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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559368

RESUMO

The variety and widespread of coronavirus in natural reservoir animals is likely to cause epidemics via interspecific transmission, which has attracted much attention due to frequent coronavirus epidemics in recent decades. Birds are natural reservoir of various viruses, but the existence of coronaviruses in wild birds in central China has been barely studied. Some bird coronaviruses belong to the genus of Deltacoronavirus. To explore the diversity of bird deltacoronaviruses in central China, we tested faecal samples from 415 wild birds in Hunan Province, China. By RT-PCR detection, we identified eight samples positive for deltacoronaviruses which were all from common magpies, and in four of them, we successfully amplified complete deltacoronavirus genomes distinct from currently known deltacoronavirus, indicating four novel deltacoronavirus stains (HNU1-1, HNU1-2, HNU2 and HNU3). Comparative analysis on the four genomic sequences showed that these novel magpie deltacoronaviruses shared three different S genes among which the S genes of HNU1-1 and HNU1-2 showed 93.8% amino acid (aa) identity to that of thrush coronavirus HKU12, HNU2 S showed 71.9% aa identity to that of White-eye coronavirus HKU16, and HNU3 S showed 72.4% aa identity to that of sparrow coronavirus HKU17. Recombination analysis showed that frequent recombination events of the S genes occurred among these deltacoronavirus strains. Two novel putative cleavage sites separating the non-structural proteins in the HNU coronaviruses were found. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis showed that the south coast of China might be a potential origin of bird deltacoronaviruses existing in inland China. In summary, these results suggest that common magpie in China carries diverse deltacoronaviruses with novel genomic features, indicating an important source of environmental coronaviruses closed to human communities, which may provide key information for prevention and control of future coronavirus epidemics.

2.
Virus Res ; 295: 198307, 2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476695

RESUMO

Bats carry diverse severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs). The suspected interspecies transmission of SARSr-CoVs from bats to humans has caused two severe CoV pandemics, the SARS pandemic in 2003 and the recent COVID-19 pandemic. The receptor utilization of SARSr-CoV plays the key role in determining the host range and the interspecies transmission ability of the virus. Both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as their receptor. Previous studies showed that WIV1 strain, the first living coronavirus isolated from bat using ACE2 as its receptor, is the prototype of SARS-CoV. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein (S) of SARS-CoV and WIV1 is responsible for ACE2 binding and medicates the viral entry. Comparing to SARS-CoV, WIV1 has three distinct amino acid residues (442, 472, and 487) in its RBD. This study aimed at exploring whether these three residues could alter the receptor utilization of SARSr-CoVs. We replaced the three residues in SARS-CoV (BJ01 strain) S with their counterparts in WIV1 S, and then evaluated the change of their utilization of bat, civet, and human ACE2s using a lentivirus-based pseudovirus infection system. To further validate the S-ACE2 interactions, the binding affinity between the RBDs of these S proteins and the three ACE2s were verified by flow cytometry. The results showed that the single amino acid substitution Y442S in the RBD of BJ01 S enhanced its utilization of bat ACE2 and its binding affinity to bat ACE2. On the contrary, the reverse substitution in WIV1 S (S442Y) significantly attenuated the pseudovirus utilization of bat, civet and human ACE2s for cell entry, and reduced its binding affinity with the three ACE2s. These results suggest that the S442 is critical for WIV1 adapting to bats as its natural hosts. These findings will enhance our understanding of host adaptations and cross-species infections of coronaviruses, contributing to the prediction and prevention of coronavirus epidemics.


