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1.
Cureus ; 14(10): e29986, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36381761

RESUMO

Background Since March 2020, increasing numbers of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infections have been registered. The first and the second waves necessitated the extensive restructuring of hospital infrastructure with prioritization of intensive care capacity. Elective surgeries in all surgical disciplines were postponed to preserve intensive care capacity for COVID-19 patients. However, emergency care for trauma patients had to be maintained. Especially, geriatric patients with hip fractures often require intensive care. This study sought to investigate the possible excess mortality of geriatric patients with femoral neck fractures due to shorter intensive care unit stays because of COVID-19. Material and methods All patients over the age of 70 between March 2019 and February 2020 who underwent surgical treatment for femoral neck fractures were included. This cohort (group 1) was compared with all patients over 70 who received surgical treatment for hip fractures during the period of the pandemic between March 2020 and February 2021 with attention to potential excess mortality due to low intensive care capacity (group 2). Demographic data, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, surgical modality, ICU stay, complications, and mortality were analyzed and compared. Results A total of 356 patients with 178 in each cohort with a mean age of 82.7 in group 1 and 84.8 in group 2 (p<0.05) were included. No significant difference was seen in sex and ASA scores. During the pandemic, patients with hip fractures had a significantly shorter stay in ICU (0.4 ± 0.9 vs 1.2 ± 2.8 days; p<0.05), shorter time to surgery (29.9 ± 8.2 vs 16.8 ± 5.3 h; p<0.05) and operations were significantly more often performed out-of-hour (4 pm-12 am 47.8% vs 56.7%; 12 am-8 am 7.9% vs 13.5%, p<0.05). Interestingly, mortality was lower during the pandemic, but the difference did not reach significance (6.7% vs 12.4%, p=0.102). Conclusion During the pandemic, ICU capacity was reserved for COVID patients. Due to a change in the law of the Joint Federal Committee with effect from January 1, 2021, all patients with proximal femur fractures had to be operated on within the first 24 hours, which is why a significantly shorter time to surgery was observed during the pandemic period. As a consequence, a lower mortality rate was observed, although no significance could be reached.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(21)2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362798

RESUMO

Anticoagulative medication such as antiplatelet drugs (PAI, acetylsalicylic acid and direct platelet aggregation inhibitors), vitamin-K-antagonist Warfarin (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are common among hip fracture patients, and the perioperative management of these patients is a rising challenge in orthopaedic trauma. Our objective was to determine the effect of oral anticoagulation in patients receiving early endoprosthetic treatment within 24 h after their admission. For the period from 2016 to 2020, a retrospective chart review of 221 patients (mean age 83 ± 7 years; 161 women and 60 men) who were treated either with hemi- (n = 209) or total hip arthroplasty (n = 12) within 24 h after their admission was performed. We identified 68 patients who took PAI, 34 who took DOAC and 9 who took VKA medications. The primary outcome measures were the transfusion rate and the pre- and postoperative haemoglobin (Hb) difference. The secondary outcome measures were the in-patient mortality and the rate of postoperative haematomas that needed operative treatment. A logistic/ordinal regression was performed considering the related variables to prevent cofounding occurring. The mean time to surgery was significantly longer for the DOAC and VKA groups when they were compared to the controls (none 14.7 ± 7.0 h; PAI 12.9 ± 6.7 h; DOAC 18.6 ± 6.3 h; VKA 19.4 ± 5.5 h; p < 0.05). There was no difference in the preoperative Hb level between the groups. Overall, 62 patients (28%) needed blood transfusions during the in-patient stay with an ASA classification (p = 0.022), but the type of anticoagulative medication was not a significant predictor in the logistic regression. Anticoagulation with DOAC and grouped surgery times were positive predictors for a higher Hb difference in the patients who did not undergo an intraoperative blood transfusion (n = 159). Postoperative haematomas only occurred in patients taking anticoagulative medication (four cases in PAI group, and three cases in DOAC group), but the logistic regression showed that the anticoagulative medication had no effect. The in-patient mortality was significantly influenced by a high ASA grade (p = 0.008), but not by the type of anticoagulative medication in patients who were treated within 24 h. We conclude that the early endoprosthetic treatment of the anticoagulated hip fracture patient is safe, and a delayed surgical treatment is no longer justifiable.

