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1.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571997

RESUMO

Transitory starch is the portion of starch synthesized during the day in the chloroplast and usually used up for plant growth during the night.Here we found altered metabolism of transitory starch in the wxr1/wxr3(weak auxinresponse)mutants of Arabidopsis.WXR1/WXR3 are previously reported to regulate root growth of young seedling and affect auxin response mediated by auxin polar transport in Arabidopsis. In this study thewxr1/wxr3 mutants accumulated transitory starch in the cotyledon, young leaf and hypocotyl at end of night (EON). The expression of WXR1/WXR3follows an obvious circadian rhythm. Grafting experiments proved that the WXRs in root were necessary for proper starch metabolism and plant growth.Other findings include that photosynthesis was inhibited, and the transcription level of DIN1 /DIN6 (Dark-Inducible 1/6) was reducedin wxr1/wxr3. Meanwhile, the mutants showed a defect in ionic equilibrium of Na+ and K+, consistent with our bioinformatics data that genes related to ionic equilibrium were mis-regulated in wxr1. The loss of WXR1 function also resulted in abnormal trafficking of the membrane lipids and proteins. In conclusion, this study reveals that the plastid protein WXR1/WXR3 play important roles in promoting transitory starch degradation for plant growth during the night, possibly through regulating ionic equilibrium in the root.

2.
Res Vet Sci ; 136: 66-73, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588096

RESUMO

The intestinal tract is a target for the deoxynivalenol (DON), which has adverse effects in animals and humans' health by affecting intestinal functions. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an important degradation product of glucosinolates (GSLs), belonging to an anti-nutritional factor that affects the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the animals' intestinal. However, little attention has been paid to the interaction and its mechanism between DON and PEITC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of PEITC on DON-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation, and explore the potential mechanisms in IPEC-J2 cells. Our results showed that DON exposure could decrease the cell viability and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in IPEC-J2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PEITC treatment at the concentrations of 1.25-5 µM had no significant effect on IPEC-J2 cells viability, but above 10 µM of PEITC treatment significantly reduced the cell viability. Interestingly, 1.25-5 µM of PEITC treatment could suppress 4 µM of DON-induced decrease in cell viability and increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Meanwhile, the protein ratios of p-p65/p-65 and p-IκBα/IκBα were markedly decreased in the groups treated with 1.25-5 µM PEITC compared to DON exposure alone. However, the protective effects of PEITC treatment were significantly blocked after pre-treatment with LPS, NF-κB activator, in IPEC-J2 cells. In conclusion, these findings indicated that the nontoxic dose of PEITC could alleviate DON-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation responses via suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway in IPEC-J2 cells. Our results provide a new theoretical basis for the rational addition of rapeseed meal in animal feedstuff.

3.
Angiology ; 72(1): 44-49, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799665

RESUMO

Coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are characterized by a high incidence of severe plaque calcifications, which are associated with a high use of the retrograde approach and a low success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the feasibility of rotational atherectomy (RA) in retrograde CTO-PCI remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the safety and efficacy of RA in retrograde CTO-PCI. Consecutive patients (n = 129) who underwent RA during CTO-PCI were categorized into anterograde and retrograde groups according to the CTO crossing approach. The distributions of the baseline characteristics were similar in the 2 groups, but the lesion type was more complex (P = .001), and the starting burr size was smaller (P = .003) in the retrograde group than in the anterograde group. There was a trend of a higher incidence of procedural complications in the retrograde group than in the anterograde group (P = .054). Technical and procedural success and in-hospital outcomes were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In conclusion, RA was feasible in retrograde CTO PCI, but some specific precautions are required before and during the procedure. In addition, further investigation of the long-term outcomes of RA in retrograde CTO PCI is necessary.


