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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7446, 2022 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523980

RESUMO

The optimal oxygen concentration is unclear for normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) of livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD). Our purposes were to investigate the effect of air-ventilated NMP on the DCD liver, analyze the underlying mechanism and select the targets to predict liver functional recovery with NMP. NMP was performed using the NMP system with either air ventilation or oxygen ventilation for 2 h in the rat liver following warm ischemia and cold-storage preservation. Proteomics and metabolomics were used to reveal the significant molecular networks. The bioinformation analysis was validated by administering peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-γ (PPARγ) antagonist and agonist via perfusion circuit in the air-ventilated NMP. Results showed that air-ventilated NMP conferred a better functional recovery and a less inflammatory response in the rat DCD liver; integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis indicated that intrahepatic docosapentaenoic acid downregulation and upregulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression and activity were associated with DCD liver functional recovery with air-ventilated NMP; PPARγ antagonist worsened liver function under air-oxygenated NMP whereas PPARγ agonist played the opposite role. In conclusion, air-ventilated NMP confers a better liver function from DCD rats through the DAP-PPARγ-CYP2E1 axis; CYP2E1 activity provides a biomarker of liver functional recovery from DCD.


Assuntos
Citocromo P-450 CYP2E1 , Transplante de Fígado , Perfusão , Animais , Fígado , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Oxigênio , PPAR gama , Perfusão/métodos , Ratos
2.
Front Nutr ; 9: 844195, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35284458

RESUMO

Pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitor therapy has been validated as an efficacious way for preventing and treating obesity and overweight. In the past few decades, porcine PL (pPL) is widely used as the enzyme source for screening the PL inhibitors, which generates a wide range of pPL inhibitors. By contrast, the efficacious inhibitors against human PL (hPL) are rarely reported. This study aims to discover the naturally occurring hPL inhibitors from edible herbal medicines (HMs) and to characterize the inhibitory mechanisms of the newly identified hPL inhibitors. Following the screening of the inhibition potentials of more than 100 HMs against hPL, Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (AGE) displayed the most potent hPL inhibition activity. After that, the major constituents in AGE were identified and purified, while their anti-hPL effects were assayed in vitro. The results clearly showed that two abundant constituents in AGE (dihydromyricetin and iso-dihydromyricetin) were moderate hPL inhibitors, while myricetin and quercetin were strong hPL inhibitors [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) values were around 1.5 µM]. Inhibition kinetic analyses demonstrated that myricetin and quercetin potently inhibited hPL-catalyzed near-infrared fluorogenic substrate of human pancreatic lipase (DDAO-ol) hydrolysis in a non-competitive inhibition manner, with K i values of 2.04 and 2.33 µM, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that myricetin and quercetin could stably bind on an allosteric site of hPL. Collectively, this study reveals the key anti-obesity constituents in AGE and elucidates their inhibitory mechanisms against hPL, which offers convincing evidence to support the anti-obesity and lipid-lowering effects of this edible herb.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 815235, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264954

RESUMO

Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (hUGT1A1) is one of the most essential phase II enzymes in humans. Dysfunction or strong inhibition of hUGT1A1 may result in hyperbilirubinaemia and clinically relevant drug/herb-drug interactions (DDIs/HDIs). Recently, a high-throughput fluorescence-based assay was constructed by us to find the compounds/herbal extracts with strong inhibition against intracellular hUGT1A1. Following screening of over one hundred of herbal products, the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL) displayed the most potent hUGT1A1 inhibition in HeLa-UGT1A1 cells (Hela cells overexpressed hUGT1A1). Further investigations demonstrated that four biflavones including bilobetin, isoginkgetin, sciadopitysin and ginkgetin, are key constituents responsible for hUGT1A1 inhibition in living cells. These biflavones potently inhibit hUGT1A1 in both human liver microsomes (HLM) and living cells, with the IC50 values ranging from 0.075 to 0.41 µM in living cells. Inhibition kinetic analyses and docking simulations suggested that four tested biflavones potently inhibit hUGT1A1-catalyzed NHPN-O-glucuronidation in HLM via a mixed inhibition manner, showing the K i values ranging from 0.07 to 0.74 µM. Collectively, our findings uncover the key constituents in GBL responsible for hUGT1A1 inhibition and decipher their inhibitory mechanisms against hUGT1A1, which will be very helpful for guiding the rational use of GBL-related herbal products in clinical settings.