3.
Biomedicines ; 10(11)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36428498

RESUMO

Objective: Current treatments for blast-induced lung injury are limited to supportive procedures including mechanical ventilation. The study aimed to investigate the role of post-trauma-induced oedema generation in the function of time and trauma intensity and the probable role of beta 2-adrenergic receptors (ß2-ARs) agonists on pulmonary oedema. The study is conducted using an ex vivo model after an experimental in vivo blast-induced thorax trauma in rats. Methods: Rats were randomised and divided into two groups, blast and sham. The blast group were anaesthetised and exposed to the blast wave (3.16 ± 0.43 bar) at a distance of 3.5 cm from the thorax level. The rats were sacrificed 10 min after the blast, the lungs explanted and treated with terbutaline, formoterol, propranolol or amiloride to assess the involvement of sodium transport. Other groups of rats were exposed to distances of 5 and 7 cm from the thorax to reduce the intensity of the injury. Further, one group of rats was studied after 180 min and one after 360 min after a 3.5 cm blast injury. Sham controls were exposed to identical procedures except for receiving blast overpressure. Results: Lung injury and oedema generation depended on time after injury and injury intensity. Perfusion with amiloride resulted in a further increase in oedema formation as indicated by weight gain (p < 0.001), diminished tidal volume (Tv) (p < 0.001), and increased airway resistance (p < 0.001). Formoterol caused a significant increase in the Tv (p < 0.001) and a significant decrease in the airway resistance (p < 0.01), while the lung weight was not influenced. Trauma-related oedema was significantly reduced by terbutaline in terms of lung weight gain (p < 0.01), Tv (p < 0.001), and airway resistance (p < 0.01) compared to control blast-injured lungs. Terbutaline-induced effects were completely blocked by the ß-receptor antagonist propranolol (p < 0.05). Similarly, amiloride, which was added to terbutaline perfusion, reversed terbutaline-induced weight gain reduction (p < 0.05). Conclusions: ß2-adrenoceptor stimulation had a beneficial impact by amiloride-dependent sodium and therefore, fluid transport mechanisms on the short-term ex vivo oedema generation in a trauma-induced in vivo lung injury of rats.

4.
J Clin Med ; 11(22)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries in the elderly. Locked plating showed high complication and reoperation rates at first. However, with second-generation implants and augmentation, minimally invasive locked plating might be a viable alternative to arthroplasty or conservative treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with proximal humerus fractures treated between 2014 and 2020 with locked plating. All patients over 60 years of age who underwent surgery for a proximal humerus fracture with plate osteosynthesis (NCB, Philos, or Philos with cement) during the specified period were included. Pathological fractures, intramedullary nailing, or arthroplasty were excluded. Primary outcome measurements included secondary displacement and surgical complications. Secondary outcomes comprised function and mortality within one year. RESULTS: A total of 249 patients (mean age 75.6 +/- 8.9 years; 194 women and 55 men) were included in the study. No significant difference in the AO fracture classification could be found. Ninety-two patients were surgically treated with first-generation locked plating (NCB, Zimmer Biomet, Wayne Township, IN, USA), 113 patients with second-generation locked plating (Philos, Depuy Synthes, Wayne Township, IN, USA), and 44 patients with cement-augmented second-generation locked plating (Philos, Traumacem V+, Depuy Synthes). A 6-week radiological follow-up was completed for 189 patients. In all groups, X-rays were performed one day after surgery, and these showed no differences concerning the head shaft angle between the groups. The mean secondary varus dislocation (decrease of the head shaft angle) after six weeks for first-generation locked plating was 6.6 ± 12° (n = 72), for second-generation locked plating 4.4 ± 6.5 (n = 83), and for second-generation with augmentation 1.9 ± 3.7 (n = 35) with a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.012). Logistic regression showed a significant dependency for secondary dislocation for the type of treatment (p = 0.038), age (p = 0.01), and preoperative varus fracture displacement (p = 0.033). Significantly fewer surgical complications have been observed in the augmented second-generation locked plating group (NCB: 26.3%; Philos 21.5%; Philos-augmented 8.6%; p = 0.015). Range of motion was documented in 122 out of 209 patients after 3 months. In the Philos-augmented group, 50% of the patients achieved at least 90° anteversion and abduction, which was only about a third of the patients in the other 2 groups (NCB 34.8%, n = 46; Philos 35.8%, n = 56; augmented-Philos 50.0%, n = 20; p = 0.429). CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive locked plating is still a valuable treatment option for geriatric patients. With augmentation and modern implants, the complication rate is low and comparable to those of reverse shoulder arthroplasty reported in the literature, even in the challenging group of elderly patients.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077033

