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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23156, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848817

RESUMO

To investigate that the bacteriological concentration and pH value in peritoneal drainage fluid might serve as indicators of early diagnosis of anastomotic leakage following rectal resection. We prospectively analyzed consecutive patients who were treated for rectal diseases with anastomosis at the department of general surgery, the affiliated hospital of Nanjing University Medical School between August 2018 and December 2020. The bacteriological concentration and the pH value in peritoneal drainage fluid were tested on the first, fourth, seventh days postoperatively. A total of 300 consecutive patients underwent rectal resection were tested. 21 patients present with AL and the overall AL rate was 7%. The bacteriological concentration in peritoneal drainage fluid of AL group was significantly higher than that in non-AL group. The AUC value was 0.98 (95% confidence intervals 0.969-1.000) according to the ROC curve. The best cut-off value was 1143/uL. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 93.19% respectively. There was no difference of pH value between the AL and non-AL groups. According the results of present study, a high bacteriological concentration in peritoneal drainage fluid is a good marker for predicting and diagnosing AL following rectal resection. However, owing to the limitation of the sample, there was no validation attempt in the study. A large sample study is needed to validate the conclusion.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151650, 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780824

RESUMO

Disposable face masks are widely used as primary personal protective equipment to control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Disposable face masks have been identified as a source of microplastics and a new threat to the environment when improperly handled. To understand the release of microplastics from discarded masks into water, the release quantities of microplastics from three types of disposable face masks (N95, medical surgical, and normal medical masks) were measured within 24 h and their release kinetics were analyzed over seven days. Results showed that polypropylene microplastics fibers and debris of various colors were released. N95 masks released 801 ± 71-2667 ± 97 microplastic particles/(piece·d), medical surgical masks released 1136 ± 87-2343 ± 168 microplastic particles/(piece·d), and normal medical masks released 1034 ± 119-2547 ± 185 microplastic particles/(piece·d), irrespective of the price, weight, or type of mask. The microplastics were first released fast and then slow. The Elovich equation described the release kinetics (R2 > 0.990), and the release rate did not differ with the type of mask. Microplastics of 100-500 µm and of <100 µm were released in large quantities and at rapid rates. Fiber and transparent microplastics accounted for a large proportion of those released, and their daily release proportion increased with time. Fiber microplastics <500 µm in length were predominant in the microplastics released from disposable face masks, indicating that disposable face masks could be a critical source of these in the aqueous environment. There is an urgent need to take action to implement a waste management system limiting the number of masks entering the environment.

4.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846880

RESUMO

Visible-light-induced deaminative alkylation of Katritzky salts with silyl enol ethers has been developed. The reaction can proceed efficiently through electron donor-acceptor complex formation, avoiding the use of precious metal complexes or synthetically elaborate organic dyes. A series of functionalized γ-ketoesters was successfully obtained with good functional group tolerance and compatibility under mild and straightforward conditions.

5.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779936

RESUMO

The transformation of plants from juveniles to adults is a key process in plant growth and development, and the main regulatory factors are miR156 and SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SPL) transcription factors. Lilium is an ornamental bulb, but it has a long maturation time. In this experiment, Lilium bulbs were subjected to a temperature treatment of 15 °C for 4 weeks to initiate vegetative phase change. Transmission electron microscopy indicated the cell wall of bud core tissue undergoing vegetative phase change became thinner, the starch grains were reduced, and the growth of the juvenile stage was accelerated. The key transcription factors LbrSPL9 and LbrSPL15 were cloned, and the phylogenetic analysis showed they possessed high homology with other plant SPLs. Subcellular localization and transcription activation experiments confirmed LbrSPL9 and LbrSPL15 were mainly located in the nucleus and exhibited transcriptional activity. The results of in situ hybridization showed the expression levels of LbrSPL9 and LbrSPL15 were increased after temperature change treatment. The functional verification experiment of the transgenic plants confirmed that the overexpression of LbrSPL9 and LbrSPL15 could shorten maturation time. These findings help elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of phase transition in Lilium and provide a reference for breeding research in other bulbous flowers.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(12): 1119, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845199

