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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149695, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438127

RESUMO

Particle number size distribution (PNSD) is of importance for understanding the mechanisms of particle growth, haze formation and climate impacts. However, the measurements of PNSD aloft in megacities are very limited. Here we report the first simultaneous winter measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations along with collocated gaseous species and aerosol composition at ground level and 260 m in Beijing. Our study showed that the vertical differences of particle number concentrations between ground level and aloft varied significantly as a function of particle size throughout the study. Further analysis illustrated the impacts of boundary dynamics and meteorological conditions on the vertical differences of PNSD. In particular, the temperature and relative humidity inversions were one of the most important factors by decoupling the boundary layer into different sources and processes. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified six sources of PNSD at both ground level and city aloft. The local source emissions dominantly contributed to Aitken-mode particles, and showed the largest vertical gradients in the city. Comparatively, the regional particles were highly correlated between ground level and city aloft, and the vertical differences were relatively stable throughout the day. Our results point towards a complex vertical evolution of PNSD due to the changes in boundary layer dynamics, meteorological conditions, sources, and processes in megacities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(2): 1376-1385, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939778

RESUMO

Electronic metal-support interaction (EMSI) has attracted great attention in volatile organic compound (VOC) abatement. Herein, Pt@Co3O4 catalysts were prepared via a metal-organic framework (MOF) in situ growth approach to boost toluene degradation. The partial electron transfer from Co3O4 to Pt species was induced by the EMSI effect to generate the electron-rich Pt and Co3+ species. The electrophilic O2 molecules could be activated by picking up the electrons from electron-rich Pt species to form nucleophilic oxygen species, which is conducive to attack C-H bonds in toluene. The redox ability and surface oxygen species activity of catalysts were improved due to strong EMSI. As expected, the excellent toluene activity was achieved, meanwhile exhibiting satisfactory water resistance and long-term stability for toluene combustion. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy results elucidated that surface lattice oxygen species should deeply participate in toluene degradation, which could be efficiently replenished by gaseous oxygen. This work may provide a new idea for exploring the relationship between the electron transfer effect and efficient catalytic performance of VOCs.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(23): 15616-15624, 2021 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756032

RESUMO

Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important photochemical precursor to hydroxyl radicals particularly in an urban atmosphere, yet its primary emission and secondary production are often poorly constrained. Here, we measured HONO and nitrogen oxides (NOx) at both the inlet and the outlet in a busy urban tunnel (>30 000 vehicles per day) in south China. Multiple linear regression revealed that 73.9% of the inlet-outlet incremental HONO concentration was explained by NO2 surface conversion, while the rest was directly emitted from vehicles with an average HONO/NOx ratio of 1.31 ± 0.87%, which was higher than that from previous tunnel studies. The uptake coefficient of NO2, γ(NO2), on the tunnel surfaces was calculated to be (7.01 ± 0.02) × 10-5, much higher than that widely used in models. As tunnel surfaces are typical of urban surfaces in the wall and road materials, the dominance of HONO from surface reactions in the poorly lit urban tunnel demonstrated the importance of NO2 conversion on urban surfaces, instead of NO2 conversion on the aerosol surface, for both daytime and night-time HONO even in polluted ambient air. The higher γ(NO2) on urban surfaces and the elevated HONO/NOx ratio from this study can help explain the missing HONO sources in urban areas.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806377

RESUMO

The understanding at a molecular level of ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is hampered by poorly constrained formation mechanisms and insufficient analytical methods. Especially in developing countries, SOA related haze is a great concern due to its significant effects on climate and human health. We present simultaneous measurements of gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs), and particle-phase SOA in Beijing. We show that condensation of the measured OOMs explains 26-39% of the organic aerosol mass growth, with the contribution of OOMs to SOA enhanced during severe haze episodes. Our novel results provide a quantitative molecular connection from anthropogenic emissions to condensable organic oxidation product vapors, their concentration in particle-phase SOA, and ultimately to haze formation.