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major determining factor of outcome in severely injured patients. However, reliable brain-damage-monitoring markers are still missing. We therefore assessed brain-specific beta-synuclein as a novel blood biomarker of synaptic damage and measured the benchmarks neurofilament light chain (NfL), as a neuroaxonal injury marker, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as an astroglial injury marker, in patients after polytrauma with and without TBI. Compared to healthy volunteers, plasma NfL, beta-synuclein, and GFAP were significantly increased after polytrauma. The markers demonstrated highly distinct time courses, with beta-synuclein and GFAP peaking early and NfL concentrations gradually elevating during the 10-day observation period. Correlation analyses revealed a distinct influence of the extent of extracranial hemorrhage and the severity of head injury on biomarker concentrations. A combined analysis of beta-synuclein and GFAP effectively discriminated between polytrauma patients with and without TBI, despite the comparable severity of injury. Furthermore, we found a good predictive performance for fatal outcome by employing the initial plasma concentrations of NfL, beta-synuclein, and GFAP. Our findings suggest a high diagnostic value of neuronal injury markers reflecting distinct aspects of neuronal injury for the diagnosis of TBI in the complex setting of polytrauma, especially in clinical surroundings with limited imaging opportunities.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Traumatismo Múltiplo , Biomarcadores , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida , Humanos , Filamentos Intermediários , beta-Sinucleína
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36001123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric traumas are common and remain a unique challenge for trauma surgeons. Demographic data provide a crucial source of information to better understand mechanisms and patterns of injury. The aim of this study was to provide this information to improve treatment strategies of potentially preventable morbidity and mortality in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of every pediatric trauma treated in the emergency department (ED) between 2015 and 2019 was performed. Inclusion criteria were the age between 0 and 14 years and admission to the ED after trauma. Demographic data, time of presentation, mechanism of injury and pattern of injury, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. Different injury patterns were assessed in relation to age group, sex, mechanism of injury and treatment. RESULTS: A total of 12,508 patients were included in this study. All patients were stratified into five age groups: babies under the age of 1 (8.8%), toddlers between 1 and 3 (16.8%), preschool children between 4 and 6 (19.3%), young school children between 7 and 10 (27.1%), and young adolescents between 11 and 14 (27.9%). The predominant sex in all age groups was male. 47.7% of patients were admitted between 4 and 10 pm; 14.8% of the patients arrived between 10 pm and 8 am. Peak months of admissions were May to July. Overall, 2703 fractures, 2924 lacerations and superficial tissue injury, 5151 bruises, 320 joint dislocations, 1284 distortions, 76 burns, and 50 other injuries were treated. Most common mechanisms for fractures were leisure activities, falls, and sports-related activities. Forearm fractures were the most common fractures (39.5%) followed by humerus fractures (14%) and fractures of the hand (12.5%). A total of 700 patients with fractures (25.9%) needed surgery. 8.8% of all patients were hospitalized for at least one day. 4 patients died in the hospital (0.03%). CONCLUSION: Despite of higher risk, severe injuries in children are rare. Minor injuries and single fractures are common. Treatment should be managed in specialized centers to ensure an interdisciplinary care and fast recovery. Peak times in the late afternoon and evening and summer months should be taken into consideration of personnel planning.