RESUMO

Nicotinamide, the amide form of Vitamin B3, is a common nutrient supplement that plays important role in human fetal development. Nicotinamide has been widely used in clinical treatments, including the treatment of diseases during pregnancy. However, its impacts during embryogenesis have not been fully understood. In this study, we show that nicotinamide plays multiplex roles in mesoderm differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Nicotinamide promotes cardiomyocyte fate from mesoderm progenitor cells, and suppresses the emergence of other cell types. Independent of its functions in PARP and Sirtuin pathways, nicotinamide modulates differentiation through kinase inhibition. A KINOMEscan assay identifies 14 novel nicotinamide targets among 468 kinase candidates. We demonstrate that nicotinamide promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation through p38 MAP kinase inhibition. Furthermore, we show that nicotinamide enhances cardiomyocyte survival as a Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. This study reveals nicotinamide as a pleiotropic molecule that promotes the derivation and survival of cardiomyocytes, and it could become a useful tool for cardiomyocyte production for regenerative medicine. It also provides a theoretical foundation for physicians when nicotinamide is considered for treatments for pregnant women.

7.
Theranostics ; 11(19): 9415-9430, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646378

RESUMO

The feasibility of personalized medicine for cancer treatment is largely hampered by costly, labor-intensive and time-consuming models for drug discovery. Herein, establishing new pre-clinical models to tackle these issues for personalized medicine is urgently demanded. Methods: We established a three-dimensional tumor slice culture (3D-TSC) platform incorporating label-free techniques for time-course experiments to predict anti-cancer drug efficacy and validated the 3D-TSC model by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy, RNA sequence analysis, histochemical and histological analysis. Results: Using time-lapse imaging of the apoptotic reporter sensor C3 (C3), we performed cell-based high-throughput drug screening and shortlisted high-efficacy drugs to screen murine and human 3D-TSCs, which validate effective candidates within 7 days of surgery. Histological and RNA sequence analyses demonstrated that 3D-TSCs accurately preserved immune components of the original tumor, which enables the successful achievement of immune checkpoint blockade assays with antibodies against PD-1 and/or PD-L1. Label-free multiphoton fluorescence imaging revealed that 3D-TSCs exhibit lipofuscin autofluorescence features in the time-course monitoring of drug response and efficacy. Conclusion: This technology accelerates precision anti-cancer therapy by providing a cheap, fast, and easy platform for anti-cancer drug discovery.

9.
Chemosphere ; 285: 131512, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710963

RESUMO

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), an extensively used flame retardant, exists widely in the environment. Although male reproductive toxicity induced by BDE-209 has been reported, its mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the role of glycolipid metabolism in male reproductive toxicity and the potential mechanisms, forty male SD rats were divided into four groups and given gavage with BDE-209 at 0, 5, 50, and 500 mg/kg/d for 28 days. In vitro, the spermatogenic cell lines GC-2spd cells were divided into four groups: the control group, 32 µg/mL BDE-209 group, 32 µg/mL BDE-209 + 0.4 µM Fatostatin (the inhibitor of SREBP-1) group, and 0.4 µM Fatostatin group. Our results showed that BDE-209 decreased sperm quality and quantity, which was correlated with glycolipid metabolism dysbiosis of testis. The levels of glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol were negatively correlated with sperm concentration, and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with sperm motility, while positively correlated with the sperm malformation rate. Moreover, BDE-209 exposure activated the glycolipid metabolism pathways (PPARγ/RXRα/SCAP/SREBP-1) and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, thereby inducing the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells. In vitro, BDE-209 caused triglyceride and total cholesterol disorder and apoptosis of GC-2spd cells, the lipid metabolism pathways inhibitor fatostain downregulated the elevation of triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations, and suppressed apoptosis and the activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in GC-2spd cells caused by BDE-209. Our results indicated that BDE-209 induced male reproductive toxicity by causing glycolipid metabolism dysbiosis of testis resulting in activating of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in spermatogenic cells. The study provides new insight into the mechanisms of male reproductive toxicity caused by BDE-209.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Motilidade Espermática , Animais , Disbiose , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Glicolipídeos/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most significant subtype of esophageal cancer featured with high occurrence. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proved to modulate the biological properties of cancer cells, including cell proliferation, invasion, migration and apoptosis. LncRNA protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type G-antisense RNA 1 (PTPRG-AS1) has been reported to play as an oncogene in diverse cancers. However, the detailed function PTPRG-AS1 may exert in ESCC is unclear. METHODS: PTPRG-AS1 expression in ESCC cells was investigated via RT-qPCR. The effects of PTPRG-AS1 on ESCC cell proliferation, migration, glycolysis and stemness were verified through functional assays. Mechanism assays including RIP assay, RNA pull down assay and luciferase reporter assays were performed to verify the molecular mechanism of PTPRG-AS1. RESULTS: PTPRG-AS1 silencing hindered the proliferation, migration, glycolysis and stemness of ESCC cells. PTPRG-AS1 regulated pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) expression via sponging miR-599. The PTPRG-AS1/miR-599/PDK1 axis was further verified to aggravate the progression of ESCC cells. CONCLUSION: PTPRG-AS1 sponged miR-599 to up-regulate PDK1 expression, thereby promoting the proliferation and migration as well as glycolysis and stemness properties of ESCC cells.

