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1.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(2): 134-145, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varying conceptualizations of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) have made translating research findings or systematic reviews into clinical practice guidelines challenging and inconsistent. METHODS: We conducted a review for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to clarify how experts and investigators have defined TRD and to review systematically how well this definition comports with TRD definitions in clinical trials through July 5, 2019. RESULTS: We found that no consensus definition existed for TRD. The most common TRD definition for major depressive disorder required a minimum of two prior treatment failures and confirmation of prior adequate dose and duration. The most common TRD definition for bipolar disorder required one prior treatment failure. No clear consensus emerged on defining adequacy of either dose or duration. Our systematic review found that only 17% of intervention studies enrolled samples meeting the most frequently specified criteria for TRD. Depressive outcomes and clinical global impressions were commonly measured; functional impairment and quality-of-life tools were rarely used. CONCLUSIONS: Two key steps are critical to advancing TRD research: (a) Developing a consensus definition of TRD that addresses how best to specify the number of prior treatment failures and the adequacy of dose and duration; and (b) identifying a core package of outcome measures that can be applied in a standardized manner. Our recommendations about stronger approaches to designing and conducting TRD research will foster better evidence to translate into clearer guidelines for treating patients with this serious condition.

2.
Mol Psychiatry ; 25(2): 283-296, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745239

RESUMO

Adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) are common among civilian trauma survivors and military veterans. These APNS, as traditionally classified, include posttraumatic stress, postconcussion syndrome, depression, and regional or widespread pain. Traditional classifications have come to hamper scientific progress because they artificially fragment APNS into siloed, syndromic diagnoses unmoored to discrete components of brain functioning and studied in isolation. These limitations in classification and ontology slow the discovery of pathophysiologic mechanisms, biobehavioral markers, risk prediction tools, and preventive/treatment interventions. Progress in overcoming these limitations has been challenging because such progress would require studies that both evaluate a broad spectrum of posttraumatic sequelae (to overcome fragmentation) and also perform in-depth biobehavioral evaluation (to index sequelae to domains of brain function). This article summarizes the methods of the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA (AURORA) Study. AURORA conducts a large-scale (n = 5000 target sample) in-depth assessment of APNS development using a state-of-the-art battery of self-report, neurocognitive, physiologic, digital phenotyping, psychophysical, neuroimaging, and genomic assessments, beginning in the early aftermath of trauma and continuing for 1 year. The goals of AURORA are to achieve improved phenotypes, prediction tools, and understanding of molecular mechanisms to inform the future development and testing of preventive and treatment interventions.

3.
Harm Reduct J ; 16(1): 74, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Vietnam has been primarily driven by injection drug use. HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam have very high rates of mental health problems, which can accelerate progression to AIDS and increase mortality rates. No research has explored the barriers and facilitators of mental health care for HIV-infected PWID in Vietnam. METHODS: We conducted 28 in-depth interviews among HIV-infected PWID (n = 16), HIV and MMT (methadone maintenance treatment) providers (n = 8), and health officials (n = 4) in Hanoi. We explored participants' perceptions of mental health disorders, and barriers and facilitators to seeking and receiving mental health care. RESULTS: HIV-infected PWID were perceived by both PWID, HIV/MMT providers, and health officials to be vulnerable to mental health problems and to have great need for mental health care. Perceived social, physical, and economical barriers included stigma towards HIV, injection drug use, and mental illnesses; lack of awareness around mental health issues; lack of human resources, facilities and information on mental health services; and limited affordability of mental health services. Social support from family and healthcare providers was a perceived facilitator of mental health care. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions should raise self-awareness of HIV-infected PWID about common mental health problems; address social, physical, economic barriers to seeking mental health services; and increase social support for patients.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662876

RESUMO

Background: Integration of mental health services into nonspecialist settings is expanding in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Among many factors required for success, such programs require reliable administration of mental health screening tools. While several tools have been validated in carefully conducted research studies, few studies have assessed how reliably nonspecialist clinicians administer these tools to low-literacy LMIC populations in routine care. Methods: Ninety-seven patients accessing human immunodeficiency virus primary care in Malawi who completed Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 depression screening with their clinician then completed a second PHQ-9 with a trained research assistant (RA) blinded to the first result. Results: Compared to clinicians, RAs identified more patients with any depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 score ⩾5: 38% v. 32%), moderate/severe symptoms (PHQ-9 ⩾ 10: 14% v. 6%), any suicidality (14% v. 4%), and active suicidality (3% v. 2%). Across these indicators, clinician and RA ratings had strong overall agreement (81-97%) but low corrected Kappa agreement (31-59%). Treating RA results as the reference standard of a carefully supervised research administration of the PHQ-9, clinician administration had high specificity (90-99%) but low sensitivity (23-68%) for these indicators. Conclusions: In routine care in LMICs, clinicians may administer validated mental health screening tools with varying quality. To ensure quality, integration programs must incorporate appropriate and ongoing training, support, supervision, and monitoring.