7.
J Clin Med ; 11(15)2022 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35956095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Forearm fractures are one of the most common fractures in children. Over the last years, a tendency towards surgical treatment was seen, especially closed reduction and internal fixation with elastic stable internal nailing (ESIN). Despite an overall low complication rate being described, a risk of intraoperative complications remains. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 237 patients (mean age 8.3 ± 3.4 (1-16) years) with forearm or radius fractures treated with ESIN between 2010 and 2020 were included in the study. The retrospective review of 245 focused on fracture pattern, pre- and postoperative fracture angulation, intra- and postoperative complications, and surgical approach for nail implant. The fracture pattern and pre- and postoperative angulation were measured radiographically. Complications such as ruptures of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon and sensibility disorders of the superficial radial nerve were further analyzed. RESULTS: In 201 cases (82%), we performed a dorsal approach; 44 fractures (17.9%) were treated with a radial approach. In total, we found 25 (10%) surgery-related complications, of which 21 (8.6%) needed further surgical treatment. In total, we had 14 EPL ruptures (5.7%), 4 sensibility disorders of the superficial radial nerve (1.6%), 2 refractures after implant removal (0.8%), 2 superficial wound infections (0.8%), and 1 child with limited range of motion after surgery (0.4%). No statistical significance between pre- and postoperative angulation correlated to fracture patterns or diameter of the elastic nail was seen. As expected, there was a significant improvement of postoperative angulation. Using radial approach in distal radial fractures showed a lower rate of surgical related complications, 2.3% of which need further surgical treatment as well as better postoperative angulations compared to the dorsal approach (8.5%). CONCLUSION: Especially due to the low risk of damaging the EPL tendon, the radial approach showed a lower complication rate which needed further surgical treatment. The risk of lesions of the superficial radial nerve remains.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fractures in the elderly population are common and the number of patients is rising. For young and geriatric patients with undisplaced fractures osteosynthesis is the primary type of treatment. The dynamic hip screw (DHS) is around for many years and proved its value especially in displaced fractures. Since 2018 the femoral neck system (FNS) is available as an alternative showing promising biomechanical results. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical results of the FNS and compare it to the DHS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients older than 18 years with Garden I-IV fractures that were treated with osteosynthesis in a level 1 trauma center were included in the study. Between January 2015 and March 2021, all patients treated with FNS (1-hole plate, DePuy-Synthes, Zuchwil, Switzerland) or DHS (2-hole plate, DePuy-Synthes, Zuchwil, Switzerland) for proximal femur fractures were included in the study. Closed reduction was achieved using a traction table. All operations were carried out by experienced orthopedic trauma surgeons. Primary outcome measures were rate of implant failure (cut out) and surgical complications (hematoma, infection). Secondary outcome measures were Hb-difference, length of hospital stay and mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 221 patients were included in the study. 113 were treated with FNS, 108 with DHS. Mean age was 69 ± 14 years. There were 17.2% Garden I, 47.5% Garden II, 26.7% Garden III and 8.6% Garden IV fractures. No difference between the groups for age, body mass index (BMI), Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), time to surgery, Pauwels and Garden classification, rate of optimal blade position or tip apex distance was found. FNS showed lower pre- to postoperative Hb-difference (1.4 ± 1.1 g/l vs. 2.1 ± 1.4 g/l; p < 0.05), shorter operating time (36.3 ± 11.6 min vs. 54.7 ± 17.4 min; p < 0.05) and hospital stay (8.8 ± 4.3 d vs. 11.2 ± 6.8 d; p < 0.05). Surgical complications (FNS 13.3% vs. DHS 18.4%, p > 0.05), rate of cut out (FNS 12.4% vs. DHS 10.2%, p > 0.05) and mortality (FNS 3.5%; DHS 0.9%; p > 0.05) showed no difference between the groups. Logistic regression showed that poor blade position was the only significant predictor for cut out and increased the risk by factor 7. Implant related infection (n = 3) and hematoma/seroma (n = 6) that needed revision was only seen in DHS group. CONCLUSION: FNS proved to be as reliable as DHS in all patients with hip fractures. Not the type of implant but blade positioning is still key to prevent implant failure. Still due to minimal invasive approach implant related infections and postoperative hematomas might have been prevented using the FNS.

9.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 48(5): 3401-3407, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric femur fractures are a major trauma in children. Different treatment algorithms have been developed but indications for surgical treatment, especially in very young patients, are still controversial. Literature recommends surgical stabilization with elastic-stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) starting at the age of 3 and non-operative treatment in younger patients. This study sought to present the outcome of patients younger than 3 years of age treated with ESIN for femur fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inclusion criteria were patients younger than 3 treated with ESIN in femur fractures. Patient demographics, fracture characteristics, mechanism of injury, outcomes and complications were recorded using charts and X-rays. Primary outcome measures were time to mobility, fracture consolidation and surgical-related complications. RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2020, 159 patients were treated with ESIN in femur fractures in our institution. A total of 30 patients met the criteria. The mean age was 2.1 ± 0.7 years (13 months-2.9 years). Most common mechanism was fall from standing height (60%). Other mechanisms were motor vehicle accidents as a pedestrian (10%) or as a passenger (10%) as well as direct blow trauma (20%). Femoral shaft fracture was the most common injury (80%). 5 subtrochanteric and one distal metaphyseal femur fractures were found. Mean length of stay was 2.0 ± 1.3 days. Radiographic controls were performed on day 1, 14 and 6 weeks after surgery if not otherwise specified or if complications occurred. 4.6 ± 1.2 (n 2-7) X-rays were performed on average after surgery. First radiographic consolidation signs were seen after 2.4 ± 0.6 weeks. Only one child showed surgical-related complication with a leg length discrepancy of 1 cm. In 10% of the patients, shortening after surgery of 1.7 ± 1.4 mm (0.3-3.1 mm) occurred. One child initially treated with traction therapy showed skin irritations and was operated with ESIN. No non-union or ESIN-related complications were found. Mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 4.4 months (4-24 months). First independent mobilization was seen at an average of 3.4 ± 1.1 weeks (2-6 weeks) after surgery. Implant removal was performed after 3.2 ± 1.3 months (2-8 months). No refracture after implant removal occurred. CONCLUSION: Early results with ESIN show a reasonable and safe treatment option for femur fractures in toddlers and young children under the age of 3 with easy postoperative care, fast fracture union and early independent mobilization.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas , Pinos Ortopédicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fêmur , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Z Orthop Unfall ; 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235972

