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1.
West J Nurs Res ; : 193945920907308, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075548

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to synthesize research evidence from studies on the relationships among the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, regular exercise, and cognition in human subjects. PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science were searched systematically. Search limiters applied in these databases included humans, English language, time limits from 2009 to 2019, and peer-reviewed journal articles. Eight studies were included in the current review. While there was some evidence to tentatively suggest that greater levels of exercise were associated with certain forms of memory in Val/Val homozygotes than Met carriers, more research is needed to corroborate these findings. Regarding attention/information processing speed, executive function as well as global cognition, the evidence is either inconsistent or sparse and does not allow for tentative conclusions. Compelling evidence from high-quality clinical trials is needed to re-examine the relationship between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, exercise, and cognition.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4201, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519986

RESUMO

As Charles Darwin anticipated, living fossils provide excellent opportunities to study evolutionary questions related to extinction, competition, and adaptation. Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba L.) is one of the oldest living plants and a fascinating example of how people have saved a species from extinction and assisted its resurgence. By resequencing 545 genomes of ginkgo trees sampled from 51 populations across the world, we identify three refugia in China and detect multiple cycles of population expansion and reduction along with glacial admixture between relict populations in the southwestern and southern refugia. We demonstrate multiple anthropogenic introductions of ginkgo from eastern China into different continents. Further analyses reveal bioclimatic variables that have affected the geographic distribution of ginkgo and the role of natural selection in ginkgo's adaptation and resilience. These investigations provide insights into the evolutionary history of ginkgo trees and valuable genomic resources for further addressing various questions involving living fossil species.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genoma de Planta , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Filogenia , Adaptação Fisiológica , China , Fósseis , Genômica , Sementes/genética , Seleção Genética
3.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 6(1): 117-122, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406877

RESUMO

Depression is not only a major global public health concern, but also a common comorbidity among patients who experience chronic diseases, such as cancer, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Yet the recognition and treatment varies widely around the world. This study (1) provides an integrated review of the literature on the prevalence of depression among patients with chronic diseases in China and the United States and its relationship to poorer health outcomes and (2) compares the differences in the percentages of patients receiving treatments for depression between the United States and China. Given the current situation, we recommended that primary care and specialty providers should be knowledgeable and alert regarding the signs of depression. Efforts should be directed to further implement integrated care based interventions to manage depression and improve quality of life among patients suffering chronic diseases in both China and the United States.

4.
West J Nurs Res ; : 193945919866475, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342864

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify symptom clusters of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to examine the relationship between symptom clusters and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It included 154 hospitalized patients with COPD. The majority of the participants (88.6%) were aged 60 years and above, and the numbers of men and women were approximately equal (men: 55.2%). The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the Chinese version of the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) were used to evaluate comorbidity, participant's symptoms, and HRQoL, respectively. Five symptom clusters were identified using exploratory factor analysis, and symptom clusters, especially the Psychological, Pain and Fatigue, GI, and Dyspnea-Sweat symptom clusters, had negative effects on HRQoL in patients with COPD. Understanding the patterns and occurrences of symptom clusters could be essential for developing effective interventions to manage COPD symptoms and improve the patients' HRQoL.

5.
Clin Nurs Res ; : 1054773819862973, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353950

RESUMO

Although cognitive dysfunction is related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the concept has not yet been well defined. The purpose of this study was to define the concept of cognitive dysfunction in persons with T2DM and examine its defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences. Literature was retrieved from 2008 to 2018 by systematically searching the PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. Based on 37 included studies, three defining attributes were identified: cognitive dysfunction is a recognized or unrecognized symptom, is characterized by a subtle decline in one or more cognitive domains, and is accompanied by pronounced structural changes observed in brain imaging. One major antecedent was diabetes-related or diabetes-specific pathological changes. Consequences included interference with diabetes self-management, nonadherence to recommended self-management behaviors, and a higher risk of having hypoglycemic events. The concept analysis provides a theoretical foundation that can be used to guide evaluations and interventions related to cognitive dysfunction in individuals with T2DM.

