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1.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction algorithms have long been used in health research and practice (e.g. prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes). However, similar tools have not been developed for mental health. For example, for psychotic disorders, attempts to sum environmental risk are rare, unsystematic and dictated by available data. In light of this, we sought to develop a valid, easy to use measure of the aggregate environmental risk score (ERS) for psychotic disorders. METHODS: We reviewed the literature to identify well-replicated and validated environmental risk factors for psychosis that combine a significant effect and large-enough prevalence. Pooled estimates of relative risks were taken from the largest available meta-analyses. We devised a method of scoring the level of exposure to each risk factor to estimate ERS. Relative risks were rounded as, due to the heterogeneity of the original studies, risk effects are imprecisely measured. RESULTS: Six risk factors (ethnic minority status, urbanicity, high paternal age, obstetric complications, cannabis use and childhood adversity) were used to generate the ERS. A distribution for different levels of risk based on simulated data showed that most of the population would be at low/moderate risk with a small minority at increased environmental risk for psychosis. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first systematic approach to develop an aggregate measure of environmental risk for psychoses in asymptomatic individuals. This can be used as a continuous measure of liability to disease; mostly relevant to areas where the original studies took place. Its predictive ability will improve with the collection of additional, population-specific data.

2.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361020

RESUMO

Psychotic patients with a lifetime history of cannabis use generally show better cognitive functioning than other psychotic patients. Some authors suggest that cannabis-using patients may have been less cognitively impaired and less socially withdrawn in their premorbid life. Using a dataset comprising 948 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 1313 population controls across 6 countries, we examined the extent to which IQ and both early academic (Academic Factor [AF]) and social adjustment (Social Factor [SF]) are related to the lifetime frequency of cannabis use in both patients and controls. We expected a higher IQ and a better premorbid social adjustment in psychotic patients who had ever used cannabis compared to patients without any history of use. We did not expect such differences in controls. In both patients and controls, IQ was 3 points higher among occasional-users than in never-users (mean difference [Mdiff] = 2.9, 95% CI = [1.2, 4.7]). Both cases and control daily-users had lower AF compared to occasional (Mdiff = -0.3, 95% CI = [-0.5; -0.2]) and never-users (Mdiff = -0.4, 95% CI = [-0.6; -0.2]). Finally, patient occasional (Mdiff = 0.3, 95% CI = [0.1; 0.5]) and daily-users (Mdiff = 0.4, 95% CI = [0.2; 0.6]) had better SF than their never-using counterparts. This difference was not present in controls (Fgroup*frequency(2, 2205) = 4.995, P = .007). Our findings suggest that the better premorbid social functioning of FEP with a history of cannabis use may have contributed to their likelihood to begin using cannabis, exposing them to its reported risk-increasing effects for Psychotic Disorders.

3.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

4.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930036

RESUMO

Initial affective and psychotic reactivity to daily stressors is altered in psychosis, and most notably in early psychosis. In addition to altered initial stress reactivity, results from studies using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM) and psychophysiological measures indicate that impaired recovery from mild stressors may also be a risk factor for mental illness. The current ESM study investigated affective recovery from daily stressors in chronic psychosis patients (CP; n = 162), individuals at early stages of psychosis (EP; n = 127), and healthy volunteers (HV; n = 220) assessing fluctuations in negative affect (NA), tension, and suspiciousness ten times a day on six consecutive days. Recovery was operationalized for all three variables as the return to baseline (i.e., level at t-1) following the first stressful event of a day (i.e., t0). The EP group showed a delayed recovery of NA (t1-t3: B = 0.185; p = .007 and B = 0.228; p = .002) and suspiciousness (t1: B = 0.223; p = .010 and B = 0.291; p = .002) compared to HV and CP, respectively. Delayed recovery was detected for tension as well (t1-t2: EP > HV: B = 0.242; p = .040 and EP > CP: B = 0.284; p = .023), but contrary to both other momentary states, this effect disappeared when controlling for subsequent stressful events. There were no significant differences in recovery between HV and CP. These results suggest that in EP, stressful daily events have longer-lasting effects on overall negative affect and subclinical psychotic-like experiences. Future studies should incorporate physiological and endocrine measures in order to integrate recovery patterns of the different stress systems.