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In order to prevent implant failure and secondary fracture dislocation, it is often recommended that patients perform partial weight-bearing after surgery of the lower extremity. Previous examinations showed that patients are often not able to follow these instructions. In this study, patients who had undergone surgery of the lower extremity were studied in order to analyze whether incorrect loading influenced the number and severity of complications. METHODS: Fifty-one patients were equipped with electronic shoe insoles, which measure loading and other parameters. The measurement period was 24 to 102 hours. Median duration of follow-up was 490 days. The primary outcome parameter was postoperative complications leading to revision surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests with significance set at a p < 0.05. RESULTS: Seven out of fifty-one patients had postoperative complications. Four wound complications, one implant failure, chronic instability after fracture of the tibia, and one implant loosening of a hip prosthesis were recorded. In total, 26 of 39 patients were not able to follow the postoperative instructions. Five of the twenty-six patients with difficulties in partial weight-bearing suffered a postoperative complication. In comparison, only 2 of the other 25 patients were affected. There was no statistically significant correlation between high weight-bearing and occurrence of complications (p = 0.29). CONCLUSION: Most of the patients were unable to follow the surgeon's instructions for partial weight-bearing. Excessive loading did not seem to influence the number and severity of postoperative complications, especially regarding implant failure. Therefore, we should continue with measurements and reevaluate the "partial weight-bearing doctrine".

11.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 48(3): 2413-2420, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of fragility fractures of the pelvis is rising challenge for orthopedic trauma surgeons. Operative treatment should allow immediate full weight bearing and early mobilisation but should also be as minimal invasive as possible. Sacroiliac (SI) or transsacral transiliac screws (TSTI) alone or depending on the fracture in combination with an external fixator meets both of these criteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The outcome of 121 operatively treated patients with fragility fractures of the pelvis were evaluated in this retrospective study. Depending on the type of fracture the patients were treated with navigated SI screw or TSTI screw alone or in combination with an external fixator. All patients were operated in supine position in a hybrid-OR, which consists of a fixed robotic 3D flatpanel detector (Artis zeego, Siemens Healthineers, Germany) and a navigation system (BrainLab Curve, BrainLab, Germany). RESULTS: 37 patients were treated with either one or two SI screws and 57 with one TSTI screw. An additional external fixator was combined with SI screws in 17 patients and with TSTI screws in 10 patients. The preoperative pain score was significantly higher compared to the postoperative score (5.1 ± 2.5 vs 2.2 ± 1.9, p < 0.05). Follow-up at 6 month was possible for 106 patients which showed screw loosening in 16.3% of the SI Screws (n = 49) compared to only 5.2% of TSTI screws (n = 57). No screw loosening was seen in the combination of TSTI-screw and external fixator (n = 10). There were two septic and three aseptic pin loosenings of the external fixator. Overall only one patient needed revision surgery due to screw loosening and local irritation. Overall 75.2% (n = 91) of the patients could be released in their home or in a rehabilitation unit and only 14% (n = 17) were released to a nursing home due to immobility despite the operation. Non-surgical complications rate was 21.5%. CONCLUSION: SI or TSTI screws with possible combination with an external fixator show early pain relief and allows most of the patients to keep their former level of independence. With an also low surgical complication rate, it proved to be a safe and reliable treatment for fragility fractures of the pelvis. Due the effective pain relief and the minimal invasive approach, early mobilisation is possible and might prevent typical non-surgical complications which are very common during conservative treatment.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Ossos Pélvicos , Idoso , Parafusos Ósseos , Fixadores Externos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Dor , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Ossos Pélvicos/cirurgia , Pelve , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 48(3): 1827-1833, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Operative timing, perioperative management and postoperative rehabilitation are rising challenges in orthopedic geriatric trauma. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of patients with dementia or with a high number of comorbidities treated with hemiprosthesis after hip fracture. Literature regarding patients with high comorbidities is scarce, leaving nothing but endoprosthetic treatment for even the sickest, immobile patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 326 patients (mean age 81 ± 9 years; 230 women and 96 men) with hip fractures treated between 2012 and 2017 with a hemiprosthesis was performed. Primary outcome measures were surgical and nonsurgical complication rates, best achievable mobilisation during the hospital stay and mortality. RESULTS: Patients with dementia had 20-fold increased risk to be bedridden after surgery and ninefold increased risk of dying (p < 0.005). Furthermore, they needed significantly more revision surgeries because of surgical complications. Patients classified ASA IV and V had significantly lower postoperative mobilization levels with only 10% able to walk with crutches and 53% bedridden. They also had significantly more non-surgical complications while dementia had no effect on non-surgical complication rate. CONCLUSION: Patients classified ASA IV and V or suffering dementia show poor outcome after hip fracture treated with hemiprosthesis. Multidisciplinary approaches including surgeons, geriatricians, physiotherapists and psychiatrists are needed to improve the outcome of these patients. Especially in a subgroup of patients, where no mobilization is expected, alternative treatment options may be considered.