6.
AIDS Care ; 31(11): 1362-1368, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124373

RESUMO

In this retrospective study, we sought to determine the associations between alcohol use and anxiety and RIC among WHIV. Alcohol use was assessed using the Timeline Follow-back to measure use over the 90 days preceding the interview. Anxiety symptoms scores, assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale- Anxiety Subscale (HADS-A). Primary care visits over twelve months prior to the interview were collected from clinic registration records. We used three logistic mixed models, adjusting for age, race, education, cocaine use, depression, viral load, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) status. Among 364 WHIV, mean attendance of primary care visits was 63.9%. Every one-day increase in drinking days (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.99, 1.00) or heavy drinking days (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.90, 1.00) was associated with decreased odds of attending primary care visits (P = 0.02). Moderate/severe anxiety scores, compared to minimal anxiety scores, were associated with decreased odds of attending primary care visits (OR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.50, 0.97). Cocaine use was associated with decreased odds of attending primary care visits (OR 0.56, 0.57). Our findings indicate that identifying and treating WHIV with alcohol use (especially heavy drinking), moderate/severe anxiety symptoms and/or cocaine use could potentially improve their RIC.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(14): 6908-6913, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877258

RESUMO

Rapid phenotypic changes in traits of adaptive significance are crucial for organisms to thrive in changing environments. How such phenotypic variation is achieved rapidly, despite limited genetic variation in species that experience a genetic bottleneck is unknown. Capsella rubella, an annual and inbreeding forb (Brassicaceae), is a great system for studying this basic question. Its distribution is wider than those of its congeneric species, despite an extreme genetic bottleneck event that severely diminished its genetic variation. Here, we demonstrate that transposable elements (TEs) are an important source of genetic variation that could account for its high phenotypic diversity. TEs are (i) highly enriched in C. rubella compared with its outcrossing sister species Capsella grandiflora, and (ii) 4.2% of polymorphic TEs in C. rubella are associated with variation in the expression levels of their adjacent genes. Furthermore, we show that frequent TE insertions at FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in natural populations of C. rubella could explain 12.5% of the natural variation in flowering time, a key life history trait correlated with fitness and adaptation. In particular, we show that a recent TE insertion at the 3' UTR of FLC affects mRNA stability, which results in reducing its steady-state expression levels, to promote the onset of flowering. Our results highlight that TE insertions can drive rapid phenotypic variation, which could potentially help with adaptation to changing environments in a species with limited standing genetic variation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Capsella , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Capsella/genética , Capsella/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/biossíntese , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo
8.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(5): 875-889, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861529

RESUMO

The occurrence of parallel speciation strongly implies the action of natural selection. However, it is unclear how general a phenomena parallel speciation is since it was only shown in a small number of animal species. In particular, the adaptive process and mechanisms underlying the process of parallel speciation remain elusive. Here, we used an integrative approach incorporating population genomics, common garden, and crossing experiments to investigate parallel speciation of the wild rice species Oryza nivara from O. rufipogon. We demonstrated that O. nivara originated multiple times from different O. rufipogon populations and revealed that different O. nivara populations have evolved similar phenotypes under divergent selection, a reflection of recurrent local adaptation of ancient O. rufipogon populations to dry habitats. Almost completed premating isolation was detected between O. nivara and O. rufipogon in the absence of any postmating barriers between and within these species. These results suggest that flowering time is a "magic" trait that contributes to both local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the origin of wild rice species. Our study thus demonstrates a convincing case of parallel ecological speciation as a consequence of adaptation to new environments.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Oryza/genética , Adaptação Biológica , Ásia Sudeste , Ásia Ocidental , Ecossistema , Fenótipo , Filogeografia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Seleção Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Res Theory Nurs Pract ; 33(1): 6-22, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although mounting evidence has consistently shown that depressive symptoms are more common among diabetic women than among diabetic men, diabetic men are frequently overlooked in diabetes-related mental health studies, and research on predicators of depressive symptoms among diabetic men remains scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the gender-specific characteristics that predict depressive symptoms among mid-aged and elderly men with diabetes. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed using the baseline data from the China and Health Retirement Longitudinal Study. A total of 824 men aged 45 years or older with diabetes were included in the analysis. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale short form. Age, education level, marital status, nighttime sleep duration, smoking status, duration of diabetes, treatment with insulin, and pain were based on self-reports. Information on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), functional impairment, weight, height, and blood lipids was also collected. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22.7%. Male-specific significant predictors of depressive symptoms included nighttime sleep duration (short sleepers [p = .019], normal sleepers [p = .001], and long sleepers [p = .000]), instrumental activities of daily living (p = .001), and pain (mild pain [p = .003], moderate pain [p = .024], and severe pain [p = .017]). IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study provides important findings about nighttime sleep duration, pain, and functional impairment and their relationships with presence of depressive symptoms in mid-aged and older men with diabetes. Screening tools should include these items to enable early detection and depression treatment for vulnerable men who may be otherwise missed.