5.
Subst Abus ; : 1-35, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403903

RESUMO

Background/aims: To examine trends in rural Appalachian opioid and related drug epidemics during the past 10 years, including at-risk populations, substance use shifts and correlates, and associated infections. Methods: We conducted this review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines. Seven databases were searched for quantitative studies, published between January 2006 and December 2017, of drug use, drug-related mortality, or associated infections in rural Appalachia. Results: Drug-related deaths increased in study states, and a high incidence of polydrug toxicity was noted. Rural substance use was most common among young, white males, with low education levels. A history of depression/anxiety was common among study populations. Prescription opioids were most commonly used, often in conjunction with sedatives. Women emerged as a distinct user subpopulation, with different routes of drug use initiation and drug sources. Injection drug use was accompanied by risky injection behaviors and was associated with hepatitis C. Conclusions: This review can help to inform substance use intervention development and implementation in rural Appalachian populations. Those at highest risk are young, white males who often engage in polysubstance use and have a history of mental health issues. Differences in risk factors among other groups and characteristics of drug use in rural Appalachian populations that are conducive to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread also warrant consideration.

6.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(5)2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365193

RESUMO

Listen to experts and view their slides from a panel session at the American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology (ASCP) meeting, held on May 29, 2019, in Scottsdale, Arizona. Dr Murrough described the current understanding of depression etiology and new insights into antidepressant development. Dr Goldberg shared his expertise about whether antidepressant drugs with novel mechanisms of action can improve outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder. Dr Gaynes reviewed the link between major depressive disorder and elevated mortality risk and whether recovery from depression can reverse patients' mortality risk. Dr Citrome discussed current best practices and new medications for the treatment of depression. Finally, Dr Ketter provided his thoughts on his colleagues' presentations.

7.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(4): 536-542, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326248

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anxiety disorders in childhood might be associated with an increased risk of substance use disorders. Incident substance use-related diagnoses were quantified in the 2 years after youth were newly diagnosed with an anxiety disorder and in a similar cohort of youth without diagnosed anxiety. METHODS: Privately insured youth (10-17 years) were identified in a commercial claims database who were newly diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (2005-2014), treatment naïve, and without baseline substance-related disorder diagnoses. The comparison cohort included age, sex, region, and date matched youth with equivalent baseline exclusions. We used Kaplan-Meier estimator to calculate 2-year cumulative incidence of substance use disorder diagnosis following a new office-based anxiety disorder diagnosis (or match date for comparison cohort). RESULTS: In 131,271 youth with a new anxiety disorder diagnosis (male = 41%, median age = 14 years), 1.5% (95% confidence interval = 1.5-1.6) had an incident substance use disorder diagnosis 1 year after their anxiety diagnosis, 2.9% (95% confidence interval = 2.8-3.0) by 2 years. Over the same period, .5% and 1.1% of the comparison cohort had incident substance use disorder diagnoses (n = 1,321,701). In the anxiety cohort, 2-year incidence was higher in youth aged 14-17 years (4.6%) versus 10-13 years (.7%). Incidence of substance use diagnosis varied by anxiety disorder (e.g., 2-year incidence: 4.3% for post-traumatic stress disorder, 3.0% for generalized anxiety disorder). CONCLUSION: Approximately 3% of youth newly diagnosed with anxiety received an incident substance use disorder diagnosis within 2 years, almost threefold the incidence in youth without an anxiety diagnosis, emphasizing the need for increased awareness and prevention of substance-related disorders in pediatric anxiety.

8.
AIDS Behav ; 23(12): 3444-3451, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297682

RESUMO

Psychiatric comorbidity, the presence of two or more psychiatric disorders, leads to worse HIV outcomes in the United States; this relationship has not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a preliminary study to describe the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity (unipolar mood, anxiety, and trauma disorders) among 363 adults prior to HIV testing at Witkoppen Health and Welfare Centre, a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. We also examined whether psychiatric comorbidity predicted subsequent linkage to HIV care 3 months later. Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity prior to HIV testing was approximately 5.5%. In the final HIV-positive subsample (n = 76), psychiatric comorbidity of unipolar mood, anxiety, and trauma disorders did not predict linkage to care [adjusted relative risk = 1.01 (0.59, 1.71)] or number of follow-up appointments (adjusted relative risk = 0.86 (0.40, 1.82)]. A similar psychiatric profile emerged for HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals before becoming aware of their HIV status. The psychiatric burden typically seen in HIV-positive individuals may manifest over time.