Assuntos
Demência , Fraturas do Quadril , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg ; 142(1): 77-81, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880704

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: After surgical treatment of injuries of the lower extremity, partial weight bearing is often suggested until soft tissue consolidation. It is doubtful, if this recommendation can be implemented, even in the case that a patient is performing partial weight bearing with a physical therapist. Consequently the question remains, if patients are able to implement partial weight bearing after surgery and which factors favor incompliance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 49 patients, who underwent surgical treatment after injuries of the lower extremity, were equipped with electronic shoe insoles on both sides. Different weight bearing instructions were given depending on the type of injury and surgery (full weight bearing vs. 20 kg weight bearing vs. non-weight bearing). Besides loading, other factors like age, gender, weight and physical activity were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact test with significance set at a p value < 0.05. RESULTS: 25 of the 40 patients, who had to perform non- or partial weight bearing, were not able to follow postoperative instructions (compliance rate 37.5%). The average loading of the whole collective was 32.6 kg (4.8-109.2 kg). The specification of loading had no statistically significant influence on real loading (p-value 0.39). Elderly patients were less able to follow instructions than younger patients (36 vs 30.2 kg). Physically active compared to non-active patients overloaded their injured extremity (37.8 vs 28.7 kg). Patients with a high body mass index (BMI) encountered more difficulties to perform partial weight bearing than lightweight patients (36.9 vs 25.1 kg). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients were not able to follow loading limitation, even a few days after surgery and even if the patients were trained by a physiotherapist. Excessive weight bearing-related complications should be evaluated.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior , Cooperação do Paciente , Idoso , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Suporte de Carga
14.
J Bone Miner Res ; 37(1): 137-151, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633111

RESUMO

Mast cells are important tissue-resident sensor and effector immune cells but also play a major role in osteoporosis development. Mast cells are increased in numbers in the bone marrow of postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, and mast cell-deficient mice are protected from ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. In this study, we showed that mast cell-deficient Mcpt5-Cre R-DTA mice were protected from OVX-induced disturbed fracture healing, indicating a critical role for mast cells in the pathomechanisms of impaired bone repair under estrogen-deficient conditions. We revealed that mast cells trigger the fracture-induced inflammatory response by releasing inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6, midkine (Mdk), and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), and promote neutrophil infiltration into the fracture site in OVX mice. Furthermore, mast cells were responsible for reduced osteoblast and increased osteoclast activities in OVX mice callus, as well as increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand serum levels in OVX mice. Additional in vitro studies with human cells showed that mast cells stimulate osteoclastogenesis by releasing the osteoclastogenic mediators Mdk and CXCL10 in an estrogen-dependent manner, which was mediated via the estrogen receptor alpha on mast cells. In conclusion, mast cells negatively affect the healing of bone fractures under estrogen-deficient conditions. Hence, targeting mast cells might provide a therapeutic strategy to improve disturbed bone repair in postmenopausal osteoporosis. © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Mastócitos , Osteoporose , Animais , Calo Ósseo , Feminino , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Camundongos , Osteoclastos , Ovariectomia
15.
Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil ; 12: 21514593211050153, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733579