11.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(14): 2008-2020, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689742

RESUMO

AIMS: Inadequate autophagy contributed to endothelial dysfunction in diabetic patients. We aimed to investigate the relationship between inadequate autophagy and endothelial cells (ECs) apoptosis in diabetes and its underlying mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aortic intima and ECs were isolated from diabetic patients. Cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were stimulated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The expression of autophagy and apoptosis-related proteins were determined by western blotting. Autophagosomes were observed by electron microscopy. The fusion of autophagosome and lysosomes was detected by immunofluorescence. Compared with non-diabetic subjects, the levels of LC3-II, p62, FoxO1, and Ac-FoxO1 were increased in ECs from diabetic patients, accompanied by the decreased expressions of Atg14, STX17, and co-localization of LC3-II/LAMP2 and Atg14/STX17. Long-term stimulation with AGEs up-regulated LC3-II and p62 expression and the number of autophagosomes with decreased level of Atg14, STX17, Ras-related protein 7 (Rab7), and co-localization of LC3-II/LAMP2 and Atg14/STX17 in HAECs. The apoptosis rates were increased with elevated cleaved-caspase-3 and declined Bcl-2 expression. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine could reduce long-term AGEs-induced apoptosis. Higher levels of FoxO1, Ac-FoxO1, and Ac-FoxO1 binding to Atg7 were detected in AGEs-treated HAECs. AGEs-induced FoxO1 enhanced Akt activity, decreased SIRT1-deacetylase activity by phosphorylation and elevated Ac-FoxO1. Knockout of FoxO1 reduced AGEs-induced autophagy and promoted the expression of Atg14 and the co-localization of LC3-II/LAMP 2 and Atg14/STX17. CONCLUSION: Inadequate autophagy with impaired autophagosome-lysosomal fusion exists in aortic intima and ECs from diabetic patients. FoxO1 mediates AGEs-induced ECs autophagic apoptosis through impairing autophagosome-lysosomes fusion by inhibiting Atg14 expression.

12.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 19, 2019 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic mechanisms underlying the domestication of animals and plants have been of great interest to biologists since Darwin. To date, little is known about the global pattern of gene expression changes during domestication. RESULTS: We generated and collected transcriptome data for seven pairs of domestic animals and plants including dog, silkworm, chicken, rice, cotton, soybean and maize and their wild progenitors and compared the expression profiles between the domestic and wild species. Intriguingly, although the number of expressed genes varied little, the domestic species generally exhibited lower gene expression diversity than did the wild species, and this lower diversity was observed for both domestic plants and different kinds of domestic animals including insect, bird and mammal in the whole-genome gene set (WGGS), candidate selected gene set (CSGS) and non-CSGS, with CSGS exhibiting a higher degree of decreased expression diversity. Moreover, different from previous reports which found 2 to 4% of genes were selected by human, we identified 6892 candidate selected genes accounting for 7.57% of the whole-genome genes in rice and revealed that fewer than 8% of the whole-genome genes had been affected by domestication. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that domestication affected the pattern of variation in gene expression throughout the genome and generally decreased the expression diversity across species, and this decrease may have been associated with decreased genetic diversity. This pattern might have profound effects on the phenotypic and physiological changes of domestic animals and plants and provide insights into the genetic mechanisms at the transcriptome level other than decreased genetic diversity and increased linkage disequilibrium underpinning artificial selection.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Plantas/genética , Animais , Bombyx/genética , Galinhas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Cães/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Seleção Genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Zea mays/genética
13.
Nat Plants ; 5(1): 18-25, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559417

