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1.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236817

RESUMO

Porcine adenoviruses (PAdVs) are classified into three species, PAdV-A, PAdV-B, and PAdV-C. The genomes of PAdV-A and PAdV-C have been well characterized. However, the genome of PAdV-B has never been completely sequenced, and the epidemiology of PAdV-B remains unclear. In our study, we have identified a novel strain of PAdV-B, named PAdV-B-HNU1, in porcine samples collected in China by viral metagenomic assay and general PCR. The genome of PAdV-B-HNU1 is 31,743 bp in length and highly similar to that of California sea lion adenovirus 1 (C. sea lion AdV-1), which contains typical mastadenoviral structures and some unique regions at the carboxy-terminal end. Especially, PAdV-B-HNU1 harbors a dUTPase coding region not clustering with other mastadenoviruses except for C. sea lion AdV-1 and a fiber coding region homologous with galectin 4 and 9 of animals. However, the variance of GC contents between PAdV-B-HNU1 (55%) and C. sea lion AdV-1 (36%) indicates their differential evolutionary paths. Further epidemiologic study revealed a high positive rate (51.7%) of PAdV-B-HNU1 in porcine lymph samples, but low positive rates of 10.2% and 16.1% in oral swabs and rectal swabs, respectively. In conclusion, this study characterized a novel representative genome of a lymphotropic PAdV-B with unique evolutionary origin, which contributes to the taxonomical and pathogenic studies of PAdVs.

3.
Microbes Infect ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199943

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the newly identified human coronavirus causing severe pneumonia pandemic, was probably originated from Chinese horseshoe bats. However, direct transmission of the virus from bats to humans is unlikely due to lack of direct contact, implying the existence of unknown intermediate hosts. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain species can be utilized by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluated and ranked the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s from various species by phylogenetic clustering and sequence alignment with the currently known ACE2s utilized by SARS-CoV-2. As a result, we predicted that SARS-CoV-2 tends to utilize ACE2s of various mammals, except murines, and some birds, such as pigeon. This prediction may help to screen the intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Microbes Infect ; 22(2): 80-85, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087334

RESUMO

At the end of December 2019, a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, caused an outbreak of pneumonia spreading from Wuhan, Hubei province, to the whole country of China, which has posed great threats to public health and attracted enormous attention around the world. To date, there are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available for these human coronavirus infections. Intensive research on the novel emerging human infectious coronaviruses is urgently needed to elucidate their route of transmission and pathogenic mechanisms, and to identify potential drug targets, which would promote the development of effective preventive and therapeutic countermeasures. Herein, we describe the epidemic and etiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV, discuss its essential biological features, including tropism and receptor usage, summarize approaches for disease prevention and treatment, and speculate on the transmission route of 2019-nCoV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Epidemias , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Receptores Virais , Tropismo Viral
5.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3151-3155, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616994