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are a major event and are rising in incidence over the last decade. Advancing age and numerous comorbidities largely account for high mortality rate and require geriatric expertise. Treatment options are total hip arthroplasty (THA), hemiarthroplasty (HA) or osteosynthesis. Literature suggests THA or HA for better outcomes, although no clear guidelines exist. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of 63 patients (80 ± 11 years; 32 women, 31 men) with Garden one femoral neck fractures treated between June 2018 and June 2020 with either HA or internal fixation with the Femoral Neck System (FNS). Primary outcome measures were surgical and non-surgical complication rates and best achievable mobilization during the hospital stay. RESULTS: Thirty four patients were treated with HA, and 29 with the FNS. Mobilization was measured using the Charité Mobility Index (CHARMI). No difference between age, ASA, CCI or preoperative CHARMI was found. The CHARMI was significantly lower in the HA group. No difference in surgical complications was found. The HA cohort showed more non-surgical complications, a longer ICU stay and more blood transfusions. Hospitalization was significant longer in the HA than the FNS cohort (15.1 ± 5.1 vs 9.8 ± 3.8 days). Radiographic controls were performed after 6 and 12 weeks. The FNS group showed a mean shortening of 3.3 mm. 4 of 21 patient had shortening >5 mm. 20 of 21 patients showed radiographic signs of bone healing after 3 months. CONCLUSION: Early results with the FNS show faster recovery than patient with hemiarthroplasty. Internal fixation with the FNS may be an option in non-displaced femoral neck fractures. Further studies should be performed to better evaluate the FNS compared to traditional internal fixation methods and arthroplasty.

16.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 646, 2021 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among potentially modifiable risk factors for delirium, transfers between wards, hospitals and other facilities have been mentioned with low evidence. TRADE (TRAnsport and DElirium in older people) was set up to investigate i) the impact of transfer and/or discharge on the onset of delirium in older adults and ii) feasibility and acceptance of a developed complex intervention targeting caregiver's participation during and after hospital discharge or transfer on cognition and the onset of delirium in older adults. METHODS: The study is designed according to the guidelines of the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) for development and evaluation of complex interventions and comprises two steps: development and feasibility/piloting. The development phase includes i) a multicenter observational prospective cohort study to assess delirium incidence and cognitive decline associated with transfer and discharge, ii) a systematic review of the literature, iii) stakeholder focus group interviews and iv) an expert workshop followed by a Delphi survey. Based on this information, a complex intervention to better and systematically involve family caregivers in discharge and transport was developed. The intervention will be tested in a pilot study using a stepped wedge design with a detailed process and health economic evaluation. The study is conducted at four acute care hospitals in southwest Germany. Primary endpoints are the delirium incidence and cognitive function. Secondary endpoints include prevalence of caregiver companionship, functional decline, cost and cost effectiveness, quality of discharge management and quality of admission management in admitting hospitals or nursing homes. Data will be collected prior to discharge as well as after 3, 7 and 90 days. DISCUSSION: TRADE will help to evaluate transfer and discharge as a possible risk factor for delirium. In addition, TRADE evaluates the impact and modifiability of caregiver's participation during patient's transfer or discharge on delirium incidence and cognitive decline providing the foundation for a confirmatory implementation study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS (Deutsches Register für klinische Studien) DRKS00017828 . Registered on 17th September 2019. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Delírio , Alta do Paciente , Idoso , Cuidadores , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Hospitais , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Unfallchirurg ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The isolated proximal radius fracture in children is a quite rare injury. In difference to adults a conservative treatment is often possible. But in case of increasing dislocation the indication for surgery is given. Options for an operative treatment are "closed reduction", "percutaneous reduction", "intramedullary nailing", "open reduction" with and without fixation. Aim of this study is to compare these procedures with each other. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a retrospective investigation and 82 patients who underwent surgery after an isolated proximal radius fracture were included. Fracture types were classified according to the AO (working group for osteosynthesis questions)/OTA (Orthopedic Trauma Association) classification. The preoperative and postoperative degrees of axis deviation were compared and were considered to be a measure of the quality of treatment. RESULTS: The lowest degree of axis deviation resulted by open reduction and implantation of K­wires (15,8°) and implantation of headless compression screws (HCS, 16°). Closed reduction without any fixation resulted in 19°, with implantation of an TEN (titan elastic nail) in 20° and the open reduction without any fixation resulted in 21° of axis deviation. No correlation was observed concerning the fracture type and the postoperative axis deviation. CONCLUSION: The study shows that the postoperative result does not depend on the fracture type (according to the AO/OTA classification) but on the surgical procedure. Despite the good radiological results in open reduction and internal fixation this procedure should be reserved for difficult situations in which less invasive surgical procedures fail, to avoid aseptic bone necrosis.