9.
AIDS Behav ; 23(Suppl 2): 153-161, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317365

RESUMO

Despite widespread HIV screening and treatment programs across sub-Saharan Africa, many countries are not on course to meet the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS 90-90-90 targets. As mental health disorders such as depression are prevalent among people living with HIV, investment in understanding and addressing comorbid depression is increasing. This manuscript aims to assess depression and HIV management in sub-Saharan Africa using a 90-90-90 lens through a discussion of: depression and the HIV care continuum; the state of depression screening and treatment; and innovations such as task-shifting strategies for depression management. Due to the lack of mental health infrastructure and human resources, task-shifting approaches that integrate mental health management into existing primary and community health programs are increasingly being piloted and adopted across the region. Greater integration of such mental health care task-shifting into HIV programs will be critical to realizing the 90-90-90 goals and ending the HIV epidemic.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Metas , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento , Nações Unidas
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 827, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression, prevalent among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Malawi, is associated with negative HIV patient outcomes and likely affects HIV medical management. Despite the high prevalence of depression, its management has not been integrated into HIV care in Malawi or most low-income countries. METHODS: This study employs a pre-post design in two HIV clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi, to evaluate the effect of integrating depression management into routine HIV care on both mental health and HIV outcomes. Using a multiple baseline design, this study is examining mental health and HIV outcome data of adult (≥18 years) patients newly initiating ART who also have depression, comparing those entering care before and after the integration of depression screening and treatment into HIV care. The study is also collecting cost information to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the program in improving rates of depression remission and HIV treatment engagement and success. DISCUSSION: We anticipate that the study will generate evidence on the effect of depression management on HIV outcomes and the feasibility of integrating depression management into existing HIV care clinics. The results of the study will inform practice and policy decisions on integration of depression management in HIV care clinics in Malawi and related settings, and will help design a next-step strategy to scale-up integration to a larger scale. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID [ NCT03555669 ]. Retrospectively registered on 13 June 2018.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Assistência ao Paciente , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Cancer ; 125(19): 3418-3427, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis and treatment of depression are cancer care priorities. These priorities are critical for prostate cancer survivors because men rarely seek mental health care. However, little is known about the epidemiology of depression in this patient population. The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of probable depression in prostate cancer survivors. METHODS: The data were from a population-based cohort of North Carolinian prostate cancer survivors who were enrolled from 2004 to 2007 in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (n = 1031) and were prospectively followed annually from 2008 to 2011 in the Health Care Access and Prostate Cancer Treatment in North Carolina study (n = 805). Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate an indicator of probable depression (Short Form 12 mental composite score ≤48.9; measured at enrollment and during the annual follow-up) as a function of individual-level characteristics within the longitudinal data set. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable depression fell from 38% in the year of the cancer diagnosis to 20% 6 to 7 years later. Risk factors for probable depression throughout the study were African American race, unemployment, low annual income, younger age, recency of cancer diagnosis, past depression, comorbidities, treatment decisional regret, and nonadherence to exercise recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Depression is a major challenge for prostate cancer survivors, particularly in the first 5 years after the cancer diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an association between treatment decisional regret and probable depression.