11.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(10): e560, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transdifferentiation of skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) into primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) is one of the major breakthroughs in the field of stem cells research in recent years. This technology provides a new theoretical basis for the treatment of human infertility. However, the transdifferentiation efficiency of SDSCs to PGCLCs is very low, and scientists are still exploring ways to improve this efficiency or promote the proliferation of PGCLCs. This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of luteinising hormone (LH) to enhance porcine PGCLCs (pPGCLCs) proliferation. RESULTS: In this study, we dissected the proliferation regulatory network of pPGCLCs by whole transcriptome sequencing, and the results showed that the pituitary-secreted reproductive hormone LH significantly promoted the proliferation of pPGCLCs. We combined whole transcriptome sequencing and related validation experiments to explore the mechanism of LH on the proliferation of pPGCLCs, and found that LH could affect the expression of Hippo signalling pathway-related mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs in pPGCLCs. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we found that LH promotes pPGCLCs proliferation through the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory networks and Hippo signalling pathway. This finding may help to elucidate the molecular mechanism by which LH promotes pPGCLCs proliferation.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534715

RESUMO

Cashmere, also known as soft gold, is produced from the secondary hair follicles (SHFs) of cashmere goats. The number of SHFs determines the yield and quality of cashmere, therefore, it is of interest to investigate the transcriptional profiles present during cashmere goat hair follicle development. However, mechanisms underlying this development remain largely unexplored and studies regarding hair follicle development mostly use a murine research model. To provide a comprehensive understanding of cellular heterogeneity and cell fate decisions, single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on 19,705 single cells of the dorsal skin from cashmere goat fetuses at induction (embryonic day 60), organogenesis (embryonic day 90), and cytodifferentiation (embryonic day 120) stages. For the first time, unsupervised clustering analysis identified 16 cell clusters, and their corresponding cell types were also characterized. Based on lineage inference, a detailed molecular landscape was revealed along the dermal and epidermal cell lineage developmental pathways. Notably, our current data also confirmed the heterogeneity of dermal papilla cells from different hair follicle types, which was further validated by immunohistochemical staining analysis. The current study identifies different biomarkers during cashmere goat hair follicle development and has implications for cashmere goat breeding in the future.

13.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(39): 8300-8307, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518860

RESUMO

Second near-infrared (NIR-II) absorbing organic photothermal agents (PTAs) usually suffer from laborious and time-consuming synthesis; therefore, it is of importance to develop a simple and easy-to-handle method for the preparation of NIR-II PTAs. Charge-transfer complexes (CTCs) can be easily used to construct NIR-II absorbing PTAs, although the relationship between their molecular structure and photophysical properties is yet to be uncovered. Herein, three kinds of electron donors with different substitutions (chloroethyl, ethyl, and methyl) were synthesized and assembled with electron-deficient F4TCNQ to afford corresponding CTC nanoparticles (Cl-F4, Et-F4, and Me-F4 NPs). The large energy gap (>0.61 eV) between HOMO of the donor and LUMO of the acceptor made the CTCs exhibit high charge transfer (>0.93) and dramatic differences in photophysical properties. Additionally, Et-F4 NPs possess the highest NIR-II absorption ability and best photothermal effect because of different packing modes (mass extinction coefficient of 11.0 L g-1 cm-1 and photothermal conversion efficiency of 40.2% at 1060 nm). The mixed stacking mode formed strong charge-transfer absorption bands, indicating that the photophysical properties of CTCs can be tailored by changing the molecular structure and aggregate behaviors. Furthermore, Et-F4 NPs with cyano groups could specifically react with cysteine to block the intracellular biosynthesis of GSH and result in ROS accumulation and ferroptosis. Et-F4 NPs possess outstanding antitumor efficacy for the combined actions of NIR-II triggered photothermal killing effect and ferroptosis in vivo.

