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1.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796971

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: An increasing number of targeted drugs have been used to treat advanced or metastatic gastric cancer (GC) and gastroesophageal junction cancer (GEJC). However, the optimal treatment efficacy of these drugs is still controversial. The aims of this study are to systematically summarize the efficacy and safety of current targeted drugs for advanced or metastatic GC and GEJC. METHODS: PubMed, EmBase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and ClinicalTrials were searched for double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on GC and GEJC up to December 2019. Additionally, we updated the literature search from Jan, 1, 2020 to September 30, 2021. Narrative and quantitative analysis were performed to analyse the efficacy and safety. STATA 15.1 was used to identify publication bias, and the SUCRA (surface under the cumulative ranking) curve was conducted to rank the treatments for each outcome. RESULTS: A total of 27 RCTs with 9295 GC and GEJC patients treated by 19 drugs were included. SUCRA showed that regorafenib was the most likely to improve patients' progression-free survival (96.4%), followed by apatinib (90.7%), nivolumab (82.4%), everolimus (76.5%) and pertuzumab (68.5%). Meanwhile, apatinib (92.4%) was most likely to improve overall survival, followed by nivolumab (87.9%), regorafenib (72.5%), olaparib (67.7%) and lapatinib (63.2%). Additionally, neutropenia, diarrhoea and fatigue were the most common adverse events caused by these drugs, followed by pain, nausea, decreased appetite, anaemia and vomiting. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Regorafenib and nivolumab have higher efficacy and tolerability and are the most advantageous for advanced GC and GEJC. Moreover, apatinib has higher efficacy but lower tolerability. Everolimus and pertuzumab combined with chemotherapy have best secondary higher efficacy for progression-free survival and good tolerability. Lapatinib and olaparib combined with chemotherapy have moderate efficacy for overall survival and good tolerability.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 5117-5122, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738409

RESUMO

In order to standardize the clinical diagnosis and treatment decision-making with traditional Chinese medicine for pa-tients of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) and put the latest clinical study evidence into clinical practice, the international trust-worthy traditional Chinese medicine recommendations( TCM Recs) working group started the compilation of Living Evidence-based Guideline for Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Treatment of COVID-19 on the basis of the standards and re-quirements of WHO handbook, GRADE and RIGHT. This proposal mainly introduces the formulation methods and processes of the living guidelines in details, such as the composition of the working group, the collection and identification of clinical issues and out-comes, the production of the living systematic review and the consensus of recommendations. The guidelines will continue to monitor the clinical study evidences of TCM in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, and conduct regular evidence updating, retrieval and screening. When there is new study evidence, the steering committee will evaluate the possibility of the evidence to change clinical practice or previous recommendations, so as to decide whether the recommendations for the guidelines shall be implemented or upda-ted. The main criteria considered in the guideline updating are as follows:(1) There are new high-quality randomized controlled trial(RCT) evidences for TCM uninvolved in the previous edition of the guidelines;(2) as for the TCM involved in the guidelines, living sys-tematic review shows that new evidence may change the direction or strength of the existing recommendations. The specific implementation of the living evidence-based guidelines will take this proposal as the study basis and framework, in order to ensure the standardization of the formulation process and methods. This will be the first exploration of the methodology for living guidelines in the field of TCM.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , China , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 667027, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744701

RESUMO

Background Revefenacin (REV) is a novel once-daily long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) in the treatment of moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This systematic review incorporating a dose-response meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of REV. Methods PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP database, and Wanfang database were searched from their inception to April 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which evaluated the efficacy and safety of REV in COPD patients. Two reviewers independently performed study screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. Outcomes consisted of the mean change in trough Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline, adverse events (AEs), and serious adverse events (SAEs). A dose-response meta-analysis using the robust error meta-regression method was conducted. We used Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. Results Nine RCTs (3,121 participants) were included in this systematic review. The meta-analyses indicated that 175 µg/day REV could significantly improve the trough FEV1 (MD=143.67, 95%CI: 129.67 to 157.68; I2=96%; 809 participants; studies=4; low quality) without increasing the risk of AEs (OR=0.98, 95%CI: 0.81 to 1.18; I2=34%; 2,286 participants; studies=7; low quality) or SAEs (OR=0.89, 95%CI: 0.55 to 1.46; I2=0%; 2,318 participants; studies=7; very low quality) compared to placebo. Furthermore, the effect of REV in increasing trough FEV1 was dose-dependent with an effective threshold of 88 µg/day (R2 = 0.7017). Nevertheless, only very low-quality to low-quality evidence showed that REV at a dose of 175 µg/day was inferior to tiotropium regarding the long-term efficacy, and its safety profile was not superior to tiotropium or ipratropium. Conclusion Current evidence shows that REV is a promising option for the treatment of moderate to very severe COPD. Due to most evidence graded as low quality, further studies are required to compare the efficacy, long-term safety and cost-effectiveness between REV and other LAMAs in different populations. Clinical Trial Registration: [PROSPERO], identifier [CRD42020182793].