12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD011271, 2019 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes that most commonly starts in autumn or winter and remits in spring. The prevalence of SAD depends on latitude and ranges from 1.5% to 9%. The predictable seasonal aspect of SAD provides a promising opportunity for prevention in people who have a history of SAD. This is one of four reviews on the efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent SAD; we focus on agomelatine and melatonin as preventive interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of agomelatine and melatonin (in comparison with each other, placebo, second-generation antidepressants, light therapy, psychological therapy or lifestyle interventions) in preventing SAD and improving person-centred outcomes among adults with a history of SAD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950- ), Embase (1974- ), PsycINFO (1967- ) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to 19 June 2018. An earlier search of these databases was conducted via the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trial Register (CCMD-CTR) (all years to 11 August 2015). Furthermore, we searched the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database and international trial registers (to 19 June 2018). We also conducted a grey literature search and handsearched the reference lists of included studies and pertinent review articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: To examine efficacy, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on adults with a history of winter-type SAD who were free of symptoms at the beginning of the study. For adverse events, we intended also to include non-randomised studies. We planned to include studies that compared agomelatine versus melatonin, or agomelatine or melatonin versus placebo, any second-generation antidepressant, light therapy, psychological therapies or lifestyle changes. We also intended to compare melatonin or agomelatine in combination with any of the comparator interventions mentioned above versus the same comparator intervention as monotherapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened abstracts and full-text publications, abstracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies independently. We intended to pool data in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model, but included only one study. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 3745 citations through electronic searches and reviews of reference lists after deduplication of search results. We excluded 3619 records during title and abstract review and assessed 126 full-text papers for inclusion in the review. Only one study, providing data of 225 participants, met our eligibility criteria and compared agomelatine (25 mg/day) with placebo. We rated it as having high risk of attrition bias because nearly half of the participants left the study before completion. We rated the certainty of the evidence as very low for all outcomes, because of high risk of bias, indirectness, and imprecision.The main analysis based on data of 199 participants rendered an indeterminate result with wide confidence intervals (CIs) that may encompass both a relevant reduction as well as a relevant increase of SAD incidence by agomelatine (risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.34; 199 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Also the severity of SAD may be similar in both groups at the end of the study with a mean SIGH-SAD (Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorders) score of 8.3 (standard deviation (SD) 9.4) in the agomelatine group and 10.1 (SD 10.6) in the placebo group (mean difference (MD) -1.80, 95% CI -4.58 to 0.98; 199 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events may be similar in both groups. In the agomelatine group, 64 out of 112 participants experienced at least one adverse event, while 61 out of 113 did in the placebo group (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.34; 225 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Three out of 112 patients experienced serious adverse events in the agomelatine group, compared to 4 out of 113 in the placebo group (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.17 to 3.30; 225 participants; very low-certainty evidence).No data on quality of life or interpersonal functioning were reported. We did not identify any studies on melatonin. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Given the uncertain evidence on agomelatine and the absence of studies on melatonin, no conclusion about efficacy and safety of agomelatine and melatonin for prevention of SAD can currently be drawn. The decision for or against initiating preventive treatment of SAD and the treatment selected should consider patient preferences and reflect on the evidence base of all available treatment options.

13.
Cancer Med ; 8(8): 3648-3658, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate depression care is a cancer-care priority. However, many cancer survivors live with undiagnosed and untreated depression. Prostate cancer survivors may be particularly vulnerable, but little is known about their access to depression care. The goal of this study was to describe patterns and predictors of clinical diagnosis and treatment of depression in prostate cancer survivors. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate indicators of self-reported clinical diagnosis and treatment depression as a function of individual-level characteristics within a longitudinal dataset. The data were from a population-based cohort of North Carolinian prostate cancer survivors who were enrolled from 2004 to 2007 on the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (N = 1,031), and prospectively followed annually from 2008 to 2011 on the Health Care Access and Prostate Cancer Treatment in North Carolina (N = 805). RESULTS: The average rate of self-reported clinical diagnosis of depression was 44% (95% CI: 39%-49%), which declined from 60% to 40% between prostate cancer diagnosis and 5-7 years later. Factors associated with lower odds of self-reported clinical diagnosis of depression include African-American race, employment, age at enrollment, low education, infrequent primary care visits, and living with a prostate cancer diagnosis for more than 2 years. The average rate of self-reported depression treatment was 62% (95% CI: 55%-69%). Factors associated with lower odds of self-reported depression treatment included employment and living with a prostate cancer diagnosis for 2 or more years. CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer survivors experience barriers when in need of depression care.