RESUMO

The genus Liriodendron belongs to the family Magnoliaceae, which resides within the magnoliids, an early diverging lineage of the Mesangiospermae. However, the phylogenetic relationship of magnoliids with eudicots and monocots has not been conclusively resolved and thus remains to be determined1-6. Liriodendron is a relict lineage from the Tertiary with two distinct species-one East Asian (L. chinense (Hemsley) Sargent) and one eastern North American (L. tulipifera Linn)-identified as a vicariad species pair. However, the genetic divergence and evolutionary trajectories of these species remain to be elucidated at the whole-genome level7. Here, we report the first de novo genome assembly of a plant in the Magnoliaceae, L. chinense. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that magnoliids are sister to the clade consisting of eudicots and monocots, with rapid diversification occurring in the common ancestor of these three lineages. Analyses of population genetic structure indicate that L. chinense has diverged into two lineages-the eastern and western groups-in China. While L. tulipifera in North America is genetically positioned between the two L. chinense groups, it is closer to the eastern group. This result is consistent with phenotypic observations that suggest that the eastern and western groups of China may have diverged long ago, possibly before the intercontinental differentiation between L. chinense and L. tulipifera. Genetic diversity analyses show that L. chinense has tenfold higher genetic diversity than L. tulipifera, suggesting that the complicated regions comprising east-west-orientated mountains and the Yangtze river basin (especially near 30° N latitude) in East Asia offered more successful refugia than the south-north-orientated mountain valleys in eastern North America during the Quaternary glacial period.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Liriodendron/genética , Filogenia , Evolução Biológica , China , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Extremo Oriente , Ligação Genética , Magnoliopsida/genética , América do Norte , Filogeografia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
BMC Neurol ; 18(1): 200, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Hcy levels and intracranial plaque characteristics and to investigate their clinical relevance in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Ninety-four patients with intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) were enrolled. Plasma Hcy levels were measured. Intracranial plaque characteristics including plaque enhancement, stenosis ratio, T2 and T1 hyperintense components were assessed on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Logistic regression model was constructed to analyze the association between high Hcy levels and plaque characteristics, and their synergistic effects to predict the likelihood for ischemic stroke, while adjusting for demographics and traditional atherosclerotic risk factors. RESULTS: Elevated Hcy level was associated with strong plaque enhancement independently of age, sex, serum creatinine levels and other atherosclerotic risk factors ((P < 0.001, OR 6.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.28-15.74). Both strong plaque enhancement (P = 0.026, OR 5.63, 95% CI 1.23-25.81) and high Hcy level (P = 0.018, OR 6.20, 95% CI 1.36-28.26) were correlated with acute ischemic stroke. The combination of them strengthened the ability to stratify the likelihood for ischemic stroke, with an improved area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.871, significantly higher than that of strong plaque enhancement (0.755) and high Hcy level (0.715) alone (P < 0.05 for both). CONCLUSIONS: High Hcy level appears to have association with intracranial strong plaque enhancement. The combined assessment of plasma Hcy levels and plaque enhancement may improve ischemic stroke risk stratification.