5.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(5): 427-436, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of later psychotic disorder but whether it affects incidence of the disorder remains unclear. We aimed to identify patterns of cannabis use with the strongest effect on odds of psychotic disorder across Europe and explore whether differences in such patterns contribute to variations in the incidence rates of psychotic disorder. METHODS: We included patients aged 18-64 years who presented to psychiatric services in 11 sites across Europe and Brazil with first-episode psychosis and recruited controls representative of the local populations. We applied adjusted logistic regression models to the data to estimate which patterns of cannabis use carried the highest odds for psychotic disorder. Using Europe-wide and national data on the expected concentration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the different types of cannabis available across the sites, we divided the types of cannabis used by participants into two categories: low potency (THC <10%) and high potency (THC ≥10%). Assuming causality, we calculated the population attributable fractions (PAFs) for the patterns of cannabis use associated with the highest odds of psychosis and the correlation between such patterns and the incidence rates for psychotic disorder across the study sites. FINDINGS: Between May 1, 2010, and April 1, 2015, we obtained data from 901 patients with first-episode psychosis across 11 sites and 1237 population controls from those same sites. Daily cannabis use was associated with increased odds of psychotic disorder compared with never users (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3·2, 95% CI 2·2-4·1), increasing to nearly five-times increased odds for daily use of high-potency types of cannabis (4·8, 2·5-6·3). The PAFs calculated indicated that if high-potency cannabis were no longer available, 12·2% (95% CI 3·0-16·1) of cases of first-episode psychosis could be prevented across the 11 sites, rising to 30·3% (15·2-40·0) in London and 50·3% (27·4-66·0) in Amsterdam. The adjusted incident rates for psychotic disorder were positively correlated with the prevalence in controls across the 11 sites of use of high-potency cannabis (r = 0·7; p=0·0286) and daily use (r = 0·8; p=0·0109). INTERPRETATION: Differences in frequency of daily cannabis use and in use of high-potency cannabis contributed to the striking variation in the incidence of psychotic disorder across the 11 studied sites. Given the increasing availability of high-potency cannabis, this has important implications for public health. FUNDING SOURCE: Medical Research Council, the European Community's Seventh Framework Program grant, São Paulo Research Foundation, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London and the NIHR BRC at University College London, Wellcome Trust.

6.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(7): 871-881, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Compared with the majority population, those from minority ethnic groups in the UK are more likely to be admitted compulsorily during a first episode of psychosis (FEP). We investigated whether these disparities in pathways in to care continue. METHODS: We analysed data from two first episode psychosis studies, conducted in the same geographical area in south London 15 years apart: the Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychosis (AESOP) and the Clinical Record Interactive Search-First Episode Psychosis (CRIS-FEP) studies. The inclusion/exclusion criteria for case ascertainment for first episode psychosis were identical across the two studies. We performed multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of compulsory admission by ethnic group, controlling for confounders. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred sixty-six patients with first episode psychosis, aged 18-64 years, who presented to mental health services in south London in 1997-1999 and 446 with FEP who presented in 2010-2012. RESULTS: When the two samples  were compared, ethnic differences in compulsory admission appear to have remained the same for black African patients, i.e. three times higher than white British in both samples: AESOP (adj. OR = 3.96; 95% CI = 1.80-8.71) vs. CRIS-FEP (adj. OR = 3.12; 95% CI = 1.52-6.35). Black Caribbean patients were three times more likely to be compulsorily admitted in AESOP (adj. OR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.56-6.54). This was lower in the CRIS-FEP sample (adj. OR = 1.68; 95% CI = 0.71-3.98) and did not meet conventional levels for statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Ethnicity is strongly associated with compulsory admissions at first presentation for psychosis with evidence of heterogeneity across groups, which deserves further research.