4.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 142: 1-9, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752940

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cross-sectional survey on the application status of the Grades of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) in Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We searched CSRs of TCM from the inception to December 2020 in the Cochrane Library database. General characteristics and details of GRADE were extracted. RESULTS: Among 226 CSRs of TCM, 86 (38.05%) involving 711 outcomes used GRADE to rate the certainty of evidence. Topics mainly focused on genitourinary diseases (17.44%), diseases of the musculoskeletal system or connective tissue (11.63%), and diseases of the nervous system (10.47%). Only 15.89% of the outcomes reported high or moderate certainty of evidence. Acupuncture was the most common intervention. There were no significant differences in evidence certainty between acupuncture and non-acupuncture, between TCM alone and integrated Chinese and western medicine, or between Chinese patent medicines and non-Chinese patent medicines (P > 0.05). Among 1 273 instances of downgrading, 44.62% were due to the risk of bias and 40.14% due to imprecision. CONCLUSION: Overall, GRADE approach is not widely used in CSRs of TCM. The certainty of evidence is generally low to very low, mainly because of the serious risk of bias and imprecision.

5.
J Evid Based Med ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has turned into a pandemic and resulted in huge death tolls and burdens. Integrating Chinese and western medicine has played an important role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a living evidence-based guideline of integrating Chinese and western medicine for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Living evidence-based guideline. METHODS: This living guideline was developed using internationally recognized and accepted guideline standards, dynamically monitoring the release of new clinical evidence, and quickly updating the linked living systematic review, evidence summary tables, and recommendations. Modified Delphi method was used to reach consensus for all recommendations. The certainty of the evidence, resources, and other factors were fully considered, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used to rate the certainty of evidence and the strength of recommendations. RESULTS: The first version of this living guidance focuses on patients who are mild or moderate COVID-19. A multidisciplinary guideline development panel was established. Ten clinical questions were identified based on the status of evidence and a face-to-face experts' consensus. Finally, nine recommendations were reached consensus, and were formulated from systematic reviews of the benefits and harms, certainty of evidence, public accessibility, policy supports, feedback on proposed recommendations from multidisciplinary experts, and consensus meetings. CONCLUSION: This guideline panel made nine recommendations, which covered five traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription granules/decoction (MXXFJD, QFPD, XFBD, TJQW, and JWDY), three Chinese patent medicines (LHQW granules/capsule, JHQG granules, and LHQK granules), and one Chinese herbal injection (XBJ injection). Of them, two were strongly recommended (LHQW granules/capsule and QFPD decoction), and five were weakly recommended (MXXFJD decoction, XFBD decoction, JHQG granules, TJQW granules, and JWDY decoction) for the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19; two were weakly recommended against (XBJ injection and LHQK granules) the treatment of mild and moderate COVID-19. The users of this living guideline are most likely to be clinicians, patients, governments, ministries, and health administrators.

6.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1161-5, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628751

RESUMO

Based on literature research and Delphi expert consensus method, the important acupoints for cancer pain was summarized to provide evidence basis for the formulation of Clinical Practice Guide of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Cancer Pain. Through systematic search of Chinese and English databases, 28 clinical studies regarding acupuncture for cancer pain were included. The acupoint selection methods and high-frequency acupoints were summarized and analyzed. Based on this, a Delphi questionnaire was designed and two rounds of questionnaire survey on 30 experts in acupuncture and tumor related fields in China and abroad were conducted. As a result, it was suggested that the individualized acupoint selection should be adopted for acupuncture treatment of cancer pain, with Zusanli (ST 36), Hegu (LI 4), Taichong (LR 3), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Yanglingquan (GB 34) and ashi points as the main acupoints. Combined with clinical research evidence and expert consensus, the important acupoints for cancer pain were identified. However, clinical acupoint selection still needed further research and refinement.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Dor do Câncer , Meridianos , Neoplasias , Pontos de Acupuntura , Dor do Câncer/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Publicações
7.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 633525, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568235