Assuntos
Homocisteína/sangue , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/complicações , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMJ Open ; 8(10): e020894, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297344

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Currently, China leads the world in the number of people with diabetes, making it home to a third of the global diabetic population. Persons with diabetes have to carry out 95% of their self-care. As an important component of diabetes care, diabetes self-management (DSM) is defined as everyday behaviours that persons carry out to control diabetes. Consistent findings have been reported that level of compliance to suggested DSM behaviours is not considered optimal among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The underlying reasons for suboptimal DSM behaviours among Chinese adults are not well known and no conceptual model has been developed to guide DSM interventions in this population. Although the information-motivation-behavioural skills model has been tested among Chinese adults with T2D, some key components of the original model were not tested. In this proposed study protocol, we will refine and test a culturally tailored model of DSM longitudinally among 250 Chinese adults residing in China. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a descriptive, repeated-measure study to be conducted at a tertiary hospital in Chengdu, China. A total of 250 adults with T2D will be enrolled and followed for 3 months in this study. Information of multiple domains will be collected, including demographics, diabetes knowledge, health education form, provider-patient communication, health beliefs, social support, diabetes self-efficacy, the medical coping modes, the diabetes self-care, depression, diabetes-dependent quality of life, haemoglobin A1c, blood pressure and blood lipids at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Main analyses comprise linear regression modelling controlling for covariates and structural equation modelling. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained through the Fourth People's Hospital of Chengdu Research Ethics Committee (study approval number 2017017). We aim to disseminate the findings through international conferences, international peer-reviewed journals and social media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-ROC-17013592.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Motivação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Autogestão , China , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Seguimentos , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autorrelato , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 4(3): e64, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of eHealth, eHealth literacy is emerging as a key concept to promote self-management of chronic conditions such as HIV. However, there is a paucity of research focused on eHealth literacy for people living with HIV (PLWH) as a means of improving their adherence to HIV care and health outcome. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to critically appraise the types, scope, and nature of studies addressing eHealth literacy as a study variable in PLWH. METHODS: This systematic review used comprehensive database searches, such as PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane, to identify quantitative studies targeting PLWH published in English before May 2017 with eHealth literacy as a study variable. RESULTS: We identified 56 unique records, and 7 papers met the eligibility criteria. The types of study designs varied (descriptive, n=3; quasi-experimental, n=3; and experimental, n=1) and often involved community-based settings (n=5), with sample sizes ranging from 18 to 895. In regards to instruments used, 3 studies measured eHealth literacy with validated instruments such as the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS); 2 studies used full or short versions of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, whereas the remaining 2 studies used study-developed questions. The majority of studies included in the review reported high eHealth literacy among the samples. The associations between eHealth literacy and health outcomes in PLWH were not consistent. In the areas of HIV transmission risk, retention in care, treatment adherence, and virological suppression, the role of eHealth literacy is still not fully understood. Furthermore, the implications for future research are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the role of eHealth literacy is an essential step to encourage PLWH to be actively engaged in their health care. Avenues to pursue in the role of eHealth literacy and PLWH should consider the development and use of standardized eHealth literacy definitions and measures.

17.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 42(10): 2054-2060, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use and its associated problems are on the rise in China. In this study, we examined the associations between alcohol use and cognitive functioning in a representative sample of adults aged 45 years and older in China. METHODS: Baseline data for 16,328 participants of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were analyzed. Alcohol use was measured by drinking status (never, former, moderate, and at-risk drinkers), number of standard drinks per week, and years of drinking. Cognitive functioning was assessed for visuospatial ability, episodic memory, orientation/attention, and overall cognitive functioning. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the independent association between alcohol use and cognitive functioning controlling for age, gender, education, domestic partner status, and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The study participants were, on average, 66 years old (median 59, range 45 to 102). The prevalence of ever drinking during lifetime and current at-risk drinking (>14 drinks per week) in this population was 34.6 and 6.7%, respectively. Drinking was more common among men with 48.8% being ever drinkers and 14.4% current at-risk drinkers, respectively. At-risk drinkers, compared to people who never drank alcohol, had worse episodic memory (ß = -0.11, p = 0.048). Moreover, number of standard drinks per week was associated with worse episodic memory (ß = -0.001, p = 0.02). None of the other measures of alcohol use was associated with the overall or domain-specific cognitive functioning. CONCLUSIONS: At-risk drinking status was associated with worse episodic memory. Clinicians should incorporate alcohol use assessment into routine care for middle-aged and older adults in China and provide them with resources and strategies to effectively manage their alcohol use. This may help preserve episodic memory in this population.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , China/epidemiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aposentadoria/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Eur J Med Chem ; 156: 206-215, 2018 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006165