6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 603: 695-705, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225073

RESUMO

Exposed surface defect-enriched Co3O4 catalysts derived from metal organic framework (MOF) were fabricated by the promotion of surface Mn species for toluene oxidation. The incorporation of Mn species into Co3O4 surface lattice could give rise to the local lattice distortion in spinel structure, resulting in highly exposed surface defect rather than bulk defect. More Co3+ species were also exposed on the surface of MnOx/Co3O4 samples owing to the electron transfer from Co to Mn species by the occupation of surface Mn in octahedral Co3+ sites. Accordingly, the low-temperature reducibility and high mobility of lattice oxygen were significantly improved in virtue of the highly exposed surface defect and predominately surface Co3+ sites, thus promoting the catalytic activity and stability for toluene oxidation. Moreover, the toluene conversion decreased with the increase of weight hourly space velocity (WHSV). In situ DRIFTS results confirmed the continuous oxidation process for toluene degradation, and the conversion of benzoate into maleic anhydride should be the rate-controlling step.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117679, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243056

RESUMO

HONO is an important component of reactive nitrogen (Nr) and precursors of OH radical. However, the source and removal of HONO are not clear. Here, measurements of HONO (May 18-31, 2018) were conducted in Xi'an and Xianyang simultaneously for the first time. The relationship between HONO and other Nr (such as NO and NO2) in two cities was analyzed. The mixing ratio of HONO in Xi'an was 1.2 ± 0.8 ppbv, and that in Xianyang was 1.2 ± 1.1 ppbv. The nighttime HONO mixing ratio was higher in Xianyang, while the daytime HONO was higher in Xi'an. Compared with the contribution from heterogeneous process of NO2, direct emissions and homogeneous processes (NO + OH) were less important for nocturnal HONO formation in these two cities. The relative contribution of heterogeneous process in Xianyang was more important than that in Xi'an. The reaction of NO2 upon aerosols surface was identified as an important source of HONO for two sites. The conversion of NO2 on the other surfaces might attend the heterogeneous formation of HONO in Xianyang site. Daytime HONO budget analysis indicated that there was an additional unknown formation process of HONO at two sites. The net OH production rate from HONO (from 08:00 to 17:00) was 1.6 × 107 and 1.3 × 107 molecule/(cm3 s) for Xian and Xianyang, 5.2 and 3.5 times higher than from O3 photolysis. Besides, a dust storm appeared during this observation period, and the impact of local emission and transport processes was separately analyzed. The sources, characteristics, and effects of HONO identified in this study laid a foundation for further research on HONO and air pollution in the Guanzhong area.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Ácido Nitroso , Aerossóis , China , Cidades , Nitrogênio
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(14): 9784-9793, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232022

RESUMO

Photocatalytic materials are proved to effectively eliminate gaseous pollutants and are widely used in the environment. However, as one of the rare experiments focusing on their influence on secondary aerosol formation generated in the gas phase (SAg), our study demonstrated the high-yield SAg formation in the photocatalysis process. In this study, the photodegradation of SO2 by TiO2 under various relative humidity (RH) conditions was deeply explored with multiple methods. Unexpectedly, H2SO4 aerosols (SAg-H2SO4) in yields of 10.10-32.64% were observed under the studied RH conditions for the first time. Gaseous •OH and H2O2 generated from the oxidation of H2O and reduction of O2 by TiO2 were directly detected in the photocatalysis process, and they were identified as the determining factor for SAg-H2SO4 formation. The formation of SAg-H2SO4 was also influenced by RH, the heterogeneous reaction of SO2, and the uptake of H2SO4. The role of the released gaseous •OH and H2O2 on atmospheric chemistry was proved to be unignorable by adopting the obtained parameters into the real environment. These findings provided direct experimental evidence of secondary pollution in the photocatalysis process and are of great significance to the field of atmospheric environment and photocatalytic materials.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Gases , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Titânio
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(18): 12215-12222, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323471

RESUMO

Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO) is a major precursor of hydroxyl radicals that dominate atmospheric oxidizing capacity. Nevertheless, pathways of HONO formation remain to be explored. This study unveiled an important CO2-catalysis mechanism of HONO formation, using Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy samplings. In the mechanism, HCO3- formed from CO2 hydrolysis reacts with NO2 dimers to produce HONO at water surfaces, and simultaneously, itself reconverts back to CO2 via intermediates OC(O)ONO- and HOC(O)ONO. A flow system experiment was performed to confirm the new mechanism, which indicated that HONO concentrations with CO2 injections were increased by 29.4-68.5%. The new mechanism can be extended to other humid surfaces. Therefore, this study unveiled a previously overlooked vital role of CO2 that catalyzes formation of HONO and affects atmospheric oxidizing capacity.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Ácido Nitroso , Radical Hidroxila , Água
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 105: 128-137, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130830