RESUMO

Astroviruses (AstVs) have a very wide range of hosts and are associated with enteric and extra-enteric disease in mammals and birds. Cross-species transmission of AstVs has been observed frequently. In the present study, the genome of a novel astrovirus from Amur tigers (Panthera tigris) from a zoo in China was characterized and was found to have the typical genomic features of other mammal AstVs. It showed the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (46.1-87.3% identity) to AstVs from cats, indicating a close phylogenetic relationship and possible cross-species transmission between them. To our knowledge, this is the first identification and characterization of AstV from tigers, and this virus is the third astrovirus identified in hosts of the family Felidae. The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the origin, genetic diversity, and cross-species transmission of AstV.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Tigres/virologia , Animais , Astroviridae/classificação , Astroviridae/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Gatos , China , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Virol J ; 16(1): 35, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papillomaviruses (PVs) and polyomaviruses (PyVs) infect diverse vertebrates including human and cause a broad spectrum of outcomes from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. There has been no PV and only one PyV detected in tree shrews, though the genomic properties of tree shrews are highly similar to those of the primates. METHODS: Swab and organ samples of tree shrews collected in the Yunnan Province of China, were tested by viral metagenomic analysis and random PCR to detect the presence of PVs and PyVs. By PCR amplification using specific primers, cloning, sequencing and assembling, genomes of two PVs and one PyV were identified in the samples. RESULTS: Two novel PVs and a novel PyV, named tree shrew papillomavirus 1 and 2 (TbelPV1 and TbelPV2) and polyomavirus 1 (TbelPyV1) were characterized in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). The genomes of TbelPV1, TbelPV2, and TbelPyV1 are 7410 bp, 7526 bp, and 4982 bp in size, respectively. The TbelPV1 genome contains 7 putative open-reading frames (ORFs) coding for viral proteins E1, E2, E4, E6, E7, L1, and L2; the TbelPV2 genome contains 6 ORFs coding for viral proteins E1, E2, E6, E7, L1, and L2; and the TbelPyV1 genome codes for the typical small and large T antigens of PyV, as well as the VP1, VP2, and VP3 capsid proteins. Genomic comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 represented 2 novel PV genera of Papillomaviridae, and TbelPyV1 represented a new species of genus Alphapolyomavirus. Our epidemiologic study indicated that TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 were both detected in oral swabs, while TbelPyV1 was detected in oral swabs and spleens. CONCLUSION: Two novel PVs (TbelPV1 and TbelPV2) and a novel PyV (TbelPyV) were discovered in tree shrews and their genomes were characterized. TbelPV1, TbelPV2, and TbelPyV1 have the highest similarity to Human papillomavirus type 63, Ursus maritimus papillomavirus 1, and Human polyomavirus 9, respectively. TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 only showed oral tropism, while TbelPyV1 showed oral and spleen tropism.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Papillomaviridae/genética , Polyomavirus/genética , Tupaia/virologia , Animais , China , Genômica , Metagenômica , Boca/virologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Baço/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Tropismo Viral
8.
Arch Virol ; 164(2): 413-425, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377826

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first detected in Hong Kong and has recently spread to many countries around the world. PDCoV causes acute diarrhea and vomiting in pigs, resulting in significant economic losses in the global pork industry. In this study, a Chinese PDCoV strain, designated CHN-HG-2017, was isolated from feces of a suckling piglet with severe watery diarrhea on a farm located in central China. Subsequently, the virus was identified by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and electron microscopy. A nucleotide sequence alignment showed that the whole genome of CHN-HG-2017 is 97.6%-99.1% identical to other PDCoV strains. Analysis of potential recombination sites showed that CHN-HG-2017 is a possible recombinant originating from the strains CH/SXD1/2015 and Vietnam/HaNoi6/2015. Furthermore, the pathogenicity of this recombinant PDCoV strain was investigated in 5-day-old piglets by oral inoculation. The challenged piglets developed typical symptoms, such as vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea and lethargy, from 1 to 7 days post-inoculation (DPI). Viral shedding was detected in rectal swabs until 14 DPI in the challenged piglets. Interestingly, high titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies in sera were detected at 21 DPI. Tissues of small intestines from CHN-HG-2017-infected piglets at 4 DPI displayed significant macroscopic and microscopic lesions with clear viral antigen expression. Our analysis of the full genome sequence of a recombinant PDCoV and its virulence in suckling piglets might provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PDCoV and facilitate further investigation of this newly emerged pathogen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , China , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Filogenia , Suínos , Vietnã , Virulência
9.
Virol Sin ; 33(6): 484-492, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570714

RESUMO

We describe the first genome isolation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Kenya. This fatal zoonotic pathogen was first described in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Epidemiological and molecular evidence revealed zoonotic transmission from camels to humans and between humans. Currently, MERS-CoV is classified by the WHO as having high pandemic potential requiring greater surveillance. Previous studies of MERS-CoV in Kenya mainly focused on site-specific and archived camel and human serum samples for antibodies. We conducted active nationwide cross-sectional surveillance of camels and humans in Kenya, targeting both nasal swabs and plasma samples from 1,163 camels and 486 humans collected from January 2016 to June 2018. A total of 792 camel plasma samples were positive by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased with age, and the highest prevalence was observed in adult camels (82.37%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.50-84.91). More female camels were significantly seropositive (74.28%, 95% CI 71.14-77.19) than male camels (P < 0.001) (53.74%, 95% CI 48.48-58.90). Only 11 camel nasal swabs were positive for MERS-CoV by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences showed that Kenyan MERS-CoV clustered within sub-clade C2, which is associated with the African clade, but did not contain signature deletions of orf4b in African viruses. None of the human plasma screened contained neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV. This study confirms the geographically widespread occurrence of MERS-CoV in Kenyan camels. Further one-health surveillance approaches in camels, wildlife, and human populations are needed.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Nariz/virologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
10.
Virol Sin ; 33(3): 294, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808439