7.
Psychol Med ; : 1-14, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The value of the nosological distinction between non-affective and affective psychosis has frequently been challenged. We aimed to investigate the transdiagnostic dimensional structure and associated characteristics of psychopathology at First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Regardless of diagnostic categories, we expected that positive symptoms occurred more frequently in ethnic minority groups and in more densely populated environments, and that negative symptoms were associated with indices of neurodevelopmental impairment. METHOD: This study included 2182 FEP individuals recruited across six countries, as part of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Symptom ratings were analysed using multidimensional item response modelling in Mplus to estimate five theory-based models of psychosis. We used multiple regression models to examine demographic and context factors associated with symptom dimensions. RESULTS: A bifactor model, composed of one general factor and five specific dimensions of positive, negative, disorganization, manic and depressive symptoms, best-represented associations among ratings of psychotic symptoms. Positive symptoms were more common in ethnic minority groups. Urbanicity was associated with a higher score on the general factor. Men presented with more negative and less depressive symptoms than women. Early age-at-first-contact with psychiatric services was associated with higher scores on negative, disorganized, and manic symptom dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the bifactor model of psychopathology holds across diagnostic categories of non-affective and affective psychosis at FEP, and demographic and context determinants map onto general and specific symptom dimensions. These findings have implications for tailoring symptom-specific treatments and inform research into the mood-psychosis spectrum.

8.
Schizophr Bull ; 2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189093

RESUMO

Cognitive models of psychosis posit that reasoning biases are an important mechanism contributing to the formation of psychotic symptoms, in part through transforming anomalous experiences of aberrant salience into frank psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the interplay of liberal acceptance (LA) bias, which is a specific type of reasoning bias, and momentary aberrant salience in the development of paranoid and psychotic experiences in daily life in first-episode psychosis patients (FEP), at-risk mental state participants (ARMS), and controls. We used a novel experimental Experience Sampling Methodology (eESM) task for measuring LA bias (ie, decisions based on low probability estimates) and ESM measures of momentary aberrant salience and paranoid and psychotic experiences in 51 FEP, 46 ARMS, and 53 controls. We found evidence that LA bias was more likely to occur in FEP than in controls. Further, LA bias was associated with psychotic and paranoid experiences (all P < .007) and modified the association between momentary aberrant salience and psychotic experiences (χ2(df) = 7.4(2), P = .025) in ARMS, such that momentary salience was associated with more intense psychotic experiences in the presence of LA bias in ARMS, but not in FEP and controls. Our findings suggest that LA bias may be central for anomalous experiences such as momentary aberrant salience to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in at-risk individuals. Further, LA bias appears to be more likely to be present, but not directly linked to current intensity of psychotic experiences, in treated FEP. Novel eESM tasks open new avenues for targeting psychological processes under real-world conditions.

9.
Schizophr Res ; 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29776641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood abuse is highly prevalent in psychosis patients, but whether/how it affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis at the onset of psychosis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of severity of childhood abuse on HPA axis activity, in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and healthy controls. METHODS: We recruited 169 FEP patients and 133 controls with different degrees of childhood physical and sexual abuse (i.e. no abuse exposure, non-severe abuse exposure, and severe abuse exposure). Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol awakening response with respect to ground (CARg), increase (CARi) and diurnal (CDD) cortisol levels. Two-way ANOVA analyses were conducted to test the relationships between severity of childhood abuse and psychosis on cortisol levels in individuals with psychosis and healthy controls with and without childhood abuse history. RESULTS: A statistically significant interaction between childhood abuse and psychosis on CARg was found (F(2,262) = 4.60, p = 0.011, ω2 = 0.42). Overall, controls showed a U-shaped relationship between abuse exposure and CARg, while patients showed an inverted U-shaped relationship. CARg values were markedly different between patients and controls with either no abuse history or exposure to severe childhood abuse. No significant differences were found when looking at CARi and CDD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a divergent effect of severe childhood abuse on HPA axis activity in patients with first-episode psychosis and in controls. In the presence of exposure to severe childhood abuse, a blunted CARg and a less reactive HPA axis may represent one of the biological mechanisms involved in the development of psychosis.