Assuntos
Aterectomia Coronária/métodos , Oclusão Coronária/terapia , Aterectomia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents
4.
Int J Cardiol ; 322: 1-8, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in angiogenesis and neocollateralization. This study assessed if circulating EPCs can predict long-term improvement of global left ventricular systolic function in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: In this single-center, prospective, observational study, 115 consecutive patients with CTOs were evaluated by standard transthoracic echocardiography (ECHO) before and 9-12 months after PCI. Numbers of circulating putative EPCs were determined by flow cytometry analysis of mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood samples drawn before and 72 h after PCI. RESULTS: At mean 11.3 ± 2.5 months post vs. before PCI (all P < .05): by SAQ-7 summary scores, angina frequency, physical limitation and quality of life scores were greater; by ECHO, LVEDd decreased and LVEF increased, which were more significant in patients with Rentrop grades 2/3 vs. 0/1. At 72 h post vs. before PCI, CD34+VEGFR-2+CD133- (0.82 ± 0.32 × 106/L vs. 1.00 ± 0.39 × 106/L, P = .003), CD34+VEGFR-2+CD133+ (0.24 ± 0.12 × 106/L vs. 0.27 ± 0.14 × 106/L, P = .028), and CD14+Tie2+VEGFR-2+ (6.60 ± 3.32 × 106/L vs. 7.82 ± 3.91 × 106/L, P = .006) cell numbers were lower. The baseline levels of CD34+VEGFR-2+cells (P = .001) and CD14+Tie2+VEGFR-2+cells (P < .001) were association with the grade of collateralization. In addition, the baseline and peri-procedural decrease of circulating CD34+VEGFR-2+ cells correlated with the increase of LVEF (P < .001, P < .001, respectively) and the decrease of LVEDd (P = .022, P = .029, respectively) at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In this small study, the baseline levels of circulating CD34+VEGFR-2+ EPCs and its reduction after successful revascularization of CTOs correlated with long-term improvement in global LV systolic function.

5.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 107223, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease caused by a variety of cytokines and signaling pathways closely related to immunoregulation. Corticosteroids are the most widely used drug in the asthma treatment. However, the use of corticosteroids could cause topical side effects. So, it's important to find new drugs for asthma treatment. Our study aims to explore the pharmacological effect of borneol on asthma and its underlying mechanism. METHODS: We constructed the OVA-induced asthma model to investigate the effect of borneol on asthma in mice. HE and PAS staining was used to detect the effect of borneol on pathological change of mice with asthma. Inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA. qRT-PCR was used to explore the effect of borneol on microRNAs expression. Cell proliferation of CD4 + T cells was detected by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. Western blot was used to detect pten expression and Akt activation. RESULTS: We found that borneol significantly alleviated asthma progression in mice. Borneol inhibited CD4 + T cells infiltration in vivo and proliferation in vitro by downregulating miR-26a and miR-142-3p. miR-26a and miR-142-3p promoted CD4 + T cells proliferation in vitro through targeting Pten. Overexpression of miR-26a and miR-142-3p abolished the effect of borneol in vivo. CONCLUSION: In a word, these findings suggested that borneol attenuated asthma in mice by decreasing the CD4 + T cells infiltration. The molecular mechanism of borneol was dependent on the downregulation of miR-26a and miR-142-3p to upregulate the Pten expression.

6.
Stat Med ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274467

RESUMO

Panel count data occur often in event history studies and in these situations, one observes only incomplete information, the number of events rather than the occurrence times of each event, about the point processes of interest.2 Sometimes one may have to face a more complicated type of panel count data, mixed panel count data in which instead of the number of events, one only knows if there is an occurrence of an event.3 Furthermore, this may depend on the underlying point process of interest or in other words, the point process of interest and the observation type process may be related. To address this, a sieve maximum likelihood estimation approach is proposed with the use of Bernstein polynomials, and for the implementation, an EM algorithm is developed. To assess the finite sample performance of the proposed approach, a simulation study is conducted and suggests that it works well for practical situations. The method is then applied to a motivating example about cancer survivors.

7.
Front Genet ; 11: 577053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193694

RESUMO

ß-thalassemia, caused by mutations in the human hemoglobin ß (HBB) gene, is one of the most common genetic diseases in the world. The HBB -28(A>G) mutation is one of the five most common mutations in Chinese patients with ß-thalassemia. However, few studies have been conducted to understand how this mutation affects the expression of pathogenesis-related genes, including globin genes, due to limited homozygote clinical materials. Therefore, we developed an efficient technique using CRISPR/Cas9 combined with asymmetric single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (assODNs) to generate a K562 cell model with HBB -28(A>G) named K562-28(A>G). Then, we systematically analyzed the differences between K562-28(A>G) and K562 at the transcriptome level by high-throughput RNA-seq before and after erythroid differentiation. We found that the HBB -28(A>G) mutation not only disturbed the transcription of HBB, but also decreased the expression of HBG, which may further aggravate the thalassemia phenotype and partially explain the more severe clinical outcome of ß-thalassemia patients with the HBB -28(A>G) mutation. Moreover, we found that the K562-28(A>G) cell line is more sensitive to hypoxia and shows a defective erythrogenic program compared with K562 before differentiation. Importantly, all abovementioned abnormalities in K562-28(A>G) were reversed after correction of this mutation with CRISPR/Cas9 and assODNs, confirming the specificity of these phenotypes. Overall, this is the first time to analyze the effects of the HBB -28(A>G) mutation at the whole-transcriptome level based on isogenic cell lines, providing a landscape for further investigation of the mechanism of ß-thalassemia with the HBB -28(A>G) mutation.