RESUMO

The affiliation listed for Cecilia Waruhiu is incorrect. The byline and affiliation line should appear as shown above.

11.
PLoS Pathog ; 13(11): e1006698, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29190287

RESUMO

A large number of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV) have been detected in horseshoe bats since 2005 in different areas of China. However, these bat SARSr-CoVs show sequence differences from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in different genes (S, ORF8, ORF3, etc) and are considered unlikely to represent the direct progenitor of SARS-CoV. Herein, we report the findings of our 5-year surveillance of SARSr-CoVs in a cave inhabited by multiple species of horseshoe bats in Yunnan Province, China. The full-length genomes of 11 newly discovered SARSr-CoV strains, together with our previous findings, reveals that the SARSr-CoVs circulating in this single location are highly diverse in the S gene, ORF3 and ORF8. Importantly, strains with high genetic similarity to SARS-CoV in the hypervariable N-terminal domain (NTD) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the S1 gene, the ORF3 and ORF8 region, respectively, were all discovered in this cave. In addition, we report the first discovery of bat SARSr-CoVs highly similar to human SARS-CoV in ORF3b and in the split ORF8a and 8b. Moreover, SARSr-CoV strains from this cave were more closely related to SARS-CoV in the non-structural protein genes ORF1a and 1b compared with those detected elsewhere. Recombination analysis shows evidence of frequent recombination events within the S gene and around the ORF8 between these SARSr-CoVs. We hypothesize that the direct progenitor of SARS-CoV may have originated after sequential recombination events between the precursors of these SARSr-CoVs. Cell entry studies demonstrated that three newly identified SARSr-CoVs with different S protein sequences are all able to use human ACE2 as the receptor, further exhibiting the close relationship between strains in this cave and SARS-CoV. This work provides new insights into the origin and evolution of SARS-CoV and highlights the necessity of preparedness for future emergence of SARS-like diseases.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Pool Gênico , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da SARS/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Recombinação Genética/genética
13.
Genome Announc ; 5(45)2017 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122882

RESUMO

An avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was detected from trachea swabs of chickens in Hubei province, China, in 2016. The complete genome of the IBV strain, CK/CH/HB/2016, was characterized and analyzed to better understand IBV epidemiology in China.

14.
Virol Sin ; 32(4): 298-306, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755162

RESUMO

The emergence of highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variants in China caused huge economic losses in 2010. Since then, large-scale sporadic outbreaks of PED caused by PEDV variants have occasionally occurred in China. However, the molecular diversity and epidemiology of PEDV in different provinces has not been completely understood. To determine the molecular diversity of PEDV in the Hubei Province of China, we collected 172 PED samples from 34 farms across the province in 2016 and performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by targeting the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Seventy-four samples were found to be PEDV-positive. We further characterized the complete spike (S) glycoprotein genes from the positive samples and found 21 different S genes with amino acid mutations. The PEDV isolates here presented most of the genotypes which were found previously in field isolates in East and South-East Asia, North America, and Europe. Besides the typical Genotypes I and II, the INDEX groups were also found. Importantly, 58 new amino acids mutant sites in the S genes, including 44 sites in S1 and 14 sites in S2, were first described. Our results revealed that the S genes of PEDV showed variation and that diverse genotypes of PEDV coexisted and were responsible for the PED outbreaks in Hubei in 2016. This work highlighted the complexity of the epidemiology of PEDV and emphasized the need for reassessing the efficacy of classic PEDV vaccines against emerging variant strains and developing new vaccines to facilitate the prevention and control of PEDV in fields.