10.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(1): 36-46, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214289

RESUMO

Importance: Psychotic disorders contribute significantly to the global disease burden, yet the latest international incidence study of psychotic disorders was conducted in the 1980s. Objectives: To estimate the incidence of psychotic disorders using comparable methods across 17 catchment areas in 6 countries and to examine the variance between catchment areas by putative environmental risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: An international multisite incidence study (the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene-Environment Interactions) was conducted from May 1, 2010, to April 1, 2015, among 2774 individuals from England (2 catchment areas), France (3 catchment areas), Italy (3 catchment areas), the Netherlands (2 catchment areas), Spain (6 catchment areas), and Brazil (1 catchment area) with a first episode of nonorganic psychotic disorders (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] codes F20-F33) confirmed by the Operational Criteria Checklist. Denominator populations were estimated using official national statistics. Exposures: Age, sex, and racial/ethnic minority status were treated as a priori confounders. Latitude, population density, percentage unemployment, owner-occupied housing, and single-person households were treated as catchment area-level exposures. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of nonorganic psychotic disorders (ICD-10 codes F20-F33), nonaffective psychoses (ICD-10 codes F20-F29), and affective psychoses (ICD-10 codes F30-F33) confirmed by the Operational Criteria Checklist. Results: A total of 2774 patients (1196 women and 1578 men; median age, 30.5 years [interquartile range, 23.0-41.0 years]) with incident cases of psychotic disorders were identified during 12.9 million person-years at risk (crude incidence, 21.4 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI, 19.4-23.4 per 100 000 person-years). A total of 2183 patients (78.7%) had nonaffective psychotic disorders. After direct standardization for age, sex, and racial/ethnic minority status, an 8-fold variation was seen in the incidence of all psychotic disorders, from 6.0 (95% CI, 3.5-8.6) per 100 000 person-years in Santiago, Spain, to 46.1 (95% CI, 37.3-55.0) per 100 000 person-years in Paris, France. Rates were elevated in racial/ethnic minority groups (incidence rate ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.5-1.7), were highest for men 18 to 24 years of age, and were lower in catchment areas with more owner-occupied homes (incidence rate ratio, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.8). Similar patterns were observed for nonaffective psychoses; a lower incidence of affective psychoses was associated with higher area-level unemployment (incidence rate ratio, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.5). Conclusions and Relevance: This study confirmed marked heterogeneity in risk for psychotic disorders by person and place, including higher rates in younger men, racial/ethnic minorities, and areas characterized by a lower percentage of owner-occupied houses.

11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 17(1): 308, 2017 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28841826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) who had first presented to prodromal services with an "at risk mental state" (ARMS) before making the transition to psychosis. We set out to identify the proportion of patients with a FEP who had first presented to prodromal services in the ARMS state, and to compare these FEP patients with FEP patients who did not have prior contact with prodromal services. METHODS: In this study information on 338 patients aged ≤37 years who presented to mental health services between 2010 and 2012 with a FEP was examined. The data on pathways to care, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were extracted from the Biomedical Research Council Case Register for the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust. RESULTS: Over 2 years, 14 (4.1% of n = 338) young adults presented with FEP and had been seen previously by the prodromal services. These ARMS patients were more likely to enter their pathway to psychiatric care via referral from General Practice, be born in the UK and to have had an insidious mode of illness onset than FEP patients without prior contact with the prodromal services. CONCLUSIONS: In the current pathways to care configuration, prodromal services are likely to prevent only a few at-risk individuals from transitioning to psychosis even if effective preventative treatments become available.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidado Periódico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
12.
Schizophr Bull ; 43(2): 302-315, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28204708