4.
Food Funct ; 13(6): 3318-3328, 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35257124

RESUMO

Bile salt hydrolases (BSHs), a group of cysteine-hydrolases produced by gut microbes, play a crucial role in the hydrolysis of glycine- or taurine-conjugated bile acids and have been validated as key targets to modulate bile acid metabolism. This study aims to discover one or more efficacious inhibitors against a BSH produced by Lactobacillus salivarius (lsBSH) from natural products and to characterize the mechanism of the newly identified BSH inhibitor(s). Following screening of the inhibition potentials of more than 100 natural compounds against lsBSH, amentoflavone (AMF), a naturally occurring biflavone isolated from various medicinal plants, was discovered to be an efficacious BSH inhibitor (IC50 = 0.34 µM). Further investigation showed that AMF could strongly inhibit the lsBSH-catalyzed hydrolytic reaction in living gut microbes. Inhibition kinetic analyses demonstrated that AMF reversibly inhibited the lsBSH-catalyzed hydrolytic reaction in a mixed-inhibition manner, with an apparent Ki value of 0.65 µM. Fluorescence quenching assays suggested that AMF could quench the fluorescence of lsBSH via a static quenching procedure. Docking simulations suggested that AMF could be fitted into lsBSH at two distinct ligand-binding sites, mainly via hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, which explained well the mixed inhibition mode of this agent. Animal tests showed that the hydrolytic activities of BSHs in mice feces could be significantly blocked by AMF. In summary, this study reports that AMF is a strong, naturally occurring inhibitor of lsBSH, which offers a promising lead compound to develop novel agents for modulating bile acid metabolism in the host via targeting BSHs.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Lactobacillus salivarius/enzimologia , Amidoidrolases/química , Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Animais , Biflavonoides/química , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Domínio Catalítico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Fezes/enzimologia , Cinética , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 351: 109744, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774545

RESUMO

Remdesivir, an intravenous nucleotide prodrug, has been approved for treating COVID-19 in hospitalized adults and pediatric patients. Upon administration, remdesivir can be readily hydrolyzed to form its active form GS-441524, while the cleavage of the carboxylic ester into GS-704277 is the first step for remdesivir activation. This study aims to assign the key enzymes responsible for remdesivir hydrolysis in humans, as well as to investigate the kinetics of remdesivir hydrolysis in various enzyme sources. The results showed that remdesivir could be hydrolyzed to form GS-704277 in human plasma and the microsomes from human liver (HLMs), lung (HLuMs) and kidney (HKMs), while the hydrolytic rate of remdesivir in HLMs was the fastest. Chemical inhibition and reaction phenotyping assays suggested that human carboxylesterase 1 (hCES1A) played a predominant role in remdesivir hydrolysis, while cathepsin A (CTSA), acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BchE) contributed to a lesser extent. Enzymatic kinetic analyses demonstrated that remdesivir hydrolysis in hCES1A (SHUTCM) and HLMs showed similar kinetic plots and much closed Km values to each other. Meanwhile, GS-704277 formation rates were strongly correlated with the CES1A activities in HLM samples from different individual donors. Further investigation revealed that simvastatin (a therapeutic agent for adjuvant treating COVID-19) strongly inhibited remdesivir hydrolysis in both recombinant hCES1A and HLMs. Collectively, our findings reveal that hCES1A plays a predominant role in remdesivir hydrolysis in humans, which are very helpful for predicting inter-individual variability in response to remdesivir and for guiding the rational use of this anti-COVID-19 agent in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/química , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Carboxilesterase/química , Catepsina A/química , Catepsina A/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Fígado/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Sinvastatina/farmacologia
6.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(4): 1072-1081, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183756