Assuntos
/fisiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Internalização do Vírus , Viverridae/virologia
3.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466539

RESUMO

Bats, the second largest order of mammals worldwide, harbor specific characteristics such as sustaining flight, a special immune system, unique habits, and ecological niches. In addition, they are the natural reservoirs of a variety of emerging or re-emerging zoonotic pathogens. Rhabdoviridae is one of the most diverse families of RNA viruses, which consists of 20 ecologically diverse genera, infecting plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. To date, three bat-related genera are described, named Lyssavirus, Vesiculovirus, and Ledantevirus. However, the prevalence and the distribution of these bat-related rhabdoviruses remain largely unknown, especially in China. To fill this gap, we performed a large molecular retrospective study based on the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) detection of lyssavirus in bat samples (1044 brain and 3532 saliva samples, from 63 different bat species) originating from 21 provinces of China during 2006-2018. None of them were positive for lyssavirus, but six bat brains (0.6%) of Rhinolophus bat species, originating from Hubei and Hainan provinces, were positive for vesiculoviruses or ledanteviruses. Based on complete genomes, these viruses were phylogenetically classified into three putative new species, tentatively named Yinshui bat virus (YSBV), Taiyi bat virus (TYBV), and Qiongzhong bat virus (QZBV). These results indicate the novel rhabdoviruses circulated in different Chinese bat populations.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Rhabdoviridae/classificação , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rhabdoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/virologia , Saliva/virologia , Vesiculovirus/classificação
5.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 63: 102466, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904401

RESUMO

The novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide. Control of COVID-19 pandemic is vital for public health and is the prerequisite to maintain social stability. However, the origin and transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is unclear, bringing huge difficult to virus control. Monitoring viral variation and screening functional mutation sites are crucial for prevention and control of infectious diseases. In this study, we developed a user-friendly software, named BioAider, for quick sequence annotation and mutation analysis on large-scale genome-sequencing data. Herein, we detected 14 substitution hotspots within 3,240 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences, including 3 groups of potentially linked substitution. NSP13-Y541C was crucial substitution which might affect the unwinding activity of the viral helicase. In particular, we discovered a SR-rich region of SARS-CoV-2 distinct from SARS-CoV, indicating more complex replication mechanism and unique N-M interaction of SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, the quantity of SSRX repeat fragments in SARS-CoV-2 provided further evidence of its animal origin. Overall, we developed an efficient tool for rapid identification of viral genome mutations which could facilitate viral genomic studies. Using this tool, we have found critical clues for the transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 which would provide theoretical support for the epidemic control of pathogenic coronaviruses.

6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794346

RESUMO

Coronavirus (CoV) pandemics have become a huge threat to the public health worldwide in the recent decades. Typically, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) caused SARS pandemic in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 caused the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Both viruses are most likely originated from bats. Thus, direct or indirect inter-species transmission from bats to humans is required for the viruses to cause pandemics. Receptor utilization is a key factor determining the host range of viruses which is critical to the inter-species transmission. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain animals can be utilized by the viruses. Here, we employed pseudovirus cell-entry assay to evaluate the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s of 20 animals by the two viruses and found that SARS-CoV-2 utilized less ACE2s than SARS-CoV, indicating a narrower host range of SARS-CoV-2. Especially, SARS-CoV-2 tended not to use murine or non-mammal ACE2s. Meanwhile, pangolin-CoV, another SARS-related coronavirus highly homologous to SARS-CoV-2 in its genome, yet showed similar ACE2 utilization profile with SARS-CoV rather than SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, the actual susceptibility of these animals to the coronaviruses should be further verified by in vivo studies. To clarify the mechanism underlying the receptor utilization, we compared the amino acid sequences of the 20 ACE2s and found 5 amino acid residues potentially critical for ACE2 utilization, including the N-terminal 20th and 42nd amino acid residues that might determine the different receptor utilization of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and pangolin-CoV. Our studies enhance the understanding of receptor utilization of pandemic coronaviruses, potentially contributing to the virus tracing, intermediate host screening and epidemic prevention for pathogenic coronaviruses.