RESUMO

The reaction mechanism and kinetics of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH2OO reaction with hydroperoxymethyl formate (HPMF) was investigated at high-level quantum chemistry calculations. HPMF has two reactive functional groups, -C(O)OH and -OOH. The calculated results of thermodynamic data and rate constants indicated that the insertion reactions of CH2OO with -OOH group of HPMF were more favorable than the reactions of CH2OO with -C(O)OH group. The calculated overall rate constant was 2.33 × 10-13 cm3/(molecule⋅sec) at 298 K and the rate constants decreased as the temperature increased from 200 to 480 K. In addition, we also proved the polymerization reaction mechanism between CH2OO and -OOH of HPMF. This theoretical study interpreted the previous experimental results, and supplied the structures of the intermediate products that couldn't be detected during the experiment.


Assuntos
Formiatos , Teoria Quântica , Cinética , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1993, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790274

RESUMO

The formation mechanism of aerosol sulfate during wintertime haze events in China is still largely unknown. As companions, SO2 and transition metals are mainly emitted from coal combustion. Here, we argue that the transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of SO2 on aerosol surfaces could be the dominant sulfate formation pathway and investigate this hypothesis by integrating chamber experiments, numerical simulations and in-field observations. Our analysis shows that the contribution of the manganese-catalyzed oxidation of SO2 on aerosol surfaces is approximately one to two orders of magnitude larger than previously known routes, and contributes 69.2% ± 5.0% of the particulate sulfur production during haze events. This formation pathway could explain the missing source of sulfate and improve the understanding of atmospheric chemistry and climate change.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 594: 882-890, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794410

RESUMO

Oxygen vacancy (Ov) engineering is a widely accepted effective strategy to manipulate the catalytic activity for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) abatement. Herein, we report the oxygen vacancy-mediated Ag/CeO2-Co3O4 catalyst to boost benzene combustion. The incorporation of Ag species in Ag/CeO2-Co3O4 induces the predominately exposed surface Co3+ sites and structural distortion of Co3O4 as well as rich oxygen vacancy owing to the improved interfacial electron transfer, which promote the adsorption of benzene and the dissociation of oxygen. The low-temperature reducibility and mobility of oxygen species are also improved due to the generation of oxygen vacancy. The isotopic 18O2 exchange experiments demonstrate that abundant oxygen vacancies contribute to the rapid generation of active oxygen species, and the consumed oxygen vacancies can be compensated steadily during benzene oxidation. In-situ DRIFTS results reveal that benzene oxidation is a continuous oxidation process, and active oxygen species plays a crucial role in the deep oxidation of benzene by engineering oxygen vacancy. This work provides an efficient strategy for designing high-performance environmental catalysts for VOCs abatement.

13.
Toxicology ; 456: 152770, 2021 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823232

RESUMO

Extensive health studies had declared that exposure to particulate matter (PM) was closely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, i.e. Parkinson's disease (PD). Our aim was to clarify the potential molecular mechanism by which PM2.5 aggravated PD symptoms using in vitro and in vivo PD models. In this study, PC12 cells treated with rotenone (1 µM) and/or PM2.5 (50 µg/mL) for 4 days was used as the in vitro model. C57BL/6 J mice expored to PM2.5 (inhalation, 2.5 mg/kg) and rotenone (intraperitoneal injection, 30 mg/kg) for 28 days was used as the in vivo model. Rapamycin was used to promote the level of autophagy. The results showed that after exposure to PM2.5, the apoptosis of rotenone-treated PC12 cells were increased by increasing the ROS levels and decreasing the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential. In rotenone-treated PC12 cells, exposure to PM2.5 could decrease the expression levels of LC3II and Atg5, and increase the expression level of mTOR, suggesting that PM2.5 exposure inhibited autophagy. Furthermore, the mitophagy related genes, including PINK1 and Parkin, were decreased. At the same time, inhalation of PM2.5 could relieve the behavioral abnormalities of PD mouse induced by rotenone. The levels of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) were significantly increased. Inhalation of PM2.5 could induce the oxidative stress and apoptosis in the substantia nigra of PD mouse, as well as the key markers of autophagy and mitophagy were also changed, which was consistent with the cell model. Besides, rapamycin would relieve the damaging effect of PM2.5 by triggering autophagy and mitophagy in rotenone-induced PD models. These results indicated that exposure to PM2.5 aggravated the behavioral abnormalities of PD symptoms through increasing oxidative stress, decreasing autophagy and mitophagy, and inducing mitochondria-mediated neuronal apoptosis. These findings not only revealed the effects and mechanism of PM2.5 exposure on PD, but also provided fundamental data that can be exploited to develop environmental safety policies.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/metabolismo , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitofagia/fisiologia , Células PC12 , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/patologia , Material Particulado/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Rotenona/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
14.
J Phys Chem A ; 125(18): 3813-3825, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687210