14.
Small ; 17(43): e2103584, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528394

RESUMO

Polymeric nanocarriers have high biocompatibility for potential drug delivery applications. After entering bloodstream, nanocarriers will circulate, interact with proteins, dissociate, or be cleared by reticuloendothelial system. Zebrafish as a visual animal model, can serve as a tool for screening nanomedicines and monitoring nanocarrier behaviors in vivo. However, a comprehensive correlation between zebrafish and rodent models is currently deficient. Here, different-sized poly(caprolactone) nanocarriers (PCL NCs) are fabricated with or without PEGylation to investigate correlation between zebrafish and mice regarding their biofate via Förster resonance energy transfer technique. Results show that PEGylated PCL NCs have higher integrity in both zebrafish and mice. Small PEG-PCL NCs have longer circulation, while large PEG-PCL NCs have dramatically higher macrophage sequestration in zebrafish and mice spleen, leading to poor circulation. PCL NCs dissociate rapidly with less macrophage sequestration. Moreover, in 7 days postfertilization (dpf) zebrafish, polymers are eliminated via hepatobiliary pathway, which is not fully functional at earlier stages of development. The effects of nanocarrier integrity on macrophage sequestration in zebrafish and good correlation with mice spleen are pioneered to be demonstrated. The findings suggest that 7 dpf zebrafish are suitable as an in vivo screening model of nanocarriers and predict their biofate in rodents.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Portadores de Fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Camundongos , Micelas , Nanomedicina , Tamanho da Partícula , Polietilenoglicóis
15.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 192, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In follow-up studies, the occurrence of the intermediate event may influence the risk of the outcome of interest. Existing methods estimate the effect of the intermediate event by including a time-varying covariate in the outcome model. However, the insusceptible fraction to the intermediate event in the study population has not been considered in the literature, leading to effect estimation bias due to the inaccurate dataset. METHODS: In this paper, we propose a new effect estimation method, in which the susceptible subpopulation is identified firstly so that the estimation could be conducted in the right population. Then, the effect is estimated via the extended Cox regression and landmark methods in the identified susceptible subpopulation. For susceptibility identification, patients with observed intermediate event time are classified as susceptible. Based on the mixture cure model fitted the incidence and time of the intermediate event, the susceptibility of the patient with censored intermediate event time is predicted by the residual intermediate event time imputation. The effect estimation performance of the new method was investigated in various scenarios via Monte-Carlo simulations with the performance of existing methods serving as the comparison. The application of the proposed method to mycosis fungoides data has been reported as an example. RESULTS: The simulation results show that the estimation bias of the proposed method is smaller than that of the existing methods, especially in the case of a large insusceptible fraction. The results hold for small sample sizes. Besides, the estimation bias of the new method decreases with the increase of the covariates, especially continuous covariates, in the mixture cure model. The heterogeneity of the effect of covariates on the outcome in the insusceptible and susceptible subpopulation, as well as the landmark time, does not affect the estimation performance of the new method. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the pre-identification of the susceptible, the proposed new method could improve the effect estimation accuracy of the intermediate event on the outcome when there is an insusceptible fraction to the intermediate event in the study population.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Viés , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Tamanho da Amostra
16.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 314: 113907, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543655

RESUMO

The interaction between gonadal somatic support cells and germ cells plays a crucial role in gonadal development. In fish, the process involves various local growth factors such as growth differentiation factor 9 (Gdf9) and gonadal soma-derived factor (Gsdf), which are both members of the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) superfamily. Gdf9, an oocyte-secreted factor, is a potent regulator of folliculogenesis in both mammals and fish. By contrast, Gsdf is expressed by the gonadal somatic cells (i.e., Sertoli cells in the testis and granulosa cells in the ovary) that support germ cell development. In this study, we established two transgenic zebrafish models, and demonstrated that the 2.7-kb proximal promoter region of gdf9 drove mCherry expression specifically in the oocytes, whereas the 2.1-kb proximal promoter region of gsdf drove enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression in the Sertoli cells and granulosa cells. These proximal promoters contained sufficient information to respectively mimic the spatiotemporal expression patterns of endogenous gdf9 and gsdf in zebrafish. In the Tg(gdf9:mCherry) fish, mCherry was weakly expressed in the oocytes at primary growth stage but strongly expressed in those entering the secondary growth phase. In the Tg(gsdf:eGFP) fish, eGFP-positive Sertoli cells were distributed around spermatogenic cysts in the testis, whereas eGFP-positive granulosa cells were located at the outer side of the follicle layer in the ovary. The eGFP-positive Sertoli cells and granulosa cells seemed to have originated from the dorsal epithelium of the gonads. These Tg(gdf9:mCherry) and Tg(gsdf:eGFP) zebrafish models are suitable for studying gonadal development and function especially on the interaction between germ cells and supporting somatic cells.