8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 9(6): 4283-4293, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183058

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is a new geriatric syndrome that has become a heavily researched topic, and it is a potential risk factor for weakness, disability, and death in elderly people. As the world's population ages, the incidence of sarcopenia has also increased, which has resulted in a series of health problems and in large medical costs. Although there are generally accepted diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, the existing criteria require a comprehensive evaluation of muscle quality, muscle strength and muscle function. Most of these evaluations are time-consuming, labourious, difficult to implement, and unsuitable for large-scale population surveys. Moreover, the abilities of the elderly to undertake daily-life activities are often affected when they are diagnosed with sarcopenia. Therefore, if individuals who are likely to suffer from sarcopenia could be identified by screening at an early stage and then comprehensively evaluated, time and labour would be saved, and the detection rate would be improved. Timely intervention can be undertaken in possible sarcopenia to prevent further development of sarcopenia and strongly improve the quality of life of individuals. This study reviews the early screening and intervention of the possible sarcopenia, analyses its advantages and disadvantages and attempt to identify reliable and practical methods to reduce adverse consequences and the extent of harm.

9.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(18): 1162, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241011

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to report the 5-year outcomes of XINSORB bioresorbable sirolimus-eluting scaffolds in the treatment of single de novo coronary lesions in a first-in-human (FIM) study. This is the final report of the long-term clinical outcomes of the study. Recent studies have shown that bioresorbable scaffolds (BRSs) increase the risks of late target lesion failure (TLF) and thrombosis. Methods: In this prospective, single-arm study, eligible patients with single de novo coronary lesions were enrolled and treated with XINSORB scaffolds. The scaffolds measured 3.0 mm in diameter and 12, 15, and 18 mm in length. The clinical endpoints included TLF [cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction (TV-MI), or ischaemia-driven target lesion revascularization (ID-TLR)], its components, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and scaffold thrombosis. Results: From September 2013 to January 2014, 30 patients were enrolled and treated with XINSORB scaffolds. The procedure had a 100% success rate. None of the patients died during the 5 years of follow-up. The primary endpoint of TLF occurred in 4 patients (13.3%). Six patients were recanalized by intervention, including 4 by ID-TLR. The rate of MACE was 16.7% (5/30). One very late case of scaffold thrombosis was recorded, which led to TV-MI. No more cases of thrombosis were recorded beyond 2 years of follow-up. The rates of clinical endpoints remained steady with no changes after 3 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Considering that this FIM study was launched at an early stage of the BRS era and without optimal implantation techniques, the clinical outcomes of TLF during the 5-year follow-up were acceptable. The rate of thrombosis was relatively low.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(89): 13784-13787, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073788

RESUMO

Direct-laser-writing of a plasmon-enhanced photoelectrode is successfully demonstrated via the in situ and straightforward formation of a laser-induced Bi0-CdS-graphene nanohybrid, which shows a significantly amplified and stable photocurrent response and, thus, further provides a highly sensitive PEC sensing platform.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089460

RESUMO

Heavy metal lead is a typical widespread potentially toxic element (PET) contamination due to their extensive and wide applications in industrial processes. The development of cost-effective methods for preventing potentially toxic element lead residues from soil into food is thus highly desirable. A new type of humic acid-based remediation material (HA/WV) incorporating humic acid salt (HA), biochar powder (BC), and wood vinegar (WV), which is a cheap and environmentally friendly industrial by-product from charcoal processing, was prepared and evaluated. The results showed that 0.10 g remediation material HA/WV with a mass ratio of 1:1 was added to 1 kg surface soil of 0-20 cm from agricultural land contaminated by 300 mg Pb2+, the reduction ratio of available Pb in soil can reach 61.4%. Especially, wood vinegar can enhance the reduction ratio of available Pb by at least 14.7% over without wood vinegar. Furthermore, according to the analysis of adsorption interaction and the electrostatic attraction between Pb(II) and oxygen-containing functional groups on HA/WV are the dominant mechanisms responsible for Pb(II) sorption. The wood vinegar liquid can improve the oxygen-containing group in HA/WV, which can enhance the complexation of remediation materials and Pb(II) ion.