Assuntos
Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Animais , China , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Filogenia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos
15.
Virol J ; 14(1): 98, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rodents represent the most diverse mammals on the planet and are important reservoirs of human pathogens. Coronaviruses infect various animals, but to date, relatively few coronaviruses have been identified in rodents worldwide. The evolution and ecology of coronaviruses in rodent have not been fully investigated. RESULTS: In this study, we collected 177 intestinal samples from thress species of rodents in Jianchuan County, Yunnan Province, China. Alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus were detected in 23 rodent samples from three species, namely Apodemus chevrieri (21/98), Eothenomys fidelis (1/62), and Apodemus ilex (1/17). We further characterized the full-length genome of an alphacoronavirus from the A. chevrieri rat and named it as AcCoV-JC34. The AcCoV-JC34 genome was 27,649 nucleotides long and showed a structure similar to the HKU2 bat coronavirus. Comparing the normal transcription regulatory sequence (TRS), 3 variant TRS sequences upstream the spike (S), ORF3, and ORF8 genes were found in the genome of AcCoV-JC34. In the conserved replicase domains, AcCoV-JC34 was most closely related to Rattus norvegicus coronavirus LNRV but diverged from other alphacoronaviruses, indicating that AcCoV-JC34 and LNRV may represent a novel alphacoronavirus species. However, the S and nucleocapsid proteins showed low similarity to those of LRNV, with 66.5 and 77.4% identities, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the S genes of AcCoV-JC34, LRNV, and HKU2 formed a distinct lineage with all known coronaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Both alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses were detected in Apodemus chevrieri in the Yunnan Province of China, indicating that Apodemus chevrieri is an important host for coronavirus. Several new features were identified in the genome of an Apodemus chevrieri coronavirus. The phylogenetic distance to other coronaviruses suggests a variable origin and evolutionary route of the S genes of AcCoV-JC34, LRNV, and HKU2. These results indicate that the diversity of rodent coronaviruses is much higher than previously expected. Further surveillance and functional studies of these coronaviruses will help to better understand the importance of rodent as host for coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Arvicolinae/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Murinae/virologia , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/genética , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genes Virais , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
J Gen Virol ; 98(4): 739-748, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475035

RESUMO

Bats have been reported to carry diverse adenoviruses. However, most bat adenoviruses have been identified on the basis of partial genome sequences, and knowledge on the evolution of bat adenoviruses remains limited. In this study, we isolated and characterized four novel adenoviruses from two distinct bat species, and their full-length genomes were sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that these isolates represented three distinct species of the genus Mastadenovirus. However, all isolates had an exceptionally low G+C content and relatively short genomes compared with other known mastadenoviruses. We further analysed the relationships among the G+C content, 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' (CpG) representation and genome size in the family Adenoviridae. Our results revealed that the CpG representation in adenoviral genomes depends primarily on the level of methylation, and the genome size displayed significant positive correlations with both G+C content and CpG representation. Since ancestral adenoviruses are believed to have contained short genomes, those probably had a low G+C content, similar to the genomes of these bat strains. Our results suggest that bats are important natural reservoirs for adenoviruses and play important roles in the evolution of adenoviruses.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Composição de Bases , Sequência de Bases , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Viral , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
17.
Virol Sin ; 32(2): 101-114, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28393313