18.
J Clin Med ; 10(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300323

RESUMO

Life-threatening polytrauma results in early activation of the complement and apoptotic system, as well as leukocytes, ultimately leading to the clearance of damaged cells. However, little is known about interactions between the complement and apoptotic systems in PMN (polymorphonuclear neutrophils) after multiple injuries. PMN from polytrauma patients and healthy volunteers were obtained and assessed for apoptotic events along the post-traumatic time course. In vitro studies simulated complement activation by the exposure of PMN to C3a or C5a and addressed both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Specific blockade of the C5a-receptor 1 (C5aR1) on PMN was evaluated for efficacy to reverse complement-driven alterations. PMN from polytrauma patients exhibited significantly reduced apoptotic rates up to 10 days post trauma compared to healthy controls. Polytrauma-induced resistance was associated with significantly reduced Fas-ligand (FasL) and Fas-receptor (FasR) on PMN and in contrast, significantly enhanced FasL and FasR in serum. Simulation of systemic complement activation revealed for C5a, but not for C3a, a dose-dependent abrogation of PMN apoptosis in both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Furthermore, specific blockade of the C5aR1 reversed C5a-induced PMN resistance to apoptosis. The data suggest an important regulatory and putative mechanistic and therapeutic role of the C5a/C5aR1 interaction on PMN apoptosis after polytrauma.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2542, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953174

RESUMO

Lateral heterojunctions of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold promise for applications in nanotechnology, yet their charge transport and most of the spectroscopic properties have not been investigated. Here, we synthesize a monolayer of multiple aligned heterojunctions consisting of quasi-metallic and wide-bandgap GNRs, and report characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy, angle-resolved photoemission, Raman spectroscopy, and charge transport. Comprehensive transport measurements as a function of bias and gate voltages, channel length, and temperature reveal that charge transport is dictated by tunneling through the potential barriers formed by wide-bandgap GNR segments. The current-voltage characteristics are in agreement with calculations of tunneling conductance through asymmetric barriers. We fabricate a GNR heterojunctions based sensor and demonstrate greatly improved sensitivity to adsorbates compared to graphene based sensors. This is achieved via modulation of the GNR heterojunction tunneling barriers by adsorbates.

20.
Z Orthop Unfall ; 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33873225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractures of the proximal femur in the elderly population are rising. Teaching the appropriate surgical treatment of these fractures is of paramount importance. The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in outcome of surgical procedures between supervised trainees and senior surgeons. OBJECTIVE: Are there more surgical complications, poorer quality or an increased operating time if the procedure (in this case: fixation of proximal femur fractures) is performed by trainees under supervision in comparison to experienced surgeons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients treated with the proximal femur nail antirotation (PFNA) between 2015 and 2016 at a level one trauma centre were included in this study. The retrospective review of the 299 patients compared supervised surgical trainees and senior surgeons. Parameters included operating time, tip apex distance, position of the blade, Hb-difference, transfusion rate, surgical complications as well as mortality, and were compared between the groups. RESULTS: 153 of 299 procedures were performed by supervised surgical trainees. In comparison to senior surgeons, there was no significant difference in operating time (WA 54.48 min; OA 60.47 min; p > 0,05), Hb-difference (WA 2.8 g/dl; OA 2.6 g/dl; p > 0.05), tip-apex distance (WA 21.2 mm; OA 20.5 mm, p = 0.37) or rate of surgical complications. There was no difference in the rate of optimal blade positions between the groups (WA 87.5%; OA 89.0%; p = 0.366). Furthermore, mortality showed no difference between the groups, but was greater in older patients or high ASA grade. CONCLUSION: Supervised surgical training during treatment of proximal femur fractures shows no increase in operating time, complications or mortality and no difference in quality. With the fast growth of the elderly population, surgical training of fragility fractures should receive more attention in the future.

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