12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 145: 111712, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877744

RESUMO

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the key factor in various intestinal inflammation which could disrupt the epithelial barrier function. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a well-known mycotoxin, can induce intestinal injury. However, the combined enterotoxicity of LPS and DON has rarely been studied. In this study, IPEC-J2 cell monolayers were exposed to LPS and nontoxic-dose DON for 12 and 24 h to investigate the effects of DON on LPS-induced inflammatory response and tight junction variation, and specific inhibitor and CRISPR-Cas9 were used to explore the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that nontoxic-dose DON aggravated LPS-induced cellular inflammatory response, reflecting on more significant changes of inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, higher protein expression of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and procaspase-1. Moreover, nontoxic-dose DON aggravated LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression decreased, and distribution confused of tight junction proteins. We found that DON further enhanced LPS-induced phosphorylation and nucleus translocation of p65, and expression of LC3B-Ⅱ. NF-κB inhibitor and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of LC3B attenuated the effects of combination which indicated nontoxic-dose DON aggravated LPS-induced intestinal inflammation and tight junction disorder through activating NF-κB signaling pathway and autophagy-related protein LC3B. It further warns that ingesting low doses of mycotoxins may exacerbate the effects of intestinal pathogens on the body.

13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112606, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947083

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) can delicately tune the cellular signaling pathway and plays crucial roles in physiological processes. It is of profound significance to engineer a smart and efficient artificial platform to detect NO, especially for the tracking of living cell released NO. Herein, a switchable nitric oxide responsive nanochannel analysis platform is constructed by introducing a reversible N-nitrosation reaction of rhodamine 6G (R6G) into the artificial nanochannels. By virtue of the distinctive design, ionic current signal can handily realize reversible switching between "on" and "off" state in the presence of NO and UV light, and the system featured high stability and reproducibility. The R6G-immobilized nanochannels exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity towards NO over other gas molecules and biomolecules by ion current rectification (ICR) test. More intriguingly, the system also showed good performances for in situ monitoring of NO released from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), suggesting the as-constructed nanochannels can act as a versatile NO gas valve for nanoelectronic logic devices. This work purposes a novel method for the rapid and noninvasive detection of bioactive gas and holds great promise for biomedical research, disease diagnosis and treatment.

14.
Oncol Lett ; 20(4): 12, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774485

RESUMO

Skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) is the most aggressive type of skin cancer, with a high rate of metastasis and mortality; however, identification of biomarkers for the treatment of SKCM is required. Cluster of differentiation (CD)38 has emerged as an effective target for therapeutic drugs in several types of cancer, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. In the present study, to determine the contribution of CD38 to the diagnosis of SKCM, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis 2 and University of Alabama Cancer Database online tools were used to analyze The Cancer Genome Atlas-SKCM dataset. Moreover, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins and GeneMANIA databases were used to determine protein-protein interaction networks and potential functions. To the best of our knowledge, the results of the present study indicated for the first time that high expression levels of CD38 were a favorable diagnostic factor for SKCM. Moreover, a correlation between CD38 expression levels and the survival probability of patients with SKCM was identified. Integrative analysis predicted that nine genes were correlated with CD38 in SKCM, and the similarity of these genes in SKCM expression and a survival heatmap was verified. Gene ontology enrichment analysis using the Metascape tool revealed that CD38 and its correlated genes were significantly enriched in lymphocyte activation and T cell differentiation regulation. Collectively, the bioinformatics analysis revealed that CD38 might serve as a potential diagnostic predictor for SKCM.