RESUMO

Jingyin granules, a marketed antiviral herbal medicine, have been recommended for treating H1N1 influenza A virus infection and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. To fight viral diseases in a more efficient way, Jingyin granules are frequently co-administered in clinical settings with a variety of therapeutic agents, including antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, and other Western medicines. However, it is unclear whether Jingyin granules modulate the pharmacokinetics of Western drugs or trigger clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study aims to assess the inhibitory potency of the herbal extract of Jingyin granules (HEJG) against human drug-metabolizing enzymes and to clarify whether HEJG can modulate the pharmacokinetic profiles of Western drug(s) in vivo. The results clearly demonstrated that HEJG dose-dependently inhibited human CES1A, CES2A, CYPs1A, 2A6, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, and 2E1; this herbal medicine also time- and NADPH-dependently inhibited human CYP2C19 and CYP3A. In vivo tests showed that HEJG significantly increased the plasma exposure of lopinavir (a CYP3A-substrate drug) by 2.43-fold and strongly prolonged its half-life by 1.91-fold when HEJG (3 g/kg) was co-administered with lopinavir to rats. Further investigation revealed licochalcone A, licochalcone B, licochalcone C and echinatin in Radix Glycyrrhizae, as well as quercetin and kaempferol in Folium Llicis Purpureae, to be time-dependent CYP3A inhibitors. Collectively, our findings reveal that HEJG modulates the pharmacokinetics of CYP substrate-drug(s) by inactivating CYP3A, providing key information for both clinicians and patients to use herb-drug combinations for antiviral therapy in a scientific and reasonable way.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos , Ratos
7.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(12): 944-953, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34961592

RESUMO

Huosu Yangwei (HSYW) Formula is a traditioanl Chinese herbal medicine that has been extensively used to treat chronic atrophic gastritis, precancerous lesions of gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer. However, the effective compounds of HSYW and its related anti-tumor mechanisms are not completely understood. In the current study, 160 ingredients of HSYW were identified and 64 effective compounds were screened by the ADMET evaluation. Furthermore, 64 effective compounds and 2579 potential targets were mapped based on public databases. Animal experiments demonstrated that HSYW significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Transcriptional profiles revealed that 81 mRNAs were differentially expressed in HSYW-treated N87-bearing Balb/c mice. Network pharmacology and PPI network showed that 12 core genes acted as potential markers to evaluate the curative effects of HSYW. Bioinformatics and qRT-PCR results suggested that HSYW might regulate the mRNA expression of DNAJB4, CALD, AKR1C1, CST1, CASP1, PREX1, SOCS3 and PRDM1 against tumor growth in N87-bearing Balb/c mice.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Neoplasias Gástricas , Animais , Biomarcadores , China , Camundongos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
8.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 130: 112472, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702509

RESUMO

Cancer-derived exosomes or their specific components hold great promise for early diagnosis and precise staging of cancers. This work aimed to construct a novel enzyme-activatable fluorescent substrate for real-time detection and in situ imaging of a key exosomal surface protein CD26 in various biological systems, as well as to reveal the relevance of exosomal CD26 to the tumorigenesis. For these purposes, a group of Gly-Pro amides deriving from several near-infrared fluorophores were designed on the basis of the unique prolyl-cleaving dipeptidease activity of CD26, while molecular docking simulations were applied to assess the possibility of the designed amides as CD26 specific substrates. Following virtual screening and experimental validation, it was observed that GP-ACM displayed the best combination of high sensitivity and excellent specificity to CD26. The sensing and imaging ability of GP-ACM towards CD26 were examined in a range of biological systems, such as living cells, in situ tissues, and the exosomes secreted from cancer cells. Under physiological conditions, GP-ACM can be readily hydrolyzed by CD26 to release the fluorescent product ACM. The fluorescent product emits strong near-infrared fluorescence signals around 660 nm, which can be easily captured by the devices equipped with a fluorescence detector. GP-ACM prolyl-cleaving reaction shows excellent specificity and rapid response towards CD26, while its fluorescent product ACM displays good chemical stability and outstanding photostability. With the help of GP-ACM, CD26 in living cells, tissues and the tumor-secreted exosomes can be real-time monitored and in-situ imaged, while further investigations reveal that the exosomal CD26 activities are abnormally elevated with the progression of colon tumor. Collectively, the present study offers a practical optical assay for real-time monitoring CD26 activities in multiple complex biological systems including the exosomes secreted by tumor cells. The simplicity and effectiveness of this assay hold great potential for facilitating fundamental researches and clinical diagnosis of exosomal CD26 associated diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Exossomos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
9.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 129(6): 437-449, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478607