RESUMO

A series of multifunctional 3-piperazinecarboxylate sarsasapogenin derivatives were designed and synthesized against Alzheimer's disease (AD). The protection against H2O2-triggered oxidative stress in PC12 cells, and inhibition on LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cell lines in vitro by these derivatives were firstly evaluated. Most of the compounds showed better antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities compared with sarsasapogenin, especially AA34 and AA36. Structure-activity relationships revealed that benzyl group, electron-donating group and intramolecular hydrogen bond might be beneficial to enhancing their neuroprotective activities. Moreover, Aß42 was the optimum predicted target based on the high 3D molecular similarity between compound AA36 and caprospinol. In the following experiments, AA36 significantly protected PC12 cells from Aß-induced damage and improved learning and memory impairments in Aß-injected mice. Thus AA36 is regarded as a potent anti-AD agent and N-substituted piperazinecarboxylate can be served as a promising structural unit for anti-AD drug design.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Desenho de Drogas , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Espirostanos/química , Espirostanos/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células PC12 , Piperazinas/química , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 503(4): 2380-2385, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29966653

RESUMO

Light is the most important exogenous stimulus regulating plant growth and various developmental processes. Phytochromes, especially PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB) mediates the various light-mediated processes in Arabidopsis. SPATULA (SPT) is an important transcription factor, which has been reported previously to participate in temperature-mediated transition from seed dormancy to germination. Here we investigate the function of SPT in the floral transition under long day conditions and photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. In this study, spt-2 shows significantly delayed flowering time. But mutation of SPT in the background of phyb-1 rescues the phenotype of spt-2. The flowering time of double mutant of spt-2/phyb-1 is similar with the wild type. These results indicate that SPT promotes the transition from vegetative stage to floral stage and it regulates this transition in a PHYB-dependent manner. With qRT-PCR analysis, it is found that SPT regulates flowering time via FLC, SVP, FT and SOC1. Furthermore, SPT also controls photomorphogenesis. spt-2 displays shortened hypocotyls and increased chlorophylls contents compared with the wild type. These phenotypes are also rescued in the double mutant of spt-2/phyb-1. These results indicate that SPT is also involved in photomorphogenic development in Arabidopsis and SPT regulates photomorphogenesis in a PHYB-dependent manner. Collectively, SPT is not only a temperature responder but it is also an important light regulator during plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fitocromo B/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação , Fitocromo B/genética
20.
Science ; 360(6393): 1130-1132, 2018 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880691

RESUMO

Selfish genetic elements are pervasive in eukaryote genomes, but their role remains controversial. We show that qHMS7, a major quantitative genetic locus for hybrid male sterility between wild rice (Oryza meridionalis) and Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa), contains two tightly linked genes [Open Reading Frame 2 (ORF2) and ORF3]. ORF2 encodes a toxic genetic element that aborts pollen in a sporophytic manner, whereas ORF3 encodes an antidote that protects pollen in a gametophytic manner. Pollens lacking ORF3 are selectively eliminated, leading to segregation distortion in the progeny. Analysis of the genetic sequence suggests that ORF3 arose first, followed by gradual functionalization of ORF2 Furthermore, this toxin-antidote system may have promoted the differentiation and/or maintained the genome stability of wild and cultivated rice.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Genômica , Oryza/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Evolução Molecular , Células Germinativas Vegetais , Hibridização Genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Pólen/genética
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