15.
Analyst ; 145(20): 6617-6624, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789348

RESUMO

Electrochemical nanochannel sensors have attracted extensive interest due to their potential applications in biosensing systems. In this work, porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) nanochannels are coupled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through a polydopamine (PDA)-induced in situ growth process. It is found that the resulting hybrid nanochannel (denoted as Au-PDA-AAO) can act as both glucose oxidase- and peroxidase-like nanozymes to catalyze the cascade reaction involving glucose. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of nanozymes in an AAO nanochannel. Moreover, apart from the nanozyme-catalyzed colorimetric reaction, the Au-PDA-AAO nanochannel could simultaneously serve as a sensitive signal reporter for an electrochemical sensing platform. In such an approach, the glucose oxidation reaction boosts the resistance of the Au-PDA-AAO nanochannel towards ion transport based on the H2O2-mediated size enlargement of AuNPs, resulting in the varied transmembrane ionic current signal of the Au-PDA-AAO nanochannel. On the basis of the changed current-potential properties, the label-free detection of glucose can be achieved with a low detection limit, good reproducibility, and high stability. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the incorporation of versatile nanozymes into AAO nanochannels for mimicking multi-enzymatic catalysis reactions and detecting target analytes.

16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 514-526, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791035

RESUMO

Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) is a severe form of asthenoteratozoospermia. Although recent studies have revealed several MMAF-associated genes and demonstrated MMAF to be a genetically heterogeneous disease, at least one-third of the cases are still not well understood for their etiology. Here, we identified bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CFAP58 by using whole-exome sequencing in five (5.6%) unrelated individuals from a cohort of 90 MMAF-affected Chinese men. Each of the men harboring bi-allelic CFAP58 variants presented typical MMAF phenotypes. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated striking flagellar defects with axonemal and mitochondrial sheath malformations. CFAP58 is predominantly expressed in the testis and encodes a cilia- and flagella-associated protein. Immunofluorescence assays showed that CFAP58 localized at the entire flagella of control sperm and predominantly concentrated in the mid-piece. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence assays showed that the abundances of axoneme ultrastructure markers SPAG6 and SPEF2 and a mitochondrial sheath protein, HSP60, were significantly reduced in the spermatozoa from men harboring bi-allelic CFAP58 variants. We generated Cfap58-knockout mice via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The male mice were infertile and presented with severe flagellar defects, consistent with the sperm phenotypes in MMAF-affected men. Overall, our findings in humans and mice strongly suggest that CFAP58 plays a vital role in sperm flagellogenesis and demonstrate that bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in CFAP58 can cause axoneme and peri-axoneme malformations leading to male infertility. This study provides crucial insights for understanding and counseling of MMAF-associated asthenoteratozoospermia.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Astenozoospermia/genética , Axonema/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Alelos , Animais , Astenozoospermia/fisiopatologia , Axonema/patologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Perda de Heterozigosidade/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas dos Microtúbulos/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Cauda do Espermatozoide/metabolismo , Cauda do Espermatozoide/patologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e925350, 2020 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of vitamin D. MATERIAL AND METHODS Rat primary neuron cells were incubated under a hypoxia condition [a hypoxic chamber mixed with anaerobic gas (90% N2, 5% CO2) and 5% O2] to induce cell injury. Cell transfection was performed to overexpress or suppress the expression of dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1). The malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were detected using a MDA (A003-2) or SOD (A001-1) kit. DUOX1 mRNA levels were detected using RT-PCR. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), DUOX1, vitamin D receptor (VDR), NF-kappaB protein expressions were determined by western blotting. Cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS ROS increased significantly after hypoxic treatment. The expressions of HIF-1alpha and DUOX1 were significantly increased after hypoxic treatment. Vitamin D could decrease ROS level, apoptotic neuron cells and DUOX1 expression, and increase VDR expression. Downregulation of DUOX1 significantly decreased MDA level and apoptotic percentages of neuron cells, increased SOD level, and counteracted the hypoxia-induced increase of NF-kappaB signal. Further study showed that overexpression of DUOX1 significantly increased MDA level, ROS level, apoptotic percentages of neuron cells, and NF-kappaB nuclear signaling, while decreased SOD level. Vitamin D significantly counteracted the effects of DUOX1 overexpression induced injury in rat primary neuron cells. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicated that vitamin D may protect neuron cells from hypoxia-induced injury by regulating DUOX1 via the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 143: 111516, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615238