RESUMO

Methylophiopogonanone A (MOA) is an abundant homoisoflavonoid in the Chinese herb Ophiopogonis Radix. Recent investigations revealed that MOA inhibited several human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and stimulated OATP1B1. However, the inhibitory effects of MOA on phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (hUGTs), have not been well investigated. Herein, the inhibition potentials of MOA on hUGTs were assessed. The results clearly demonstrated that MOA dose-dependently inhibited all tested hUGTs including UGT1A1 (IC50 = 1.23 µM), one of the most important detoxification enzymes in humans. Further investigations showed that MOA strongly inhibited UGT1A1-catalysed NHPH-O-glucuronidation in a range of biological settings including hUGT1A1, human liver microsomes (HLM) and HeLa cells overexpressing UGT1A1. Inhibition kinetic analyses demonstrated that MOA competitively inhibited UGT1A1-catalysed NHPH-O-glucuronidation in both hUGT1A1 and HLM, with Ki values of 0.52 and 1.22 µM, respectively. Collectively, our findings expanded knowledge of the interactions between MOA and human drug-metabolizing enzymes, which would be very helpful for guiding the use of MOA-related herbal products in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucuronosiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Interações Ervas-Drogas , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Microssomos Hepáticos/enzimologia
10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436092

RESUMO

Tyrosinase (TYR, E.C. 1.14.18.1), a critical enzyme participating in melanogenesis, catalyzes the first two steps in melanin biosynthesis including the ortho-hydroxylation of L-tyrosine and the oxidation of L-DOPA. Previous pharmacological investigations have revealed that an abnormal level of TYR is tightly associated with various dermatoses, including albinism, age spots, and malignant melanoma. TYR inhibitors can partially block the formation of pigment, which are always used for improving skin tone and treating dermatoses. The practical and reliable assays for monitoring TYR activity levels are very useful for both disease diagnosis and drug discovery. This review comprehensively summarizes structural and enzymatic characteristics, catalytic mechanism and substrate preference of TYR, as well as the recent advances in biochemical assays for sensing TYR activity and their biomedical applications. The design strategies of various TYR substrates, alongside with several lists of all reported biochemical assays for sensing TYR including analytical conditions and kinetic parameters, are presented for the first time. Additionally, the biomedical applications and future perspectives of these optical assays are also highlighted. The information and knowledge presented in this review offer a group of practical and reliable assays and imaging tools for sensing TYR activities in complex biological systems, which strongly facilitates high-throughput screening TYR inhibitors and further investigations on the relevance of TYR to human diseases.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Tirosina/análise , Humanos , Cinética , Melanoma , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Oxirredução , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Espectrofotometria
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 187: 976-987, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333006

RESUMO

Coronavirus 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is a crucial target for treating coronavirus diseases including COVID-19. Our preliminary screening showed that Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (AGE) displayed potent SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activity, but the key constituents with SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory effect and their mechanisms were unrevealed. Herein, a practical strategy via integrating bioactivity-guided fractionation and purification, mass spectrometry-based peptide profiling and time-dependent biochemical assay, was applied to identify the crucial constituents in AGE and to uncover their inhibitory mechanisms. The results demonstrated that the flavonoid-rich fractions (10-17.5 min) displayed strong SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities, while the constituents in these fractions were isolated and their SARS-CoV-2-3CLpro inhibitory activities were investigated. Among all isolated flavonoids, dihydromyricetin, isodihydromyricetin and myricetin strongly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro in a time-dependent manner. Further investigations demonstrated that myricetin could covalently bind on SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro at Cys300 and Cys44, while dihydromyricetin and isodihydromyricetin covalently bound at Cys300. Covalent docking coupling with molecular dynamics simulations showed the detailed interactions between the orthoquinone form of myricetin and two covalent binding sites (surrounding Cys300 and Cys44) of SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Collectively, the flavonoids in AGE strongly and time-dependently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, while the newly identified SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors in AGE offer promising lead compounds for developing novel antiviral agents.


Assuntos
Proteases Virais 3C/química , Proteases Virais 3C/metabolismo , Ampelopsis/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Antivirais/química , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cisteína/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Conformação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 655659, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34084136