RESUMO

Child nutrition has always been a global concern. This study performed visual analysis of 1,398 child nutrition highly cited papers (HCPs) from 2009 to 2019. The purpose of the study was to evaluate and present the performances of authors, journals, countries, institutions, top cited papers; to explore the hot topics, prospects, and to propose the future research directions on child nutrition. We used bibliometric methods to conduct in-depth statistical analysis of HCPs on child nutrition, showing research progress, trends and hot spots. We included HCPs on child nutrition from the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E) database February 7, 2020. Two tools, CiteSpace and VOSviewer, were used to conduct the bibliometric analyses. The results showed that, since 2011, the number of HCPs on child nutrition has increased rapidly. The top three contributors in this field were the USA, the UK and Canada. However, the contribution of developing countries was very limited. Intestinal microflora, food allergy, overweight and obesity were the three major research hotspots in this field. Results of this study provide valuable references for ongoing child nutrition related research, which may be interesting and noteworthy to the researchers involved.

8.
BMJ ; 374: n2231, 2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of antiviral antibody therapies and blood products for the treatment of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis, with pairwise meta-analysis for outcomes with insufficient data. DATA SOURCES: WHO covid-19 database, a comprehensive multilingual source of global covid-19 literature, and six Chinese databases (up to 21 July 2021). STUDY SELECTION: Trials randomising people with suspected, probable, or confirmed covid-19 to antiviral antibody therapies, blood products, or standard care or placebo. Paired reviewers determined eligibility of trials independently and in duplicate. METHODS: After duplicate data abstraction, we performed random effects bayesian meta-analysis, including network meta-analysis for outcomes with sufficient data. We assessed risk of bias using a modification of the Cochrane risk of bias 2.0 tool. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) approach. We meta-analysed interventions with ≥100 patients randomised or ≥20 events per treatment arm. RESULTS: As of 21 July 2021, we identified 47 trials evaluating convalescent plasma (21 trials), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (5 trials), umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (5 trials), bamlanivimab (4 trials), casirivimab-imdevimab (4 trials), bamlanivimab-etesevimab (2 trials), control plasma (2 trials), peripheral blood non-haematopoietic enriched stem cells (2 trials), sotrovimab (1 trial), anti-SARS-CoV-2 IVIg (1 trial), therapeutic plasma exchange (1 trial), XAV-19 polyclonal antibody (1 trial), CT-P59 monoclonal antibody (1 trial) and INM005 polyclonal antibody (1 trial) for the treatment of covid-19. Patients with non-severe disease randomised to antiviral monoclonal antibodies had lower risk of hospitalisation than those who received placebo: casirivimab-imdevimab (odds ratio (OR) 0.29 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.47); risk difference (RD) -4.2%; moderate certainty), bamlanivimab (OR 0.24 (0.06 to 0.86); RD -4.1%; low certainty), bamlanivimab-etesevimab (OR 0.31 (0.11 to 0.81); RD -3.8%; low certainty), and sotrovimab (OR 0.17 (0.04 to 0.57); RD -4.8%; low certainty). They did not have an important impact on any other outcome. There was no notable difference between monoclonal antibodies. No other intervention had any meaningful effect on any outcome in patients with non-severe covid-19. No intervention, including antiviral antibodies, had an important impact on any outcome in patients with severe or critical covid-19, except casirivimab-imdevimab, which may reduce mortality in patients who are seronegative. CONCLUSION: In patients with non-severe covid-19, casirivimab-imdevimab probably reduces hospitalisation; bamlanivimab-etesevimab, bamlanivimab, and sotrovimab may reduce hospitalisation. Convalescent plasma, IVIg, and other antibody and cellular interventions may not confer any meaningful benefit. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This review was not registered. The protocol established a priori is included as a data supplement. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (grant CIHR- IRSC:0579001321). READERS' NOTE: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Interim updates and additional study data will be posted on our website (www.covid19lnma.com).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Metanálise em Rede , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(22): 6357-6379, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has been increasingly used in patients with resectable colorectal liver metastases. However, the efficacy and safety of NAC in the treatment of resectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) are still controversial. AIM: To assess the efficacy and application value of NAC in patients with resectable CRLM. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from inception to December 2020 to collect clinical studies comparing NAC with non-NAC. Data processing and statistical analyses were performed using Stata V.15.0 and Review Manager 5.0 software. RESULTS: In total, 32 studies involving 11236 patients were included in this analysis. We divided the patients into two groups, the NAC group (that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy) and the non-NAC group (that received no neoadjuvant chemotherapy). The meta-analysis outcome showed a statistically significant difference in the 5-year overall survival and 5-year disease-free survival between the two groups. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were HR = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.39-0.61, P = 0.000 and HR = 0.48 95%CI: 0.36-0.63, P = 0.000. The duration of surgery in the NAC group was longer than that of the non-NAC group [standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.01-0.82, P = 0.044)]. The meta-analysis showed that the number of liver metastases in the NAC group was significantly higher than that in the non-NAC group (SMD = 0.73, 95%CI: 0.02-1.43, P = 0.043). The lymph node metastasis in the NAC group was significantly higher than that in the non-NAC group (SMD = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.07-1.43, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: We found that NAC could improve the long-term prognosis of patients with resectable CRLM. At the same time, the NAC group did not increase the risk of any adverse event compared to the non-NAC group.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 688857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456720