7.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 61: 102413, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834932

RESUMO

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has imposed a significant impact on social and economic activities. As a high infectious pathogen, the existence of SARS-CoV-2 in public space is very important for its transmission. During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals are the main places to deal with the diseases. In this work, we evaluated the exposure risk of SARS-CoV-2 in hospital environment in order to protect healthcare workers (HCWs). Briefly, air and surface samples from 6 different sites of 3 hospitals with different protection levels were collected and tested for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by reverse transcription real-time fluorescence PCR method during the COVID-19 epidemic. We found that the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was 7.7 % in a COVID-19 respiratory investigation wards and 82.6 % in a ICUs with confirmed COVID-19 patients. These results indicated that in some wards of the hospital, such as ICUs occupied by COVID-19 patients, the nucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2 existed in the air and surface, which indicates the potential occupational exposure risk of HCWs. This study has clarified retention of SARS-CoV-2 in different sites of hospital, suggesting that it is necessary to monitor and disinfect the SARS-CoV-2 in hospital environment during COVID-19 pandemic, and will help to prevent the iatrogenic infection and nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and to better protect the HCWs.

9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582057

RESUMO

Bats (order Chiroptera) are one of the most diverse and widely distributed group of mammals with a close relationship to humans. Over the past few decades, a number of studies have been performed on bat viruses; in contrast, bacterial pathogens carried by bats were largely neglected. As more bacterial pathogens are being identified from bats, the need to study their natural microbiota is becoming urgent. In the current study, fecal samples of four bat species from different locations of China were analyzed for their microbiota composition. Together with the results of others, we concluded that bat microbiota is most commonly dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria; the strict anaerobic phylum Bacteroidetes, which is dominant in other terrestrial mammals, especially humans and mice, is relatively rare in bats. This phenomenon was interpreted as a result of a highly specified gastrointestinal tract in adaptation to the flying lifestyle of bats. Further comparative study implied that bat microbiota resemble those of the order Carnivora. To discover potential bacterial pathogens, a database was generated containing the 16S rRNA gene sequences of known bacterial pathogens. Potential bacterial pathogens belonging to 12 genera were detected such as Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, among which some have been previously reported in bats. This study demonstrated high resolution and repeatability in detecting organisms of rare existence, and the results could be used as guidance for future bacterial pathogen isolation.

10.
Virus Res ; 286: 198074, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589897

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel human coronavirus causing the pandemic of severe pneumonia (Coronavirus Disease 2019, COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in human, having posed immeasurable public health challenges to the world. Innate immune response is critical for the host defense against viral infection and the dysregulation of the host innate immune responses probably aggravates SARS-CoV-2 infection, contributing to the high morbidity and lethality of COVID-19. It has been reported that some coronavirus proteins play an important role in modulating innate immunity of the host, but few studies have been conducted on SARS-CoV-2. In this study, we screened the viral proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and found that the viral ORF6, ORF8 and nucleocapsid proteins were potential inhibitors of type I interferon signaling pathway, a key component for antiviral response of host innate immune. All the three proteins showed strong inhibition on type I interferon (IFN-ß) and NF-κB-responsive promoter, further examination revealed that these proteins were able to inhibit the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) after infection with Sendai virus, while only ORF6 and ORF8 proteins were able to inhibit the ISRE after treatment with interferon beta. These findings would be helpful for the further study of the detailed signaling pathway and unveil the key molecular player that may be targeted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interferon beta/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Interferon beta/imunologia , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Fosfoproteínas , Plasmídeos/química , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Elementos de Resposta , Vírus Sendai/genética , Vírus Sendai/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção/métodos , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
11.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236817

RESUMO

Porcine adenoviruses (PAdVs) are classified into three species, PAdV-A, PAdV-B, and PAdV-C. The genomes of PAdV-A and PAdV-C have been well characterized. However, the genome of PAdV-B has never been completely sequenced, and the epidemiology of PAdV-B remains unclear. In our study, we have identified a novel strain of PAdV-B, named PAdV-B-HNU1, in porcine samples collected in China by viral metagenomic assay and general PCR. The genome of PAdV-B-HNU1 is 31,743 bp in length and highly similar to that of California sea lion adenovirus 1 (C. sea lion AdV-1), which contains typical mastadenoviral structures and some unique regions at the carboxy-terminal end. Especially, PAdV-B-HNU1 harbors a dUTPase coding region not clustering with other mastadenoviruses except for C. sea lion AdV-1 and a fiber coding region homologous with galectin 4 and 9 of animals. However, the variance of GC contents between PAdV-B-HNU1 (55%) and C. sea lion AdV-1 (36%) indicates their differential evolutionary paths. Further epidemiologic study revealed a high positive rate (51.7%) of PAdV-B-HNU1 in porcine lymph samples, but low positive rates of 10.2% and 16.1% in oral swabs and rectal swabs, respectively. In conclusion, this study characterized a novel representative genome of a lymphotropic PAdV-B with unique evolutionary origin, which contributes to the taxonomical and pathogenic studies of PAdVs.