RESUMO

Human carboxylesterase 2 (CES2), one of the most abundant hydrolases distributed in the small intestine, has been validated as a key therapeutic target to ameliorate the intestinal toxicity caused by irinotecan. This study aims to discover efficacious CES2 inhibitors from natural products and to characterize the inhibition potentials and inhibitory mechanisms of the newly identified CES2 inhibitors. Following high-throughput screening and evaluation of the inhibition potency of more than 100 natural products against CES2, it was found that the biflavones isolated from Ginkgo biloba displayed extremely potent CES2 inhibition activities and high specificity over CES1 (>1000-fold). Further investigation showed that ginkgetin, bilobetin, sciadopitysin and isoginkgetin potently inhibited CES2-catalyzed hydrolysis of various substrates, including the CES2 substrate-drug irinotecan. Notably, the inhibition potentials of four biflavones against CES2 were more potent than that of loperamide, a marketed anti-diarrhea agent used for alleviating irinotecan-induced intestinal toxicity. Inhibition kinetic analyses demonstrated that ginkgetin, bilobetin, sciadopitysin and isoginkgetin potently inhibited CES2-catalyzed fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis via a reversible and mixed inhibition manner, with K i values of less than 100 nM. Ensemble docking and molecular dynamics revealed that these biflavones could tightly and stably bind on the catalytic cavity of CES2 via hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions, while the interactions with CES1 were awfully poor. Collectively, this study reports that the biflavones isolated from Ginkgo biloba are potent and highly specific CES2 inhibitors, which offers several promising lead compounds for developing novel anti-diarrhea agent to alleviate irinotecan-induced diarrhea.

13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 345: 109566, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174250

RESUMO

Mammalian carboxylesterases (CES), the key members of the serine hydrolase superfamily, hydrolyze a wide range of endogenous substances and xenobiotics bearing ester or amide bond(s). In humans, most of identified CES are segregated into the CES1A and CES2A subfamilies. Strong inhibition on human CES (including hCES1A and hCES2A) may modulate pharmacokinetic profiles of CES-substrate drugs, thereby changing the pharmacological and toxicological responses of these drugs. This review covered recent advances in discovery of hCES inhibitors from clinically available medications, as well as their impact on CES-associated drug metabolism. Three comprehensive lists of hCES inhibitors deriving from clinically available medications including therapeutic drugs, pharmaceutical excipients and herbal medicines, alongside with their inhibition potentials and inhibition parameters, are summarized. Furthermore, the potential risks of hCES inhibitors to trigger drug/herb-drug interactions (DDIs/HDIs) and future concerns in this field are highlighted. Potent hCES inhibitors may trigger clinically relevant DDIs/HDIs, especially when these inhibitors are co-administrated with CES substrate-drugs with very narrow therapeutic windows. All data and knowledge presented here provide key information for the clinicians to assess the risks of clinically available hCES inhibitors on drug metabolism. In future, more practical and highly specific substrates for hCES1A/hCES2A should be developed and used for studies on CES-mediated DDIs/HDIs both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Carboxilesterase/antagonistas & inibidores , Carboxilesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Animais , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(5): 321-338, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941338

RESUMO

Cephalotaxus is the only genus of Cephalotaxaceae family, and its natural resources are declining due to habitat fragmentation, excessive exploitation and destruction. In many areas of China, folk herbal doctors traditionally use Cephalotaxus plants to treat innominate swollen poison, many of which are cancer. Not only among Han people, but also among minority ethnic groups, Cephalotaxus is used to treat various diseases, e.g., cough, internal bleeding and cancer in Miao medicine, bruises, rheumatism and pain in Yao medicine, and ascariasis, hookworm disease, scrofula in She medicine, etc. Medicinal values of some Cephalotaxus species and compounds are acknowledged officially. However, there is a lack of comprehensive review summarizing the ethnomedicinal knowledge of Cephalotaxus, relevant medicinal phytometabolites and their bioactivities. The research progresses in ethnopharmacology, chemodiversity, and bioactivities of Cephalotaxus medicinal plants are reviewed and commented here. Knowledge gaps are pinpointed and future research directions are suggested. Classic medicinal books, folk medicine books, herbal manuals and ethnomedicinal publications were reviewed for the genus Cephalotaxus (Sanjianshan in Chinese). The relevant data about ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology were collected as comprehensively as possible from online databases including Scopus, NCBI PubMed, Bing Scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). "Cephalotaxus", and the respective species name were used as keywords in database search. The obtained articles of the past six decades were collated and analyzed. Four Cephalotaxus species are listed in the official medicinal book in China. They are used as ethnomedicines by many ethnic groups such as Miao, Yao, Dong, She and Han. Inspirations are obtained from traditional applications, and Cephalotaxus phytometabolites are developed into anticancer reagents. Cephalotaxine-type alkaloids, homoerythrina-type alkaloids and homoharringtonine (HHT) are abundant in Cephalotaxus, e.g., C. lanceolata, C. fortunei var. alpina, C. griffithii, and C. hainanensis, etc. New methods of alkaloid analysis and purification are continuously developed and applied. Diterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, lignans, phenolics, and other components are also identified and isolated in various Cephalotaxus species. Alkaloids such as HHT, terpenoids and other compounds have anticancer activities against multiple types of human cancer. Cephalotaxus extracts and compounds showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, immunomodulatory activity, antimicrobial activity and nematotoxicity, antihyperglycemic effect, and bone effect, etc. Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies of Cephalotaxus are increasing. We should continue to collect and sort out folk medicinal knowledge of Cephalotaxus and associated organisms, so as to obtain new enlightenment to translate traditional tips into great therapeutic drugs. Transcriptomics, genomics, metabolomics and proteomics studies can contribute massive information for bioactivity and phytochemistry of Cephalotaxus medicinal plants. We should continue to strengthen the application of state-of-the-art technologies in more Cephalotaxus species and for more useful compounds and pharmacological activities.