RESUMO

Background: Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPD) has been widely used in treating COVID-19 in China. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive and systematic evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of QFPD. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of QFPD in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We searched seven databases up to 5 March 2021. Two reviewers independently screened studies, extracted data of interest, and assessed risk of bias. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the risk of bias of randomized controlled trials. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the risk of bias of cohort and non-randomized trials. The "Quality Assessment Tool for Before-After (Pre-Post) Studies With No Control Group" was adopted for controlled pre-post studies. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) to assess the certainty of evidence. We carried out a random effect meta-analysis using RevMan 5.3. For outcomes that could not be meta-analyzed, we performed a descriptive analysis. Results: We identified 16 studies with 11,237 patients, including one RCT, six non-randomized trials, two cohort studies, and seven pre-post studies. The certainty of evidence was low to very low because of the observational study design. QFPD combined with conventional treatment might decrease the time for nucleic acid conversion (MD = -4.78 days, 95% CI: -5.79 to -3.77), shorten the length of hospital stay (MD = -7.95 days, 95% CI: -14.66 to -1.24), shorten the duration of symptoms recovery of fever (MD = -1.51 days, 95% CI: -1.92 to -1.09), cough (MD = -1.64 days, 95% CI: -1.91 to -1.36) and chest CT (MD = -2.23 days, 95% CI: -2.46 to -2.00), improve the overall traditional Chinese medicine symptom scores (MD = 41.58 scores, 95% CI: 32.67 to 50.49), and change the laboratory indexes, such as WBC, AST, and CRP. Conclusion: QFPD combined with conventional treatment might be effective for patients with COVID-19. No serious adverse reactions related to QFPD were observed. Further high-quality studies are still needed in the future.

11.
J Evid Based Med ; 14(3): 218-231, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463038

RESUMO

In the past years, network meta-analysis (NMA) has been widely used among clinicians, guideline makers, and health technology assessment agencies and has played an important role in clinical decision-making and guideline development. To inform further development of NMAs, we conducted a bibliometric analysis to assess the current status of published NMA methodological studies, summarized the methodological progress of seven types of NMAs, and discussed the current challenges of NMAs.


Assuntos
Publicações , Metanálise em Rede
12.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 139: 68-79, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274489

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of Covid-19 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and examine the association between trial characteristics and the likelihood of finding a significant effect. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review to identify RCTs (up to October 21, 2020) evaluating drugs or blood products to treat or prevent Covid-19. We extracted trial characteristics (number of centers, funding sources, and sample size) and assessed risk of bias (RoB) using the Cochrane RoB 2.0 tool. We performed logistic regressions to evaluate the association between RoB due to randomization, single vs. multicentre, funding source, and sample size, and finding a statistically significant effect. RESULTS: We included 91 RCTs (n = 46,802); 40 (44%) were single-center, 23 (25.3%) enrolled <50 patients, 28 (30.8%) received industry funding, and 75 (82.4%) had high or probably high RoB. Thirty-eight trials (41.8%) reported a statistically significant effect. RoB due to randomization and being a single-center trial were associated with increased odds of finding a statistically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: There is high variability in RoB among Covid-19 trials. Researchers, funders, and knowledge-users should be cognizant of the impact of RoB due to randomization and single-center trial status in designing, evaluating, and interpreting the results of RCTs. REGISTRATION: CRD42020192095.