RESUMO

Several integrated models of psychosis have implicated adverse, stressful contexts and experiences, and affective and cognitive processes in the onset of psychosis. In these models, the effects of stress are posited to contribute to the development of psychotic experiences via pathways through affective disturbance, cognitive biases, and anomalous experiences. However, attempts to systematically test comprehensive models of these pathways remain sparse. Using the Experience Sampling Method in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls, we investigated how stress, enhanced threat anticipation, and experiences of aberrant salience combine to increase the intensity of psychotic experiences. We fitted multilevel moderated mediation models to investigate indirect effects across these groups. We found that the effects of stress on psychotic experiences were mediated via pathways through affective disturbance in all 3 groups. The effect of stress on psychotic experiences was mediated by threat anticipation in FEP individuals and controls but not in ARMS individuals. There was only weak evidence of mediation via aberrant salience. However, aberrant salience retained a substantial direct effect on psychotic experiences, independently of stress, in all 3 groups. Our findings provide novel insights on the role of affective disturbance and threat anticipation in pathways through which stress impacts on the formation of psychotic experiences across different stages of early psychosis in daily life.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 3(10): 947-953, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27567467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cannabis use after a first episode of psychosis has been associated with relapse, little is known about the determinants of this most preventable risk factor for relapse of psychosis. Here we aimed to study whether the effects on outcome vary depending on the type of cannabis consumed and usage pattern. METHODS: In this observational study, we prospectively recruited and followed up patients aged 18-65 years who presented with their first episode of psychosis to psychiatric services in south London, London, UK. Relapse of psychosis within 2 years after onset of psychosis was defined as risk of subsequent admission to hospital. We classified patients into different patterns of cannabis use based on continuity of use after onset of psychosis, potency of cannabis consumed, and frequency of use after the onset of their illness. We used multiple regression analyses (logistic or binominal) to compare the different cannabis use groups and propensity score analysis to validate the results. FINDINGS: Between April 12, 2002, and July 26, 2013, 256 patients presented with a first episode of psychosis. We did follow-up assessments for these patients until September, 2015. Simple analyses showed that former regular users of cannabis who stopped after the onset of psychosis had the most favourable illness course with regards to relapse. In multiple analysis, continued high-frequency users (ie, daily use in all 24 months) of high-potency (skunk-like) cannabis had the worst outcome, indexed as an increased risk for a subsequent relapse (odds ratio [OR] 3·28; 95% CI 1·22-9·18), more relapses (incidence rate ratio 1·77; 95% CI 0·96-3·25), fewer months until a relapse occurred (b -0·22; 95% CI -0·40 to -0·04), and more intense psychiatric care (OR 3·16; 95% CI 1·26-8·09) after the onset of psychosis. INTERPRETATION: Adverse effects associated with continued use of cannabis after the onset of a first episode of psychosis depend on the specific patterns of use. Possible interventions could focus on persuading cannabis-using patients with psychosis to reduce use or shift to less potent forms of cannabis. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR).


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
World Psychiatry ; 15(2): 93-102, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27265690

RESUMO

There is a substantial body of research reporting evidence of associations between various forms of childhood adversity and psychosis, across the spectrum from experiences to disorder. This has been extended, more recently, to include studies of cumulative effects, of interactions with other factors, of specific effects, and of putative biological and psychological mechanisms. In this paper we evaluate this research and highlight the remaining methodological issues and gaps that temper, but do not dismiss, conclusions about the causal role of childhood adversity. We also consider the emerging work on cumulative, synergistic, and specific effects and on mechanisms; and discuss the broader implications of this line of research for our understanding of psychosis. We conclude that the current balance of evidence is that childhood adversities - particularly exposure to multiple adversities involving hostility and threat - do, in some people, contribute to the onset of psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders.

