Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 9 de 9
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769457

RESUMO

Numerous varieties of celery are grown in multiple countries to maintain supply, demand and availability for all seasons; thus, there is an expectation for a consistent product in terms of taste, flavour, and overall quality. Differences in climate, agronomy and soil composition will all contribute to inconsistencies. This study investigated the volatile and sensory profile of eight celery genotypes grown in the UK (2018) and Spain (2019). Headspace analysis determined the volatile composition of eight genotypes, followed by assessment of the sensory profile using a trained panel. Significant differences in the volatile composition and sensory profile were observed; genotype and geographical location both exerted influences. Two genotypes exhibited similar aroma composition and sensory profile in both locations, making them good candidates to drive breeding programmes aimed at producing varieties that consistently display these distinctive sensory properties. Celery samples harvested in the UK exhibited a higher proportion of sesquiterpenes and phthalides, whereas samples harvested in Spain expressed a higher aldehyde and ketone content. Studying the relationship between growing environment and genotype will provide information to guide growers in how to consistently produce a high-quality crop.

2.
Plant J ; 108(4): 1020-1036, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510583

RESUMO

Underdeveloped (small) embryos embedded in abundant endosperm tissue, and thus having morphological dormancy (MD) or morphophysiological dormancy (MPD), are considered to be the ancestral state in seed dormancy evolution. This trait is retained in the Apiaceae family, which provides excellent model systems for investigating the underpinning mechanisms. We investigated Apium graveolens (celery) MD by combined innovative imaging and embryo growth assays with the quantification of hormone metabolism, as well as the analysis of hormone and cell-wall related gene expression. The integrated experimental results demonstrated that embryo growth occurred inside imbibed celery fruits in association with endosperm degradation, and that a critical embryo size was required for radicle emergence. The regulation of these processes depends on gene expression leading to gibberellin and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production by the embryo and on crosstalk between the fruit compartments. ABA degradation associated with distinct spatiotemporal patterns in ABA sensitivity control embryo growth, endosperm breakdown and radicle emergence. This complex interaction between gibberellins, IAA and ABA metabolism, and changes in the tissue-specific sensitivities to these hormones is distinct from non-MD seeds. We conclude that the embryo growth to reach the critical size and the associated endosperm breakdown inside MD fruits constitute a unique germination programme.

3.
Foods ; 10(6)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200561

RESUMO

Apium graveolens is a biennial crop grown across the globe for its stalks, leaves and seed and is known for its distinct flavour and strong taste. Various extraction methods on fresh and dried celery and its essential oil are reported in the literature examining the aroma profile of this crop and demonstrating that its volatile composition is determined by variables including cultivar, season, geographical location and agronomic practices. This study investigated the volatile and sensory profile of eight celery genotypes grown over two years (2018 and 2020) in the same location in the UK. Solid-phase-micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to determine the volatile compounds present in these genotypes and sensory evaluation using a trained panel to assess the sensory profile of fresh celery. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the volatile composition and sensory profile were observed and influenced by both genotype and harvest year. Two genotypes exhibited similar aroma composition and sensory profile between the years. Celery samples harvested in 2018, which possessed air temperatures that were considerably warmer than in 2020, exhibited higher proportions of sesquiterpenes and phthalides and we hypothesise that the higher proportions were generated as a response to heat stress. Studying the relationship between the genotype and the environment will provide clear information to guide growers in how to consistently produce a higher quality crop.

4.
Food Chem ; 365: 130515, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256223

RESUMO

Celery is a fibrous horticultural vegetable grown globally and widely consumed due to its health benefits, distinct flavours and culinary versatility. Currently, few datasets examine its aroma development across maturity which could help guide growers towards optimising harvest times whilst identifying potential consequences of harvesting outside commercial maturity. Freeze-dried celery of two genotypes, selected for biochemical and sensory differences, were harvested at three time-points and investigated using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME GC/MS) and gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O). Both maturity and genotype showed significant (P < 0.05) interactions between compounds, and harvest stage exhibited greater impact upon aroma quality than plant genotype. Thus, indicating that agronomic practice is key in determining crop quality. Monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phthalides begun to decrease once commercial maturity was reached, whereas alcohols were more prominent in post-mature celery. GC/O results confirmed the importance of phthalides to mature celery aroma and aroma differences caused by genotype.


Assuntos
Apium , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Apium/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genótipo , Odorantes/análise , Verduras , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 345: 128673, 2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310252

RESUMO

Celery (Apium graveolens) is a regularly consumed vegetable, providing strong, distinct flavours to dishes as well as health benefits. Constituents of the aroma profile of celery include a range of volatile compounds (terpenes, phthalides and aldehydes) that contribute to its characteristic odour and flavour. Vast amount of research has been completed on the aroma profile of celery. However, there is limited information stating the cultivar, origin and geographical location, despite that research on a plethora of other crops has indicated that these are key factors driving crop performance and quality attributes. This paper characterises the underlying biochemistry that determines the aroma profile of celery, whilst investigating the genetic and environmental influences leading to its variation. We make recommendations for minimum standards (MIAPAE: Minimum Information About a Plant Aroma Experiment) that should be adopted by the scientific community prior to publication of data relating to flavour and aroma characterisation of crops.