14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD011270, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes that most commonly occurs during autumn or winter and remits in spring. The prevalence of SAD ranges from 1.5% to 9%, depending on latitude. The predictable seasonal aspect of SAD provides a promising opportunity for prevention. This is one of four reviews on the efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent SAD; we focus on psychological therapies as preventive interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of psychological therapies (in comparison with no treatment, other types of psychological therapy, second-generation antidepressants, light therapy, melatonin or agomelatine or lifestyle interventions) in preventing SAD and improving person-centred outcomes among adults with a history of SAD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950- ), Embase (1974- ), PsycINFO (1967- ) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to 19 June 2018. An earlier search of these databases was conducted via the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trial Register (CCMD-CTR) (all years to 11 August 2015). Furthermore, we searched the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database and international trial registers (to 19 June 2018). We also conducted a grey literature search and handsearched the reference lists of included studies and pertinent review articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: To examine efficacy, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on adults with a history of winter-type SAD who were free of symptoms at the beginning of the study. To examine adverse events, we intended to include non-randomised studies. We planned to include studies that compared psychological therapy versus no treatment, or any other type of psychological therapy, light therapy, second-generation antidepressants, melatonin, agomelatine or lifestyle changes. We also planned to compare psychological therapy in combination with any of the comparator interventions listed above versus no treatment or the same comparator intervention as monotherapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened abstracts and full-text publications against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and graded the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 3745 citations through electronic searches and reviews of reference lists after deduplication of search results. We excluded 3619 records during title and abstract review and assessed 126 articles at full-text review for eligibility. We included one controlled study enrolling 46 participants. We rated this RCT at high risk for performance and detection bias due to a lack of blinding.The included RCT compared preventive use of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) with treatment as usual (TAU) in participants with a history of SAD. MBCT was administered in spring in eight weekly individual 45- to 60-minute sessions. In the TAU group participants did not receive any preventive treatment but were invited to start light therapy as first depressive symptoms occurred. Both groups were assessed weekly for occurrence of a new depressive episode measured with the Inventory of Depressive Syptomatology-Self-Report (IDS-SR, range 0-90) from September 2011 to mid-April 2012. The incidence of a new depressive episode in the upcoming winter was similar in both groups. In the MBCT group 65% of 23 participants developed depression (IDS-SR ≥ 20), compared to 74% of 23 people in the TAU group (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60 to 1.30; 46 participants; very low quality-evidence).For participants with depressive episodes, severity of depression was comparable between groups. Participants in the MBCT group had a mean score of 26.5 (SD 7.0) on the IDS-SR, and TAU participants a mean score of 25.3 (SD 6.3) (mean difference (MD) 1.20, 95% CI -3.44 to 5.84; 32 participants; very low quality-evidence).The overall discontinuation rate was similar too, with 17% discontinuing in the MBCT group and 13% in the TAU group (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.34 to 5.30; 46 participants; very low quality-evidence).Reasons for downgrading the quality of evidence included high risk of bias of the included study and imprecision.Investigators provided no information on adverse events. We could not find any studies that compared psychological therapy with other interventions of interest such as second-generation antidepressants, light therapy, melatonin or agomelatine. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence on psychological therapies to prevent the onset of a new depressive episode in people with a history of SAD is inconclusive. We identified only one study including 46 participants focusing on one type of psychological therapy. Methodological limitations and the small sample size preclude us from drawing a conclusion on benefits and harms of MBCT as a preventive intervention for SAD. Given that there is no comparative evidence for psychological therapy versus other preventive options, the decision for or against initiating preventive treatment of SAD and the treatment selected should be strongly based on patient preferences and other preventive interventions that are supported by evidence.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/prevenção & controle , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Humanos , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Fototerapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/terapia
15.
Burns Trauma ; 7: 9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923714

RESUMO

Background: Psychiatric and substance use disorders are common among trauma and burn patients and are known risk factors for repeat episodes of trauma, known as trauma recidivism. The epidemiology of burn recidivism, specifically, has not been described. This study aimed to characterize cases of burn recidivism at a large US tertiary care burn center and compare burn recidivists (RCs) with non-recidivists (NRCs). Methods: A 10-year retrospective descriptive cohort study of adult burn patients admitted to the North Carolina Jaycee Burn Center was conducted using data from an electronic burn registry and the medical record. Continuous variables were reported using medians and interquartile ranges (IQR). Chi-square and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare demographic, burn, and hospitalization characteristics between NRCs and RCs. Results: A total of 7134 burn patients were admitted, among which 51 (0.7%) were RCs and accounted for 129 (1.8%) admissions. Of the 51 RCs, 37 had two burn injuries each, totaling 74 admissions as a group, while the remaining 14 RCs had between three and eight burn injuries each, totaling 55 admissions as a group. Compared to NRCs, RCs were younger (median age 36 years vs. 42 years, p = 0.02) and more likely to be white (75% vs. 60%, p = 0.03), uninsured (45% vs. 30%, p = 0.02), have chemical burns (16% vs. 5%, p <  0.0001), and have burns that were ≤ 10% total body surface area (89% vs. 76%, p = 0.001). The mortality rate for RCs vs. NRCs did not differ (0% vs. 1.2%, p = 0.41). Psychiatric and substance use disorders were approximately five times greater among RCs compared to NRCs (75% vs. 15%, p <  0.001). Median total hospital charges per patient were nearly three times higher for RCs vs. NRCs ($85,736 vs. $32,023, p <  0.0001). Conclusions: Distinct from trauma recidivism, burn recidivism is not associated with more severe injury or increased mortality. Similar to trauma recidivists, but to a greater extent, burn RCs have high rates of comorbid psychiatric and medical conditions that contribute to increased health care utilization and costs. Studies involving larger samples from multiple centers can further clarify whether these findings are generalizable to national burn and trauma populations.