16.
Schizophr Bull ; 42(3): 712-22, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26834027

RESUMO

While contemporary models of psychosis have proposed a number of putative psychological mechanisms, how these impact on individuals to increase intensity of psychotic experiences in real life, outside the research laboratory, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether elevated stress sensitivity, experiences of aberrant novelty and salience, and enhanced anticipation of threat contribute to the development of psychotic experiences in daily life. We used the experience sampling method (ESM) to assess stress, negative affect, aberrant salience, threat anticipation, and psychotic experiences in 51 individuals with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 46 individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis, and 53 controls with no personal or family history of psychosis. Linear mixed models were used to account for the multilevel structure of ESM data. In all 3 groups, elevated stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and enhanced threat anticipation were associated with an increased intensity of psychotic experiences. However, elevated sensitivity to minor stressful events (χ(2)= 6.3,P= 0.044), activities (χ(2)= 6.7,P= 0.036), and areas (χ(2)= 9.4,P= 0.009) and enhanced threat anticipation (χ(2)= 9.3,P= 0.009) were associated with more intense psychotic experiences in FEP individuals than controls. Sensitivity to outsider status (χ(2)= 5.7,P= 0.058) and aberrantly salient experiences (χ(2)= 12.3,P= 0.002) were more strongly associated with psychotic experiences in ARMS individuals than controls. Our findings suggest that stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation are important psychological processes in the development of psychotic experiences in daily life in the early stages of the disorder.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Medo/fisiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 50(10): 1489-500, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25893995

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Childhood adversity (variously defined) is a robust risk factor for psychosis, yet the mitigating effects of social support in adulthood have not yet been explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult psychosis, and gender differences in levels of perceived social support. METHODS: A sample of 202 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychosis and 266 population-based controls from south-east London and Nottingham, UK, was utilised. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to elicit retrospective reports of exposure to childhood adversity, and the Significant Others Questionnaire was completed to collect information on the current size of social networks and perceptions of emotional and practical support. RESULTS: There was evidence of an interaction between severe physical abuse and levels of support (namely, number of significant others; likelihood ratio test χ(2) = 3.90, p = 0.048). When stratified by gender, there were no clear associations between childhood physical or sexual abuse, current social support and odds of psychosis in men. In contrast, for women, the highest odds of psychosis were generally found in those who reported severe abuse and low levels of social support in adulthood. However, tests for interaction by gender did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the importance of investigating the potential benefits of social support as a buffer against the development of adult psychosis amongst those, particularly women, with a history of early life stress.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Schizophr Bull ; 40(4): 729-36, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24860087

RESUMO

Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Esquizofrenia/genética , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Meio Social
20.
Schizophr Bull ; 39(4): 740-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23671196

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent models of psychosis implicate stressful events in its etiology. However, while evidence has accumulated for childhood trauma, the role of adult life events has received less attention. Therefore, a review of the existing literature on the relationship between life events and onset of psychotic disorder/experiences is timely. METHODS: A search was conducted using PsychInfo, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies of life events and the onset of psychosis or psychotic experiences within the general population. Given previous methodological concerns, this review included a novel quality assessment tool and focused on findings from the most robust studies. A meta-analysis was performed on a subgroup of 13 studies. RESULTS: Sixteen studies published between 1968 and 2012 were included. Of these, 14 reported positive associations between exposure to adult life events and subsequent onset of psychotic disorder/experiences. The meta-analysis yielded an overall weighted OR of 3.19 (95% CI 2.15-4.75). However, many studies were limited by small sample sizes and the use of checklist measures of life events, with no consideration of contextual influences on the meaning and interpretation of events. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have assessed the role of adult life events in the onset of psychosis. There was some evidence that reported exposure to adult life events was associated with increased risk of psychotic disorder and subclinical psychotic experiences. However, the methodological quality of the majority of studies was low, which urges caution in interpreting the results and points toward a need for more methodologically robust studies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
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