RESUMO

Oxidants are central species in the atmosphere, where they not only determine secondary particle formation but also impact human health and climate change. In general, they are unstable, highly reactive, and recyclable and have been studied in field observations, laboratory studies, and model simulations. The most widely investigated oxidants, such as OH radicals, O3, and Cl atom, HONO, NO3, N2O5, and Criegee Intermediates (CIs) have attracted more attention recently. Furthermore, secondary particles formed in the oxidations processes impact the particle physicochemical properties, such as hygroscopicity and optical properties and therefore impact the atmospheric radiation balance. Therefore, the newest investigation results of important oxidants (HONO, NO3, N2O5, and CIs) are reviewed in this manuscript, and the environmental effects of secondary particles formed through corresponding oxidation processes are also stated. Furthermore, some perspectives are further discussed in the article.

15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 102: 185-197, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637243

RESUMO

Understanding the formation mechanisms of secondary air pollution is very important for the formulation of air pollution control countermeasures in China. Thus, a large-scale outdoor atmospheric simulation smog chamber was constructed at Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (the CRAES Chamber), which was designed for simulating the atmospheric photochemical processes under the conditions close to the real atmospheric environment. The chamber consisted of a 56-m3 fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon film reactor, an electrically-driven stainless steel alloy shield, an auxiliary system, and multiple detection instrumentations. By performing a series of characterization experiments, we obtained basic parameters of the CRAES chamber, such as the mixing ability, the background reactivity, and the wall loss rates of gaseous compounds (propene, NO, NO2, ozone) and aerosols (ammonium sulfate). Oxidation experiments were also performed to study the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), including α-pinene ozonolysis, propene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation. Temperature and seed effects on the vapor wall loss and SOA yields were obtained in this work: higher temperature and the presence of seed could reduce the vapor wall loss; SOA yield was found to depend inversely on temperature, and the presence of seed could increase SOA yield. The seed was suggested to be used in the chamber to reduce the interaction between the gas phase and chamber walls. The results above showed that the CRAES chamber was reliable and could meet the demands for investigating tropospheric chemistry.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Smog , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Processos Fotoquímicos , Smog/análise
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 102: 53-63, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637265

RESUMO

A distinctive kind of organic carbon aerosol that could absorb ultraviolet-visible radiation is called brown carbon (BrC), which has an important positive influence on radiative budget and climate change. In this work, we reported the absorption properties and potential source of BrC based on a seven-wavelength aethalometer in the winter of 2018-2019 at an urban site of Sanmenxia in Fenwei Plain in central China. Specifically, the mean value of BrC absorption coefficient was 59.6 ± 36.0 Mm-1 at 370 nm and contributed 37.7% to total absorption, which made a significant impact on visibility and regional environment. Absorption coefficients of BrC showed double-peak pattern, and BrC had shown small fluctuations under haze days compared with clean days. As for the sources of BrC, BrC absorption coefficients expressed strong correlations with element carbon aerosols and primary organic carbon aerosols, indicating that most of BrC originated from primary emissions. The linear correlations between trace metal elements (K, As, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Pb) and BrC absorption coefficients further referred that the major sources of BrC were primary emissions, like coal burning, biomass burning, and vehicle emissions. The moderate relationship between BrC absorption coefficients and secondary organic aerosols suggested that secondary production of BrC also played an important role. The 120 hr backward air mass trajectories analysis and concentration-weighted trajectories analysis were also used to investigate potential sources of BrC in and around this area, which inferred most parts of BrC were derived from local emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Carbono , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141620, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889456