17.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 6831-6843, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585630

RESUMO

This present study aimed to explore the typical protein features of tubulovillous adenoma (TVA) using proteomic and bioinformatic analyses. Tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomic analyses were conducted on normal mucosa, tubular adenoma, TVA and adenocarcinoma tissues. We identified 5,665 proteins categorized into seven clusters based on Pearson's correlation analysis. The bioinfomatic analysis showed mitochondrial and metabolism-related events were typical characteristics of TVA and mitochondrial-, ribosome- and matrisome-related biological processes may contribute to carcinogenesis. PLOD3 was identified as a key protein associated with the malignant potential of TVA and promoted the viability of adenoma organoids. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) analysis revealed PLOD3 as a risk factor for disease-free and overall survival. Furthermore, the PLOD3 expression correlated negatively with the abundance of B cells, CD8 + T cells, CD4 + T cells, neutrophils, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. In conclusion, enhanced metabolic and mitochondrial reprogramming are typical features of TVA, and PLOD3 might be related to the "immune desert" phenotype and contribute to TVA tumorigenesis and colorectal cancer development.

18.
Pharmacol Res ; 173: 105870, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500061

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Nannocystin ax (NAN), a 21-membered cyclodepsipeptide initially isolated from myxobacteria of the Nannocystis genus, was found to target the eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A). The current study was designed to evaluate the anticancer effect and underlying mechanisms of NAN with in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that NAN induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest and caspase-independent apoptosis in HCT116 and HT29 human CRC cells. NAN significantly downregulated cyclin D1 level in a short time, but NAN did not affect the transcription level and ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclin D1. Furthermore, NAN treatment directly targeted eEF1A and partially decreased the synthesis of new proteins, contributing to the downregulation of cyclin D1. Besides, NAN significantly suppressed tumor growth in the zebrafish xenograft model. In conclusion, NAN triggered G1 phase cell cycle arrest through cyclin D1 downregulation and eEF1A-targeted translation inhibition and promoted caspase-independent apoptosis in CRC cells.

19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108135, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are increasingly used in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) trials. However, the correlations between early endpoints, such as progression free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and disease control rate (DCR), and overall survival (OS) are unclear. In this study, the correlations between OS and other early endpoints were evaluated in HCC patients who received ICI. METHODS: Pubmed and Embase were searched to October 2020. Clinical studies evaluating efficacy and outcomes of HCC patients treated with ICI were included. ORR, DCR, PFS and OS were extracted from individual studies. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and linear regression model were used to assess the correlation. RESULTS: 74 studies involving 9001 HCC cases were included. For HCC patients treated with ICI, the pooled ORR and DCR were 16% (95% CI: 14-18%) and 52% (95% CI: 47-57%), and the median PFS and OS were 3.75 (95% CI: 2.88-4.90) months, and 13.20 (95% CI: 11.88-14.82) months, retrospectively. The correlation between ORR, DCR, PFS and OS were 0.35 (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.05), 0.43 (R2 = 0.18, p < 0.05), and 0.50 (R2 = 0.33, p < 0.05), respectively. Further, the association between PFS and OS of the combination strategy showed a better correlation (rs = 0.79, R2 = 0.75, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PFS could be potential surrogates for OS, especially PFS for patients who treated with ICI combination regimen.

20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108133, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543978

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is typically characterized by the dysregulation of Tfh cell differentiation. we sought to explore the potential mechanism of Ginsenoside Rg1 (G-Rg1) treated IBD by observing the level of the Tfh/Treg cells and the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the colitis mice. In the present study, G-Rg1 significantly inhibited the inflammatory response to mice colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), as evidenced by increased body weight and colon length, decreased colon weight, reduced colon weight index and histopathological scores, lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and increased IL-10 levels. Significantly, G-Rg1 effectively decreased the amounts of CD4+CXCR5+IL-9+(Tfh9), CD4+ CXCR5+IL-17+(Tfh17), and increased CD4+CXCR5+Foxp3+(Tfr) and CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+(Treg) cells. Furthermore, G-Rg1 markedly down-regulated PI3K and p-Akt level, and upregulated PTEN expression. These results indicated that G-Rg1 could effectively regulate the balance of Tfh/Treg cells to relieve experimental colitis, which could be potentially related to PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibition.

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