RESUMO

This is the first country-wide surveillance of bat-borne viruses in Kenya spanning from 2012-2015 covering sites perceived to have medium to high level bat-human interaction. The objective of this surveillance study was to apply a non-invasive approach using fresh feces to detect viruses circulating within the diverse species of Kenyan bats. We screened for both DNA and RNA viruses; specifically, astroviruses (AstVs), adenoviruses (ADVs), caliciviruses (CalVs), coronaviruses (CoVs), flaviviruses, filoviruses, paramyxoviruses (PMVs), polyomaviruses (PYVs) and rotaviruses. We used family-specific primers, amplicon sequencing and further characterization by phylogenetic analysis. Except for filoviruses, eight virus families were detected with varying distributions and positive rates across the five regions (former provinces) studied. AstVs (12.83%), CoVs (3.97%), PMV (2.4%), ADV (2.26%), PYV (1.65%), CalVs (0.29%), rotavirus (0.19%) and flavivirus (0.19%). Novel CalVs were detected in Rousettus aegyptiacus and Mops condylurus while novel Rotavirus-A-related viruses were detected in Taphozous bats and R. aegyptiacus. The two Rotavirus A (RVA) strains detected were highly related to human strains with VP6 genotypes I2 and I16. Genotype I16 has previously been assigned to human RVA-strain B10 from Kenya only, which raises public health concern, particularly considering increased human-bat interaction. Additionally, 229E-like bat CoVs were detected in samples originating from Hipposideros bats roosting in sites with high human activity. Our findings confirm the presence of diverse viruses in Kenyan bats while providing extended knowledge on bat virus distribution. The detection of viruses highly related to human strains and hence of public health concern, underscores the importance of continuous surveillance.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/genética , Quênia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Vírus de RNA/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Virol J ; 14(1): 40, 2017 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, novel hepadnaviruses, hepeviruses, hepatoviruses, and hepaciviruses have been discovered in various species of bat around the world, indicating that bats may act as natural reservoirs for these hepatitis viruses. In order to further assess the distribution of hepatitis viruses in bat populations in China, we tested the presence of these hepatitis viruses in our archived bat liver samples that originated from several bat species and various geographical regions in China. METHODS: A total of 78 bat liver samples (involving two families, five genera, and 17 species of bat) were examined using nested or heminested reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) with degenerate primers. Full-length genomic sequences of two virus strains were sequenced followed by phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: Four samples were positive for hepadnavirus, only one was positive for hepevirus, and none of the samples were positive for hepatovirus or hepacivirus. The hepadnaviruses were discovered in the horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus sinicus and Rhinolophus affinis, and the hepevirus was found in the whiskered bat Myotis davidii. The full-length genomic sequences were determined for one of the two hepadnaviruses identified in R. sinicus (designated BtHBVRs3364) and the hepevirus (designated BtHEVMd2350). A sequence identity analysis indicated that BtHBVRs3364 had the highest degree of identity with a previously reported hepadnavirus from the roundleaf bat, Hipposideros pomona, from China, and BtHEVMd2350 had the highest degree of identity with a hepevirus found in the serotine bat, Eptesicus serotinus, from Germany, but it exhibited high levels of divergence at both the nucleotide and the amino acid levels. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report that the Chinese horseshoe bat and the Chinese whiskered bat have been found to carry novel hepadnaviruses and a novel hepevirus, respectively. The discovery of BtHBVRs3364 further supports the significance of host switches evolution while opposing the co-evolutionary theory associated with hepadnaviruses. According to the latest criterion of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), we hypothesize that BtHEVMd2350 represents an independent genotype within the species Orthohepevirus D of the family Hepeviridae.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Hepadnaviridae/classificação , Hepadnaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Hepevirus/classificação , Hepevirus/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/virologia , Filogenia , Animais , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Genoma Viral , Hepadnaviridae/genética , Hepevirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Cell Chem Biol ; 23(9): 1113-1122, 2016 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27617851

RESUMO

In the present study, our bioinformatics analysis first reveals the existence of a conserved guanine-rich sequence within the Zaire ebolavirus L gene. Using various methods, we show that this sequence tends to fold into G-quadruplex RNA. TMPyP4 treatment evidently inhibits L gene expression at the RNA level. Moreover, the mini-replicon assay demonstrates that TMPyP4 effectively inhibits the artificial Zaire ebolavirus mini-genome and is a more potent inhibitor than ribavirin. Although TMPyP4 treatment reduced the replication of the mutant mini-genome when G-quadruplex formation was abolished in the L gene, its inhibitory effect was significantly alleviated compared with wild-type. Our findings thus provide the first evidence that G-quadruplex RNA is present in a negative-sense RNA virus. Finally, G-quadruplex RNA stabilization may represent a new therapeutic strategy against Ebola virus disease.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ebolavirus/genética , Quadruplex G/efeitos dos fármacos , Porfirinas/farmacologia , RNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/genética , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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