RESUMO

With the development of the economy, anthropogenic emissions in the atmospheric environment increases, and air pollution has caused wide public concern. Vehicle exhaust is an important emission source in the atmosphere, and alkanes are the representative components in it. In this study, the optical properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) derived from several C12 alkanes (2-methylundecane, hexylcyclohexane, and cyclododecane) in the absence of NOX were determined. Absorption (imaginary part of the refractive index (RI), k) at 532 nm was negligible for all the derived SOA, and the scattering (real part of RI, n) of the SOA at 532 nm followed the order of cyclododecane SOA < hexylcyclohexane SOA < 2-methylundecane SOA, at both room- (25 °C) and low- (5 °C) temperature. The chemical compositions of the SOA formed were analyzed with an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF-MS). The mass spectra showed that the oligomers were generated in the reactions. It was shown that the different reaction pathways (due to various alkane structures) leaded to the difference in SOA chemical composition, which changed the RI values. The low-temperature condition promoted the progress of the oligomerization reaction so that the final RI values also changed. This work suggested that when estimating the radiative forcing of SOA using regional or global models, the structure of the precursors and reaction conditions should be taken into account.

18.
Faraday Discuss ; 226: 334-347, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290451

RESUMO

Atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion is a crucial or even dominant contributor to haze formation in Chinese megacities in terms of aerosol number, surface area and mass. Based on our comprehensive observations in Beijing during 15 January 2018-31 March 2019, we are able to show that 80-90% of the aerosol mass (PM2.5) was formed via atmospheric reactions during the haze days and over 65% of the number concentration of haze particles resulted from new particle formation (NPF). Furthermore, the haze formation was faster when the subsequent growth of newly formed particles was enhanced. Our findings suggest that in practice almost all present-day haze episodes originate from NPF, mainly since the direct emission of primary particles in Beijing has considerably decreased during recent years. We also show that reducing the subsequent growth rate of freshly formed particles by a factor of 3-5 would delay the buildup of haze episodes by 1-3 days. Actually, this delay would decrease the length of each haze episode, so that the number of annual haze days could be approximately halved. Such improvement in air quality can be achieved with targeted reduction of gas-phase precursors for NPF, mainly dimethyl amine and ammonia, and further reductions of SO2 emissions. Furthermore, reduction of anthropogenic organic and inorganic precursor emissions would slow down the growth rate of newly-formed particles and consequently reduce the haze formation.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(20): 12870-12880, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924447

RESUMO

Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) is a crucial precursor of the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which is a "detergent" in the atmosphere. Nowadays, HONO formation mechanisms at polluted urban areas are controversial, which restricts the understanding of atmospheric oxidative capacity and radical cycling. Herein, multiday vertical observation of HONO and NOx was simultaneously performed at three heights at the urban area of Beijing for the first time. The vertical distribution of HONO was often unexpected, and it had the highest HONO concentration at 120 m, followed by those at 8 and 240 m. 0D box model simulations suggest that ground and aerosol surfaces might play similar roles in NO2 conversion at 8 m during the whole measurement. NO2 conversion on aerosol surfaces was the most important HONO source aloft during haze days. At daytime, a strong missing HONO source unexpectedly existed in the urban aloft, and it was relevant to solar radiation and consumed OH.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Ácido Nitroso , Aerossóis , Pequim , Radical Hidroxila , Ácido Nitroso/análise
20.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 95: 165-171, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653176

RESUMO

As an important indoor pollutant, nitrous acid (HONO) can contribute to the concentration of indoor OH radicals by photolysis via sunlight penetrating into indoor environments, thus affecting the indoor oxidizing capability. In order to investigate the concentration of indoor HONO and its impact factors, three different indoor environments and two different locations in urban and suburban areas were selected to monitor indoor and outdoor pollutants simultaneously, including HONO, NO, NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), O3, and particle mass concentration. In general, the concentration of indoor HONO was higher than that outdoors. In the urban area, indoor HONO with high average concentration (7.10 ppbV) was well-correlated with the temperature. In the suburban area, the concentration of indoor HONO was only about 1-2 ppbV, and had a good correlation with indoor relative humidity. It was mainly attributed to the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on indoor surfaces. The sunlight penetrating into indoor environments from outside had a great influence on the concentration of indoor HONO, leading to a concentration of indoor HONO close to that outdoors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Ácido Nitroso/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Fotólise , Luz Solar
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