Assuntos
Apium/química , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
6.
Planta ; 251(6): 105, 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417974

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Storage at an elevated partial pressure of oxygen and classical artificial ageing cause a rapid loss of seed viability of short-lived vegetable seeds. Prolonging seed longevity during storage is of major importance for gene banks and the horticultural industry. Slowing down biochemical deterioration, including oxygen-dependent deterioration caused by oxidative processes can boost longevity. This can be affected by the seed structure and the oxygen permeability of seed coat layers. Classical artificial seed ageing assays are used to estimate seed 'shelf-life' by mimicking seed ageing via incubating seeds at elevated temperature and elevated relative humidity (causing elevated equilibrium seed moisture content). In this study, we show that seed lots of vegetable Allium species are short-lived both during dry storage for several months and in seed ageing assays at elevated seed moisture levels. Micromorphological analysis of the Allium cepa x Allium fistulosum salad onion seed identified intact seed coat and endosperm layers. Allium seeds equilibrated at 70% relative humidity were used to investigate seed ageing at tenfold elevated partial pressure of oxygen (high pO2) at room temperature (22 ºC) in comparison to classical artificial ageing at elevated temperature (42 ºC). Our results reveal that 30 days high pO2 treatment causes a rapid loss of seed viability which quantitatively corresponded to the seed viability loss observed by ~ 7 days classical artificial ageing. A similar number of normal seedlings develop from the germinating (viable) proportion of seeds in the population. Many long-lived seeds first exhibit a seed vigour loss, evident from a reduced germination speed, preceding the loss in seed viability. In contrast to this, seed ageing of our short-lived Allium vegetable seems to be characterised by a rapid loss in seed viability.


Assuntos
Allium/fisiologia , Oxigênio/química , Sementes/fisiologia , Germinação , Pressão Parcial , Plântula/fisiologia , Verduras
7.
Life (Basel) ; 10(4)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344775

RESUMO

In the 'Rocket Science' project, storage of Eruca sativa (salad rocket) seeds for six months on board the International Space Station resulted in delayed seedling establishment. Here we investigated the physiological and molecular mechanisms underpinning the spaceflight effects on dry seeds. We found that 'Space' seed germination vigor was reduced, and ageing sensitivity increased, but the spaceflight did not compromise seed viability and the development of normal seedlings. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes (using RNAseq) in dry seeds and upon controlled artificial ageing treatment (CAAT) revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with spaceflight and ageing. DEG categories enriched by spaceflight and CAAT included transcription and translation with reduced transcript abundances for 40S and 60S ribosomal subunit genes. Among the 'spaceflight-up' DEGs were heat shock proteins (HSPs), DNAJ-related chaperones, a heat shock factor (HSFA7a-like), and components of several DNA repair pathways (e.g., ATM, DNA ligase 1). The 'response to radiation' category was especially enriched in 'spaceflight-up' DEGs including HSPs, catalases, and the transcription factor HY5. The major finding from the physiological and transcriptome analysis is that spaceflight causes vigor loss and partial ageing during air-dry seed storage, for which space environmental factors and consequences for seed storage during spaceflights are discussed.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 14(6): 12780-805, 2013 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23783276

RESUMO

Sesquiterpenoids, and specifically sesquiterpene lactones from Asteraceae, may play a highly significant role in human health, both as part of a balanced diet and as pharmaceutical agents, due to their potential for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights the role of sesquiterpene lactones endogenously in the plants that produce them, and explores mechanisms by which they interact in animal and human consumers of these plants. Several mechanisms are proposed for the reduction of inflammation and tumorigenesis at potentially achievable levels in humans. Plants can be classified by their specific array of produced sesquiterpene lactones, showing high levels of translational control. Studies of folk medicines implicate sesquiterpene lactones as the active ingredient in many treatments for other ailments such as diarrhea, burns, influenza, and neurodegradation. In addition to the anti-inflammatory response, sesquiterpene lactones have been found to sensitize tumor cells to conventional drug treatments. This review explores the varied ecological roles of sesquiterpenes in the plant producer, depending upon the plant and the compound. These include allelopathy with other plants, insects, and microbes, thereby causing behavioural or developmental modification to these secondary organisms to the benefit of the sesquiterpenoid producer. Some sesquiterpenoid lactones are antimicrobial, disrupting the cell wall of fungi and invasive bacteria, whereas others protect the plant from environmental stresses that would otherwise cause oxidative damage. Many of the compounds are effective due to their bitter flavor, which has obvious implications for human consumers. The implications of sesquiterpenoid lactone qualities for future crop production are discussed.


Assuntos
Lactonas/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Sesquiterpenos/química , Paladar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...