN, 0.78μM PO4 and 24.34μM SiO2) were related with upwelling waters that promoted the algal bloom that began after registering the year lowest sea-surface temperature, favoring the rapid growth of G. catenatum (up to 1.02 x10(7)cells/L). Phytoplankton counting was carried out using sedimentation chambers and cells enumerated on appropriated area. The bloom persisted in the bays for approximately two weeks and was associated with toxicity (determined with HPLC) in local oysters (1525.8μg STXeq/100g), and in phytoplankton (10.9pg STXeq/cells) samples. Strong variations in cell toxicity (1.4 to 10.9pg STXeq/cells), most likely reflected the availability of inorganic nutrients. The toxin profile of the phytoplankton samples consisted of 11 toxins and resembled those recorded for several strains of G. catenatum isolated from other coastal areas of Mexico.


La proliferación de Gymnodinium son motivo de preocupación, debido a que en algunas circunstancias producen toxinas, que tienen consecuencias desfavorables para los ecosistemas marinos, la salud humana y la economía. Este trabajo describe las condiciones fisicoquímicas presentes durante una proliferación algal detectado en mayo de 2010 en la Bahía de Santiago y Bahía Manzanillo (Colima, México). La proliferación algal inició poco tiempo después de registrarse las temperaturas oceánicas superficiales más bajas del año, las cuales permitieron un aumento de las concentraciones de nutrientes (8.88μM DIN, 0.78μM PO4 and 24.34μM SiO2) que favorecieron el desarrollo de G. catenatum (hasta 1.02 x10(7)cel/L). Esta proliferación se detectó en las bahías durante dos semanas y fue relacionada con toxicidad en ostiones de la localidad (1525.8μg STXeq/100g) y en muestras de fitoplancton (10.9pg STXeq/cel). Fuertes variaciones en la toxicidad de G. catenatum (1.4 a 10.9pg STXeq/cel) pudieron reflejar la disponibilidad de nutrientes inorgánicos. El perfil de toxinas de las muestras del fitoplancton consistieron en 11 toxinas semejantes a las de varias cepas de G. catenatum aisladas de otras áreas de las costas de México.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eutrofização/fisiologia , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Baías , Dinoflagelados/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , México , Densidade Demográfica , Água do Mar
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