13.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(5): e0399, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079944

RESUMO

Objectives: To compare different modalities of renal replacement therapy in critically ill adults with acute kidney injury. Data Sources: We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to 25 May, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of different renal replacement therapy modalities in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Study Selection: Ten reviewers (working in pairs) independently screened studies for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Data Extraction: We performed random-effects frequentist network meta-analyses and used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to assess certainty of evidence. The primary analysis was a four-node analysis: continuous renal replacement therapy, intermittent hemodialysis, slow efficiency extended dialysis, and peritoneal dialysis. The secondary analysis subdivided these four nodes into nine nodes including continuous veno-venous hemofiltration, continuous veno-venous hemodialysis, continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration, continuous arterio-venous hemodiafiltration, intermittent hemodialysis, intermittent hemodialysis with hemofiltration, slow efficiency extended dialysis, slow efficiency extended dialysis with hemofiltration, and peritoneal dialysis. We set the minimal important difference threshold for mortality as 2.5% (relative difference, 0.04). Data Synthesis: Thirty randomized controlled trials (n = 3,774 patients) proved eligible. There may be no difference in mortality between continuous renal replacement therapy and intermittent hemodialysis (relative risk, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.93-1.18; low certainty), whereas continuous renal replacement therapy demonstrated a possible increase in mortality compared with slow efficiency extended dialysis (relative risk, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.85-1.33; low certainty) and peritoneal dialysis (relative risk, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.92-1.49; low certainty). Continuous renal replacement therapy may increase renal recovery compared with intermittent hemodialysis (relative risk, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.91-1.45; low certainty), whereas both continuous renal replacement therapy and intermittent hemodialysis may be worse for renal recovery compared with slow efficiency extended dialysis and peritoneal dialysis (low certainty). Peritoneal dialysis was probably associated with the shortest duration of renal support and length of ICU stay compared with other interventions (low certainty for most comparisons). Slow efficiency extended dialysis may be associated with shortest length of hospital stay (low or moderate certainty for all comparisons) and days of mechanical ventilation (low certainty for all comparisons) compared with other interventions. There was no difference between continuous renal replacement therapy and intermittent hemodialysis in terms of hypotension (relative risk, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.72-1.16; moderate certainty) or other complications of therapy, but an increased risk of hypotension and bleeding was seen with both modalities compared with peritoneal dialysis (low or moderate certainty). Complications of slow efficiency extended dialysis were not sufficiently reported to inform comparisons. Conclusions: The results of this network meta-analysis suggest there is no difference in mortality between continuous renal replacement therapy and intermittent hemodialysis although continuous renal replacement therapy may increases renal recovery compared with intermittent hemodialysis. Slow efficiency extended dialysis with hemofiltration may be the most effective intervention at reducing mortality. Peritoneal dialysis is associated with good efficacy, and the least number of complications however may not be practical in all settings. Importantly, all conclusions are based on very low to moderate certainty evidence, limited by imprecision. At the very least, ICU clinicians should feel comfortable that the differences between continuous renal replacement therapy, intermittent hemodialysis, slow efficiency extended dialysis, and, where clinically appropriate, peritoneal dialysis are likely small, and any of these modalities is a reasonable option to employ in critically ill patients.

14.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-12, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34121531

RESUMO

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs), and 100% fruit juices are frequently consumed and have been documented that they could lead to serious disease burden. However, inconsistent evidence on the association between SSBs, ASBs, and 100% fruit juices consumption and mortality have been presented. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PsycINFO were systematically searched. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis and dose-response meta-analysis to assess the association and calculated the pooled hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval. And we evaluated the certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Thirteen studies with 1,539,127 participants proved eligible. An SSB-consumption increase per 250 mL/day was associated with a 4% greater risk of all-cause mortality (5 more per 1000 persons; low certainty) and 8% greater risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (3 more per 1000 persons; low certainty). ASB-consumption increase per 250 mL/day demonstrated a 4% greater risk of all-cause mortality (5 more per 1000 persons; low certainty) and 4% greater risk of cardiovascular disease mortality (2 more per 1000 persons; low certainty). The association of SSBs and ASBs with cancer mortality was not significant, with a very low certainty of evidence. There was evidence of a linear dose-response association between SSB intake and cancer mortality, as well as between ASB intake and all-cause mortality and cancer mortality. We observed a non-linear dose-response association between ASB intake and CVD mortality and SSB intake and all-cause and CVD mortality. Low certainty of evidence demonstrated that per 250 mL/day consumption increase in SSBs and ASBs had a small impact on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality but not on cancer mortality. The association of 100% fruit juice consumption with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality was uncertain.