16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD011268, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes that most commonly occurs during autumn or winter and remits in spring. The prevalence of SAD ranges from 1.5% to 9%, depending on latitude. The predictable seasonal aspect of SAD provides a promising opportunity for prevention. This review - one of four reviews on efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent SAD - focuses on second-generation antidepressants (SGAs). OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of SGAs (in comparison with other SGAs, placebo, light therapy, melatonin or agomelatine, psychological therapies or lifestyle interventions) in preventing SAD and improving patient-centred outcomes among adults with a history of SAD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950- ), Embase (1974- ), PsycINFO (1967- ) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to 19 June 2018. An earlier search of these databases was conducted via the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trial Register (CCMD-CTR) (all years to 11 August 2015). Furthermore, we searched the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database and international trial registers (to 19 June 2018). We also conducted a grey literature search and handsearched the reference lists of included studies and pertinent review articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: For efficacy, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on adults with a history of winter-type SAD who were free of symptoms at the beginning of the study. For adverse events, we planned to include non-randomised studies. Eligible studies compared a SGA versus another SGA, placebo, light therapy, psychological therapy, melatonin, agomelatine or lifestyle changes. We also intended to compare SGAs in combination with any of the comparator interventions versus placebo or the same comparator intervention as monotherapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened abstracts and full-text publications, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. When data were sufficient, we conducted random-effects (Mantel-Haenszel) meta-analyses. We assessed statistical heterogeneity by calculating the Chi2 statistic and the Cochran Q. We used the I2 statistic to estimate the magnitude of heterogeneity. We assessed publication bias by using funnel plots.We rated the strength of the evidence using the system developed by the GRADE Working Group. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 3745 citations after de-duplication of search results and excluded 3619 records during title and abstract reviews. We assessed 126 full-text papers for inclusion in the review, of which four publications (on three RCTs) providing data from 1100 people met eligibility criteria for this review. All three RCTs had methodological limitations due to high attrition rates.Overall, moderate-quality evidence indicates that bupropion XL is an efficacious intervention for prevention of recurrence of depressive episodes in people with a history of SAD (risk ratio (RR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44 to 0.72; 3 RCTs, 1100 participants). However, bupropion XL leads to greater risk of headaches (moderate-quality evidence), insomnia and nausea (both low-quality evidence) when compared with placebo. Numbers needed to treat for additional beneficial outcomes (NNTBs) vary by baseline risks. For a population with a yearly recurrence rate of 30%, the NNTB is 8 (95% CI 6 to 12). For populations with yearly recurrence rates of 50% and 60%, NNTBs are 5 (95% CI 4 to 7) and 4 (95% CI 3 to 6), respectively.We could find no studies on other SGAs and no studies comparing SGAs with other interventions of interest, such as light therapy, psychological therapies, melatonin or agomelatine. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence indicates that bupropion XL is an effective intervention for prevention of recurrence of SAD. Nevertheless, even in a high-risk population, three out of four people will not benefit from preventive treatment with bupropion XL and will be at risk for harm. Clinicians need to discuss with patients advantages and disadvantages of preventive SGA treatment, and might want to consider offering other potentially efficacious interventions, which might confer a lower risk of adverse events. Given the lack of comparative evidence, the decision for or against initiating preventive treatment of SAD and the treatment selected should be strongly based on patient preferences.Future researchers need to assess the effectiveness and risk of harms of SGAs other than bupropion for prevention of SAD. Investigators also need to compare benefits and harms of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/efeitos adversos , Bupropiona/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Números Necessários para Tratar , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/induzido quimicamente