13.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 221-225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199943

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the newly identified human coronavirus causing severe pneumonia pandemic, was probably originated from Chinese horseshoe bats. However, direct transmission of the virus from bats to humans is unlikely due to lack of direct contact, implying the existence of unknown intermediate hosts. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor of SARS-CoV-2, but only ACE2s of certain species can be utilized by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluated and ranked the receptor-utilizing capability of ACE2s from various species by phylogenetic clustering and sequence alignment with the currently known ACE2s utilized by SARS-CoV-2. As a result, we predicted that SARS-CoV-2 tends to utilize ACE2s of various mammals, except murines, and some birds, such as pigeon. This prediction may help to screen the intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Aves/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Mamíferos/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Microbes Infect ; 22(2): 80-85, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087334

RESUMO

At the end of December 2019, a novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, caused an outbreak of pneumonia spreading from Wuhan, Hubei province, to the whole country of China, which has posed great threats to public health and attracted enormous attention around the world. To date, there are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available for these human coronavirus infections. Intensive research on the novel emerging human infectious coronaviruses is urgently needed to elucidate their route of transmission and pathogenic mechanisms, and to identify potential drug targets, which would promote the development of effective preventive and therapeutic countermeasures. Herein, we describe the epidemic and etiological characteristics of 2019-nCoV, discuss its essential biological features, including tropism and receptor usage, summarize approaches for disease prevention and treatment, and speculate on the transmission route of 2019-nCoV.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Epidemias , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Receptores Virais , Tropismo Viral
15.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3151-3155, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616994

RESUMO

Astroviruses (AstVs) have a very wide range of hosts and are associated with enteric and extra-enteric disease in mammals and birds. Cross-species transmission of AstVs has been observed frequently. In the present study, the genome of a novel astrovirus from Amur tigers (Panthera tigris) from a zoo in China was characterized and was found to have the typical genomic features of other mammal AstVs. It showed the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (46.1-87.3% identity) to AstVs from cats, indicating a close phylogenetic relationship and possible cross-species transmission between them. To our knowledge, this is the first identification and characterization of AstV from tigers, and this virus is the third astrovirus identified in hosts of the family Felidae. The results of this study will be helpful for understanding the origin, genetic diversity, and cross-species transmission of AstV.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Tigres/virologia , Animais , Astroviridae/classificação , Astroviridae/genética , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Gatos , China , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
Virol J ; 16(1): 35, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Papillomaviruses (PVs) and polyomaviruses (PyVs) infect diverse vertebrates including human and cause a broad spectrum of outcomes from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. There has been no PV and only one PyV detected in tree shrews, though the genomic properties of tree shrews are highly similar to those of the primates. METHODS: Swab and organ samples of tree shrews collected in the Yunnan Province of China, were tested by viral metagenomic analysis and random PCR to detect the presence of PVs and PyVs. By PCR amplification using specific primers, cloning, sequencing and assembling, genomes of two PVs and one PyV were identified in the samples. RESULTS: Two novel PVs and a novel PyV, named tree shrew papillomavirus 1 and 2 (TbelPV1 and TbelPV2) and polyomavirus 1 (TbelPyV1) were characterized in the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). The genomes of TbelPV1, TbelPV2, and TbelPyV1 are 7410 bp, 7526 bp, and 4982 bp in size, respectively. The TbelPV1 genome contains 7 putative open-reading frames (ORFs) coding for viral proteins E1, E2, E4, E6, E7, L1, and L2; the TbelPV2 genome contains 6 ORFs coding for viral proteins E1, E2, E6, E7, L1, and L2; and the TbelPyV1 genome codes for the typical small and large T antigens of PyV, as well as the VP1, VP2, and VP3 capsid proteins. Genomic comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 represented 2 novel PV genera of Papillomaviridae, and TbelPyV1 represented a new species of genus Alphapolyomavirus. Our epidemiologic study indicated that TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 were both detected in oral swabs, while TbelPyV1 was detected in oral swabs and spleens. CONCLUSION: Two novel PVs (TbelPV1 and TbelPV2) and a novel PyV (TbelPyV) were discovered in tree shrews and their genomes were characterized. TbelPV1, TbelPV2, and TbelPyV1 have the highest similarity to Human papillomavirus type 63, Ursus maritimus papillomavirus 1, and Human polyomavirus 9, respectively. TbelPV1 and TbelPV2 only showed oral tropism, while TbelPyV1 showed oral and spleen tropism.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Papillomaviridae/genética , Polyomavirus/genética , Tupaia/virologia , Animais , China , Genômica , Metagenômica , Boca/virologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Baço/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Tropismo Viral
18.
Arch Virol ; 164(2): 413-425, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377826