15.
Breastfeed Med ; 16(9): 687-696, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077234

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the impact of the duration of breastfeeding on the intelligence of children. Materials and Methods: Eight electronic databases were searched to identify studies that investigated the impact of breastfeeding on the intelligence of children. Data were pooled, and the ratio of means (RoM) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated using a pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed using a tool developed by the CLARITY group. Data were analyzed using R version 3.5.1. Results: A total of 15 studies with 12,316 subjects were included in the review. Half of the studies were at low risk of bias. A meta-analysis indicated that breastfed children had a score 1.04-fold higher in intelligence tests compared with those that had never been breastfed (RoM: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06, p < 0.05). Evidence from a network meta-analysis indicated that breastfeeding for ≤6 months resulted in score 1.04-fold higher in intelligence tests (RoM: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06, p < 0.05) and children breastfed for >6 months had a score 1.06-fold higher (RoM: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.05-1.08, p < 0.05) than children that had never been breastfed. Thus, breastfeeding for >6 months demonstrated a slightly higher score than breastfeeding for ≤6 months (RoM: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Breastfeeding could significantly improve the intelligence of children, with a duration of >6 months showing a slight but significantly higher intelligence score than for ≤6 months.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Inteligência , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Risco
16.
J Tissue Viability ; 30(3): 324-330, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176736

RESUMO

Here, we aimed to build a nomogram model to estimate the probability of nasogastric tube-associated pressure injuries (NTAPIs) in intensive care unit(ICU)patients. This prospective cohort study included 219ICU patients with nasogastric tube between September 2019 and January 2020.Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to develop the nomogram model. The resulting nomogram was tested for calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. Of the included patients, 58 developed NTAPIs, representing an incidence rate of 26.5%. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that the prediction nomogram included C-reactive protein, vasopressor use, albumin level, nasogastric tube duration, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The value of these predictors was again confirmed using theLasso regression analysis. Internal validation presented a good discrimination of the nomogram, with an area under the curve value of 0.850, and good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.177). The decision curve analysis also demonstrated preferable net benefit along with the threshold probability in the prediction nomogram. The nomogram model can accurately predict the risk factors for NTAPIs, to formulate intervention strategies as early as possible to reduce NTAPI incidence.


Assuntos
Intubação Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Nomogramas , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Intubação Gastrointestinal/métodos , Intubação Gastrointestinal/normas , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Lesão por Pressão/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
17.
Syst Rev ; 10(1): 131, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941269

RESUMO

Published protocols have the potential to reduce bias in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews (SR). When reporting the results of a completed SR, the question might arise whether text used in the protocol can also be used in the completed SR? Does this constitute text recycling, plagiarism, or even copyright infringement? In theory, no major changes to the protocol will be expected for the introduction and methods sections if the SR is completed in time. The benefits of maintaining the introduction and methods section of a protocol in the published SR are straightforward. Authors will require less time for writing up the completed SR. Potential benefits can also be expected for peer reviewers and editors. However, reusing text can be described as self-plagiarism. The question to be answered is whether this type of self-plagiarism is acceptable when copying text used previously (as would be the case when copying text from the protocol and pasting it into the subsequent completed SR)? The "traditional answer" to this question is "yes" because authors should not get credit for one piece of work for more than one time unless the work is cited appropriately. In contrast, we propose that in this context, it seems to be fully acceptable from a scientific and ethical perspective. As such, authors should not be accused of plagiarism in this case, but rather be encouraged to be efficient. However, legal issues need to be taken into consideration (e.g., copyright). We hope to stimulate a discussion on this topic among authors, readers, editors, and publishers.