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD011269, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes that most commonly occurs during autumn or winter and remits in spring. The prevalence of SAD ranges from 1.5% to 9%, depending on latitude. The predictable seasonal aspect of SAD provides a promising opportunity for prevention. This review - one of four reviews on efficacy and safety of interventions to prevent SAD - focuses on light therapy as a preventive intervention. Light therapy is a non-pharmacological treatment that exposes people to artificial light. Mode of delivery and form of light vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of light therapy (in comparison with no treatment, other types of light therapy, second-generation antidepressants, melatonin, agomelatine, psychological therapies, lifestyle interventions and negative ion generators) in preventing SAD and improving patient-centred outcomes among adults with a history of SAD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Ovid MEDLINE (1950- ), Embase (1974- ), PsycINFO (1967- ) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to 19 June 2018. An earlier search of these databases was conducted via the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trial Register (CCMD-CTR) (all years to 11 August 2015). Furthermore, we searched the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database and international trial registers (to 19 June 2018). We also conducted a grey literature search and handsearched the reference lists of included studies and pertinent review articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: For efficacy, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on adults with a history of winter-type SAD who were free of symptoms at the beginning of the study. For adverse events, we also intended to include non-randomised studies. We intended to include studies that compared any type of light therapy (e.g. bright white light, administered by visors or light boxes, infrared light, dawn stimulation) versus no treatment/placebo, second-generation antidepressants, psychological therapies, melatonin, agomelatine, lifestyle changes, negative ion generators or another of the aforementioned light therapies. We also planned to include studies that looked at light therapy in combination with any comparator intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened abstracts and full-text publications, independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 3745 citations after de-duplication of search results. We excluded 3619 records during title and abstract review. We assessed 126 full-text papers for inclusion in the review, but only one study providing data from 46 people met our eligibility criteria. The included RCT had methodological limitations. We rated it as having high risk of performance and detection bias because of lack of blinding, and as having high risk of attrition bias because study authors did not report reasons for dropouts and did not integrate data from dropouts into the analysis.The included RCT compared preventive use of bright white light (2500 lux via visors), infrared light (0.18 lux via visors) and no light treatment. Overall, white light and infrared light therapy reduced the incidence of SAD numerically compared with no light therapy. In all, 43% (6/14) of participants in the bright light group developed SAD, as well as 33% (5/15) in the infrared light group and 67% (6/9) in the non-treatment group. Bright light therapy reduced the risk of SAD incidence by 36%; however, the 95% confidence interval (CI) was very broad and included both possible effect sizes in favour of bright light therapy and those in favour of no light therapy (risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.38; 23 participants, very low-quality evidence). Infrared light reduced the risk of SAD by 50% compared with no light therapy, but the CI was also too broad to allow precise estimations of effect size (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.17; 24 participants, very low-quality evidence). Comparison of both forms of preventive light therapy versus each other yielded similar rates of incidence of depressive episodes in both groups (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.50 to 3.28; 29 participants, very low-quality evidence). Reasons for downgrading evidence quality included high risk of bias of the included study, imprecision and other limitations, such as self-rating of outcomes, lack of checking of compliance throughout the study duration and insufficient reporting of participant characteristics.Investigators provided no information on adverse events. We could find no studies that compared light therapy versus other interventions of interest such as second-generation antidepressants, psychological therapies, melatonin or agomelatine. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on light therapy as preventive treatment for people with a history of SAD is limited. Methodological limitations and the small sample size of the only available study have precluded review author conclusions on effects of light therapy for SAD. Given that comparative evidence for light therapy versus other preventive options is limited, the decision for or against initiating preventive treatment of SAD and the treatment selected should be strongly based on patient preferences.