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA) was reported to induce proximal tubules nephrotoxicity in humans and animals. However, the toxicity of OTA on glomeruli has rarely been studied. We investigated OTA-induced glomerular injury and the underlying mechanisms. Mice were intraperitoneally treated with OTA (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mg/kg b.w.) on alternate day for 3 weeks. OTA exposure decreased the weight gain ratio, the kidney index and increased the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. It induced also fragmentation and atrophy in glomeruli, and increased the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, TGF-ß, α-SMA and vimentin in a dose-dependent manner. Human mesangial cells (HMC) were treated with OTA (0-8 µM) for 48 h. Treatment of HMC cells with OTA increased cell inhibition rate, up-regulated the expression of IL-6, TGF-ß, α-SMA and vimentin in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, it enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p65, degradation of IκB-α and translocation of p65 into the nucleus. OTA-induced toxicity was attenuated by NF-κB and ERK1/2 inhibitors. In conclusion, these results suggest that OTA exposure induces glomerular injury via activation of the ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway, and provide novel insights into the research of OTA induced nephrotoxicity.

19.
J Microbiol ; 58(9): 750-760, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710300

RESUMO

The soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization rate in sandy soil plays an important role in improving soil quality, and a research is needed to determine management practices that optimize the mineralization rate. When sandy soil is improved by adding soft rock, the specific promotion process of bacterium to SOC mineralization remain unclear. To investigate these mechanisms, we selected four treatments with soft rock to sand volume ratios of 0:1 (CK), 1:5 (C1), 1:2 (C2) and 1:1 (C3) to study. The mineralization rate of organic carbon was measured using the lye absorption method. High-throughput sequencing and scanning electron microscopy were used to determine the bacterial community structure and soil microstructure, respectively. The results showed that the organic carbon content of the sandy soil increased significantly (182.22-276.43%) after using the soft rock treatments. The SOC mineralization rate could be divided into two stages: a rapid decline during days 1-8 and a slow decline during days 8-60. With increased incubation time, the intensity of the cumulative release of organic carbon gradually weakened. Compared with the CK treatment, the SOC mineralization accumulation (Ct) and the potential mineralizable organic carbon content (C0) in the C1, C2, and C3 treatments increased significantly, by 106.98-225.94% and 112.22-254.08%, respectively. The cumulative mineralization rate (Cr) was 18.11% and 21.38% smaller with treatments C2 and C3, respectively. The SOC mineralization rate constant (k) decreased significantly after the addition of soft rock, while the half-turnover period (Th) changed inversely with k. Compared with the CK treatment, the number of gene copies of the soil bacteria increased by 15.38-272.53% after adding soft rock, with the most significant increase in treatment C3. The bacterial diversity index also increased significantly under treatment C3. The three dominant bacteria were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi. The correlation between Cr and one of the non-dominant bacteria, Firmicutes, was large, and the bacteria had a significant positive correlation with k. At the same time, the abundance of Firmicutes under treatments C2 and C3 was small. As the proportion of soft rock increased, the soil particles changed from point contact to surface contact, and the adhesion on the surface of the particles gradually increased. Results from this study show that the retention time of SOC can be increased and the carbon sequestration effect is better when the ratio of soft rock to sand is set to 1:2.

20.
Environ Int ; 143: 105949, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673909

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by fungal species that commonly present in the global environment, especially in cereals and animal forages. The changing global environment may further increase the exposure to these toxins, posing a serious threat to humans and animals. Recently, coronavirus has become one of the most important pathogens threatening human and animal health. It is not clear whether environmental toxins, such as mycotoxins, will affect coronavirus infection. Given that pigs are among the animals most affected by coronavirus and highly homologous to humans, weaned piglets and IPEC-J2 cells were respectively chosen as in vivo and in vitro model to explore the impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON), the most abundant trichothecene mycotoxin in feed, on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection and the mechanisms involved. In vivo, twenty-seven piglets infected naturally with PEDV were randomly divided into three groups, receiving the basal diet containing 0, 750 and 1500 µg/kg DON, respectively. Significant increases in the diarrhea rates, gut barrier injury and PEDV proliferation of piglets' small intestine were observed in experimental groups compared with the control. Additionally, the autophagosome-like vesicles and the autophagy-related proteins expression were also increased in experimental groups. In vitro, we observed that 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 µM DON significantly promoted the entry and replication of PEDV in IPEC-J2 cells, along with the induction of a complete autophagy. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of LC3B indicated a vital role of autophagy in the promotion. Pretreatment with p38 signaling inhibitor could significantly block the induction of autophagy, indicating that DON could promote the PEDV infection by triggering p38-mediated autophagy. Our findings suggest that mycotoxin could influence the prevalence of coronavirus and provide new ideas for the prevention and control of coronavirus.

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