RESUMO

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first detected in Hong Kong and has recently spread to many countries around the world. PDCoV causes acute diarrhea and vomiting in pigs, resulting in significant economic losses in the global pork industry. In this study, a Chinese PDCoV strain, designated CHN-HG-2017, was isolated from feces of a suckling piglet with severe watery diarrhea on a farm located in central China. Subsequently, the virus was identified by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and electron microscopy. A nucleotide sequence alignment showed that the whole genome of CHN-HG-2017 is 97.6%-99.1% identical to other PDCoV strains. Analysis of potential recombination sites showed that CHN-HG-2017 is a possible recombinant originating from the strains CH/SXD1/2015 and Vietnam/HaNoi6/2015. Furthermore, the pathogenicity of this recombinant PDCoV strain was investigated in 5-day-old piglets by oral inoculation. The challenged piglets developed typical symptoms, such as vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea and lethargy, from 1 to 7 days post-inoculation (DPI). Viral shedding was detected in rectal swabs until 14 DPI in the challenged piglets. Interestingly, high titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies in sera were detected at 21 DPI. Tissues of small intestines from CHN-HG-2017-infected piglets at 4 DPI displayed significant macroscopic and microscopic lesions with clear viral antigen expression. Our analysis of the full genome sequence of a recombinant PDCoV and its virulence in suckling piglets might provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PDCoV and facilitate further investigation of this newly emerged pathogen.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , China , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Filogenia , Suínos , Vietnã , Virulência
19.
Virol Sin ; 33(6): 484-492, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570714

RESUMO

We describe the first genome isolation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Kenya. This fatal zoonotic pathogen was first described in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Epidemiological and molecular evidence revealed zoonotic transmission from camels to humans and between humans. Currently, MERS-CoV is classified by the WHO as having high pandemic potential requiring greater surveillance. Previous studies of MERS-CoV in Kenya mainly focused on site-specific and archived camel and human serum samples for antibodies. We conducted active nationwide cross-sectional surveillance of camels and humans in Kenya, targeting both nasal swabs and plasma samples from 1,163 camels and 486 humans collected from January 2016 to June 2018. A total of 792 camel plasma samples were positive by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased with age, and the highest prevalence was observed in adult camels (82.37%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.50-84.91). More female camels were significantly seropositive (74.28%, 95% CI 71.14-77.19) than male camels (P < 0.001) (53.74%, 95% CI 48.48-58.90). Only 11 camel nasal swabs were positive for MERS-CoV by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences showed that Kenyan MERS-CoV clustered within sub-clade C2, which is associated with the African clade, but did not contain signature deletions of orf4b in African viruses. None of the human plasma screened contained neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV. This study confirms the geographically widespread occurrence of MERS-CoV in Kenyan camels. Further one-health surveillance approaches in camels, wildlife, and human populations are needed.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Nariz/virologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
20.
Virol Sin ; 33(3): 294, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808439

RESUMO

The affiliation listed for Cecilia Waruhiu is incorrect. The byline and affiliation line should appear as shown above.

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