Assuntos
Fototerapia , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
JAMA ; 321(6): 588-601, 2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747970

RESUMO

Importance: Depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is relatively common and can have adverse effects on both mother and child. Objective: To systematically review benefits and harms of primary care-relevant interventions to prevent perinatal depression, a major or minor depressive episode during pregnancy or up to 1 year after childbirth, to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMED (for publisher-supplied records only), PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; surveillance through December 5, 2018. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled intervention studies of interventions (eg, behavior-based, antidepressants, dietary supplements) to prevent perinatal depression in general populations of pregnant and postpartum individuals or in those at increased risk of perinatal depression. Large cohort studies were considered for harms of antidepressant use only. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles and quality rated included studies. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the benefits of the interventions. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depression status; depression symptoms; maternal, infant, and child health outcomes. Results: Fifty studies (N = 22 385) that met inclusion criteria were identified. Counseling interventions were the most widely studied interventions. Compared with controls, counseling interventions were associated with a lower likelihood of onset of perinatal depression (pooled risk ratio [RR], 0.61 [95% CI, 0.47-0.78]; 17 RCTs [n = 3094]; I2 = 39.0%). The absolute difference in the risk of perinatal depression ranged from 1.3% greater reduction in the control group to 31.8% greater reduction in the intervention group. Health system interventions showed a benefit in 3 studies (n = 5321) and had a pooled effect size similar to that of the counseling interventions, but the pooled effect was not statistically significant using a method appropriate for pooling a small number of studies (restricted maximum likelihood RR, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.22-1.53]; n = 4738; I2 = 66.3%; absolute risk reduction range, -3.1% to -13.1%). None of the behavior-based interventions reported on harms directly. A smaller percentage of participants prescribed sertraline had a depression recurrence compared with those prescribed placebo (7% vs 50%, P = .04) at 20 weeks postpartum in 1 very small RCT (n = 22 analyzed) but with an increased risk of adverse effects to the mother. Conclusions and Relevance: Counseling interventions can be effective in preventing perinatal depression, although most evidence was limited to women at increased risk for perinatal depression. A variety of other intervention approaches provided some evidence of effectiveness but lacked a robust evidence base and need further research.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Comportamental , Aconselhamento , Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Risco , Sertralina/efeitos adversos , Sertralina/uso terapêutico
19.
Depress Anxiety ; 36(2): 179-189, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental illnesses in children and associated with high healthcare utilization. We aimed to estimate 2-year cumulative incidence of mental health-related hospitalizations, treated self-harm, and emergency room (ER) visits in children newly diagnosed with anxiety disorders and, for context, in children without anxiety disorders. METHODS: We identified commercially insured treatment naïve children (3-17 years) with a new office-based anxiety disorder diagnosis (ICD-9-CM) from 2005-2014 in the MarketScan claims database. We followed children for up to 2 years after diagnosis for the first of each event: mental health-related hospitalization, inpatient, treated self-harm, and ER visits (any, anxiety-related, injury-related). Children without anxiety diagnoses were included as comparators, matched on age, sex, date, and region. We estimated cumulative incidence of each event using Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS: From 2005-2014, we identified 198,450 children with a new anxiety diagnosis. One-year after anxiety diagnosis, 2.0% of children had a mental health-related hospitalization, 0.08% inpatient, treated self-harm, 1.4% anxiety-related ER visit, and 20% any ER visit; incidence was highest in older children with baseline comorbid depression. One-year cumulative incidence of each event was lower in the comparison cohort without anxiety (e.g., mental health-related hospitalizations = 0.5%, treated self-harm = 0.01%, and ER visits = 13%). CONCLUSIONS: Given the prevalence of anxiety disorders, 2-year incidence estimates translate to a significant number of children experiencing each event. Our findings offer caregivers, providers, and patients information to better understand the burden of anxiety disorders and can help anticipate healthcare utilization and inform efforts to prevent these serious events.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/terapia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
AIDS Behav ; 23(3): 592-601, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288684

RESUMO

Little is known about disparities in depression prevalence, treatment, and remission by psychiatric comorbidities and substance use among persons living with HIV (PLWH). We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in a large cohort of PLWH in routine care and analyzed conditional probabilities of having an indication for depression treatment, receiving treatment, receiving indicated treatment adjustments, and achieving remission, stratified by alcohol use, illicit drug use, and panic symptoms. Overall, 34.7% (95% CI 33.9-35.5%) of participants had an indication for depression treatment and of these, 55.3% (53.8-56.8%) were receiving antidepressants. Among patients receiving antidepressants, 33.0% (31.1-34.9%) had evidence of remitted depression. In a subsample of sites with antidepressant dosage data, only 8.8% (6.7-11.5%) of patients received an indicated treatment adjustment. Current drug users (45.8%, 95% CI 43.6-48.1%) and patients reporting full symptoms of panic disorder (75.0%, 95% CI 72.9-77.1%) were most likely to have an indication for antidepressant treatment, least likely to receive treatment given an indication (current drug use: 47.6%, 95% CI 44.3-51.0%; full panic symptoms: 50.8%, 95% CI 48.0-53.6%), or have evidence of remitted depression when treated (22.3%, 95% CI 18.5-26.6%; and 7.3%, 95% CI 5.5-9.6%, respectively). In a multivariable model, drug use and panic symptoms were independently associated with poorer outcomes along the depression treatment cascade. Few differences were evident by alcohol use. Current drug users were most likely to have an indication for depression treatment, but were least likely to be receiving treatment or to have remitted depression. These same disparities were even more starkly evident among patients with co-occurring symptoms of panic disorder compared to those without. Achieving improvements in the depression treatment cascade will likely require attention to substance use and psychiatric comorbidities.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Pânico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Estados Unidos
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