Assuntos
Plágio , Editoração , Viés , Humanos , Publicações , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
18.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1861-1873, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients treated with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors in clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a literature search of Ovid MEDLINE and ePub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Daily; Ovid EMBASE; Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; and Scopus, from inception to December 4, 2019, for randomized, placebo-controlled trials with JAK inhibitors as an intervention and reported adverse events. Odds ratio with 95% CI was calculated to estimate the VTE risk using a random effects model. Two independent reviewers screened and extracted data. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to assess certainty in estimated VTE risk. RESULTS: We included 29 trials (13,910 patients). No statistically significant association was found between use of JAK inhibitors and risk of VTE (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.47; P=.70; I2=0; low certainty because of serious imprecision). Results using Bayesian analysis were consistent with those of the primary analysis. Results of stratified and meta-regression analyses suggested no interaction by dose of drug, indication for treatment, or length of follow-up. CONCLUSION: We found insufficient evidence to support an increased risk of JAK inhibitor-associated VTE based on currently available data.


Assuntos
Medição de Risco/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tromboembolia Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
19.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5767-5779, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894735

RESUMO

In the recent years, migraine has been widely studied by scholars from all over the world. This study aimed to use scientometric methods to identify research frontiers and development trends in the field of migraine research. We used the Web of Science (WoS) core collection database to collect articles and reviews related to migraine published from 2010 to 2019 on March 25, 2020. VOSviewer, CiteSpace, and Excel were used for the scientometric analysis. A total of 6,357 publications (including 5,203 articles and 1,154 reviews) were identified. The United States published the most publications (n=2,151, 33.84%). Albert Einstein College of Medicine contributed the most publications (n=220, 3.46%). Cephalalgia was found to be the core journal with the most publications (n=766, impact factor 2019 =4.868) as well as the most co-citations (n=35,535). Lipton RB authored the most publications (n=159, 2.50%), while Silberstein SD received the most co-citations (n=4,215). The critical topics were causes and pathophysiological mechanisms, epidemiological characteristics, diagnostic criteria, treatment and prevention drugs, and migraine-related genes. Through the use of scientometric methods, this article has mapped the knowledge landscape of migraine research over the past decade. By showing the overall status of the field, it provides a useful reference for future research.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Publicações , Estados Unidos
20.
BMJ ; 373: n949, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare the effects of drug prophylaxis on SARS-CoV-2 infection and covid-19. DESIGN: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: World Health Organization covid-19 database, a comprehensive multilingual source of global covid-19 literature to 25 March 2021, and six additional Chinese databases to 20 February 2021. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised trials of people at risk of covid-19 who were assigned to receive prophylaxis or no prophylaxis (standard care or placebo). Pairs of reviewers independently screened potentially eligible articles. METHODS: Random effects bayesian network meta-analysis was performed after duplicate data abstraction. Included studies were assessed for risk of bias using a modification of the Cochrane risk of bias 2.0 tool, and certainty of evidence was assessed using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS: The first iteration of this living network meta-analysis includes nine randomised trials-six of hydroxychloroquine (n=6059 participants), one of ivermectin combined with iota-carrageenan (n=234), and two of ivermectin alone (n=540), all compared with standard care or placebo. Two trials (one of ramipril and one of bromhexine hydrochloride) did not meet the sample size requirements for network meta-analysis. Hydroxychloroquine has trivial to no effect on admission to hospital (risk difference 1 fewer per 1000 participants, 95% credible interval 3 fewer to 4 more; high certainty evidence) or mortality (1 fewer per 1000, 2 fewer to 3 more; high certainty). Hydroxychloroquine probably does not reduce the risk of laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (2 more per 1000, 18 fewer to 28 more; moderate certainty), probably increases adverse effects leading to drug discontinuation (19 more per 1000, 1 fewer to 70 more; moderate certainty), and may have trivial to no effect on suspected, probable, or laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (15 fewer per 1000, 64 fewer to 41 more; low certainty). Owing to serious risk of bias and very serious imprecision, and thus very low certainty of evidence, the effects of ivermectin combined with iota-carrageenan on laboratory confirmed covid-19 (52 fewer per 1000, 58 fewer to 37 fewer), ivermectin alone on laboratory confirmed infection (50 fewer per 1000, 59 fewer to 16 fewer) and suspected, probable, or laboratory confirmed infection (159 fewer per 1000, 165 fewer to 144 fewer) remain very uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: Hydroxychloroquine prophylaxis has trivial to no effect on hospital admission and mortality, probably increases adverse effects, and probably does not reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Because of serious risk of bias and very serious imprecision, it is highly uncertain whether ivermectin combined with iota-carrageenan and ivermectin alone reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This review was not registered. The protocol established a priori is included as a supplement. READERS' NOTE: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Updates may occur for up to two years from the date of original publication.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Carragenina/farmacologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Quimioprevenção/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento , Incerteza
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