Assuntos
Cephalotaxus , Etnofarmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Cephalotaxus/química , China , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química
15.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104913, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932529

RESUMO

Vine tea has been used as a traditionally functional herbal tea in China for centuries, which exhibits paramount potential for chronic metabolic diseases. Herein, the inhibitory potential of vine tea toward human catechol-O-methyltransferase (hCOMT) was investigated. A practical bioactivity-guided fractionation combined with chemical profiling strategy was developed to identify the naturally occurring hCOMT inhibitors. Five flavonoids in vine tea displayed moderate to strong inhibition on hCOMT with IC50 values ranging from 0.96 µM to 42.47 µM, in which myricetin was the critically potent constituent against hCOMT. Inhibition kinetics assays and molecular docking simulations showed that myricetin could bind to the active site of COMT and inhibited COMT-catalyzed 3-BTD methylation in a mixed manner. Collectively, our findings not only suggested that the strong hCOMT inhibition of vine tea has guiding significance in the drug exposure of catechol drugs, but also identified a promising lead compound for developing more efficacious hCOMT inhibitors.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Chás de Ervas , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
16.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 129(1): 15-25, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915023

RESUMO

Polyphyllin I (PPI) and its analogues, including polyphyllin II (PPII), polyphyllin VI (PPVI) and polyphyllin VII (PPVII), are major bioactive compounds isolated from the Chinese herb Chonglou. However, the susceptibilities of PPI and its analogues towards the different cell lines are diversified and the mechanisms are not fully clarified. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity of PPI and its analogues on two different cell lines, as well as to explore the underlying mechanisms of these agents via inducing mitochondrial dysfunction. The results showed that PPI and its analogues were cytotoxic agents towards both A549 and HT-29 cells, with IC50 values ranged from 1.0 to 4.5 µmol/L. Further investigations demonstrated that they decreased the mitochondrial membrane potentials of both A549 and HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Among all tested compounds, PPVI and PPI induced the most obvious changes in Ca2+ haemostasis in these two cell lines. In addition, they could induce the accumulation of ROS in cells and down-regulated the Bcl-2 expression, up-regulated the Bax expression and induced the activity of cleaved caspase-3 in cells. Collectively, our findings clearly demonstrated the cytotoxic differences and mechanisms of PPI and its analogues induced cell apoptosis and could partially explain the anticancer effects of these natural constituents in Chonglou.


Assuntos
Diosgenina/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Células A549 , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo , Diosgenina/farmacologia , Diosgenina/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HT29 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/farmacologia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
17.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104909, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894315

RESUMO

3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is a virally encoded main proteinase that is pivotal for the viral replication across a broad spectrum of coronaviruses. This study aims to discover the naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors from herbal constituents, as well as to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of the newly identified efficacious SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors. Following screening of the inhibitory potentials of eighty herbal products against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBLE) was found with the most potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activity (IC50 = 6.68 µg/mL). Inhibition assays demonstrated that the ginkgolic acids (GAs) and the bioflavones isolated from GBLE displayed relatively strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities (IC50 < 10 µM). Among all tested constituents, GA C15:0, GA C17:1 and sciadopitysin displayed potent 3CLpro inhibition activities, with IC50 values of less than 2 µM. Further inhibition kinetic studies and docking simulations clearly demonstrated that two GAs and sciadopitysin strongly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLprovia a reversible and mixed inhibition manner. Collectively, this study found that both GBLE and the major constituents in this herbal product exhibit strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities, which offer several promising leading compounds for developing novel anti-COVID-19 medications via targeting on 3CLpro.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/farmacologia , Ginkgo biloba/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Protease de Coronavírus/uso terapêutico , Flavonas/farmacologia , Flavonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Salicilatos/uso terapêutico
18.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(4): 305-320, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875170

RESUMO

Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is a Chinese medicine compound formula recommended for combating corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. The latest clinical study showed that early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes for patient recovery, viral shedding, hospital stay, and course of the disease. However, the effective constituents of QFPDD remain unclear. In this study, an UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS based method was developed to identify the chemical constituents in QFPDD and the absorbed prototypes as well as the metabolites in mice serum and tissues following oral administration of QFPDD. A total of 405 chemicals, including 40 kinds of alkaloids, 162 kinds of flavonoids, 44 kinds of organic acids, 71 kinds of triterpene saponins and 88 kinds of other compounds in the water extract of QFPDD were tentatively identified via comparison with the retention times and MS/MS spectra of the standards or refereed by literature. With the help of the standards and in vitro metabolites, 195 chemical components (including 104 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were identified in mice serum after oral administration of QFPDD. In addition, 165, 177, 112, 120, 44, 53 constituents were identified in the lung, liver, heart, kidney, brain, and spleen of QFPDD-treated mice, respectively. These findings provided key information and guidance for further investigation on the pharmacologically active substances and clinical applications of QFPDD.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Alcaloides/análise , Animais , COVID-19 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Camundongos , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponinas/análise , Triterpenos/análise
19.
J Pharm Anal ; 11(1): 15-27, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717608

RESUMO

Mammalian catechol-O-methyltransferases (COMT) are an important class of conjugative enzymes, which play a key role in the metabolism and inactivation of catechol neurotransmitters, catechol estrogens and a wide range of endobiotics and xenobiotics that bear the catechol group. Currently, COMT inhibitors are used in combination with levodopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in clinical practice. The crucial role of COMT in human health has raised great interest in the development of more practical assays for highly selective and sensitive detection of COMT activity in real samples, as well as for rapid screening and characterization of COMT inhibitors as drug candidates. This review summarizes recent advances in analytical methodologies for sensing COMT activity and their applications. Several lists of biochemical assays for measuring COMT activity, including the probe substrates, along with their analytical conditions and kinetic parameters, are presented. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives in the field, such as visualization of COMT activity in vivo and in situ, are highlighted. Collectively, this review article overviews the practical assays for measuring COMT activities in complex biological samples, which will strongly facilitate the investigations on the relevance of COMT to human diseases and promote the discovery of COMT inhibitors via high-throughput screening.

20.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1153: 338305, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714444

RESUMO

Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (hUGTs), one of the most important classes of conjugative enzymes, are responsible for the glucuronidation and detoxification of a variety of endogenous substances and xenobiotics. Inhibition of hUGTs may cause undesirable effects or adverse drug-drug interactions (DDI) via modulating the glucuronidation rates of endogenous toxins or the drugs that are primarily conjugated by the inhibited hUGTs. Herein, to screen hUGTs inhibitors in a more efficient way, a novel fluorescence-based microplate assay has been developed by utilizing a fluorogenic substrate. Following screening of series of 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives, we found that 4-HN-335 is a particularly good substrate for a panel of hUGTs. Under physiological conditions, 4-HN-335 can be readily O-glucuronidated by ten hUGTs, such reactions generate a single O-glucuronide with a high quantum yield (Ф = 0.79) and bring remarkable changes in fluorescence emission. Subsequently, a fluorescence-based microplate assay is developed to simultaneously measure the inhibitory effects of selected compound(s) on ten hUGTs. The newly developed fluorescence-based microplate assay is time- and cost-saving, easy to manage and can be adapted for 96-well microplate format with the Z-factor of 0.92. We further demonstrate the utility of the fluorescence-based assay for high-throughput screening of two compound libraries, resulting in the identification of several potent UGT inhibitors, including natural products and FDA-approved drugs. Collectively, this study reports a novel fluorescence-based microplate assay for simultaneously sensing the residual activities of ten hUGTs, which strongly facilitates the identification and characterization of UGT inhibitors from drugs or herbal constituents and the investigations on UGT-mediated DDI.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Interações Medicamentosas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucuronídeos , Glucuronosiltransferase , Humanos , Microssomos Hepáticos
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