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1.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(4)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439632

RESUMO

Clinical presentations of mutations in the IQSEC2 gene on the X-chromosome initially implicated to cause non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID) in males have expanded to include early onset seizures in males as well as in females. The molecular pathogenesis is not well understood, nor the mechanisms driving disease expression in heterozygous females. Using a CRISPR/Cas9-edited Iqsec2 KO mouse model, we confirm the loss of Iqsec2 mRNA expression and lack of Iqsec2 protein within the brain of both founder and progeny mice. Both male (52%) and female (46%) Iqsec2 KO mice present with frequent and recurrent seizures. Focusing on Iqsec2 KO heterozygous female mice, we demonstrate increased hyperactivity, altered anxiety and fear responses, decreased social interactions, delayed learning capacity and decreased memory retention/novel recognition, recapitulating psychiatric issues, autistic-like features, and cognitive deficits present in female patients with loss-of-function IQSEC2 variants. Despite Iqsec2 normally acting to activate Arf6 substrate, we demonstrate that mice modelling the loss of Iqsec2 function present with increased levels of activated Arf6. We contend that loss of Iqsec2 function leads to altered regulation of activated Arf6-mediated responses to synaptic signalling and immature synaptic networks. We highlight the importance of IQSEC2 function for females by reporting a novel nonsense variant c.566C > A, p.(S189*) in an elderly female patient with profound intellectual disability, generalised seizures, and behavioural disturbances. Our human and mouse data reaffirm IQSEC2 as another disease gene with an unexpected X-chromosome heterozygous female phenotype. Our Iqsec2 mouse model recapitulates the phenotypes observed in human patients despite the differences in the IQSEC2/Iqsec2 gene X-chromosome inactivation between the species.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184401

RESUMO

The X-linked NLGN3 gene, encoding a postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule, was involved in a nonsyndromic monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by the description of one unique missense variant, p.Arg451Cys (Jamain et al. 2003). We investigated here the pathogenicity of additional missense variants identified in two multiplex families with intellectual disability (ID) and ASD: c.1789C>T, p.Arg597Trp, previously reported by our group (Redin et al. 2014) and present in three affected cousins and c.1540C>T, p.Pro514Ser, identified in two affected brothers. Overexpression experiments in HEK293 and HeLa cell lines revealed that both variants affect the level of the mature NLGN3 protein, its localization at the plasma membrane and its presence as a cleaved form in the extracellular environment, even more drastically than what was reported for the initial p.Arg451Cys mutation. The variants also induced an unfolded protein response, probably due to the retention of immature NLGN3 proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. In comparison, the c.1894A>G, p.Ala632Thr and c.1022T>C, p.Val341Ala variants, present in males from the general population, have no effect. Our report of two missense variants affecting the normal localization of NLGN3 in a total of five affected individuals reinforces the involvement of the NLGN3 gene in a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by ID and ASD.

4.
J Child Neurol ; 34(8): 472-476, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963790

RESUMO

High throughput sequencing is discovering many likely causative genetic variants in individuals with cerebral palsy. Some investigators have suggested that this changes the clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy and that these individuals should be removed from this diagnostic category. Cerebral palsy is a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed on clinical signs, not etiology. All nonprogressive permanent disorders of movement and posture attributed to disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal and infant brain can be described as "cerebral palsy." This definition of cerebral palsy should not be changed, whatever the cause. Reasons include stability, utility and accuracy of cerebral palsy registers, direct access to services, financial and social support specifically offered to families with cerebral palsy, and community understanding of the clinical diagnosis. Other neurodevelopmental disorders, for example, epilepsy, have not changed the diagnosis when genomic causes are found. The clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy should remain, should prompt appropriate genetic studies and can subsequently be subclassified by etiology.

5.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(4): e00569, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 12 homolog (MED12, OMIM 300188) cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) disorders including FG, Lujan, and Ohdo syndromes. The Gli3-dependent Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway has been implicated in the original FG syndrome and Lujan syndrome. How are SHH-signaling defects related to the complex clinical phenotype of MED12-associated XLID syndromes are not fully understood. METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study expression levels of three SHH-signaling genes in lymophoblast cell lines carrying four MED12 mutations from four unrelated XLID families. Genotype and phenotype correlation studies were performed on these mutations. RESULTS: Three newly identified and one novel MED12 mutations in six affected males from four unrelated XLID families were studied. Three mutations (c.2692A>G; p.N898D, c.3640C>T; p.R1214C, and c.3884G>A; p.R1295H) are located in the LS domain and one (c.617G>A; p.R206Q) is in the L domain of MED12. These mutations involve highly conserved amino acid residues and segregate with ID and related congenital malformations in respective probands families. Patients with the LS-domain mutations share many features of FG syndrome and some features of Lujan syndrome. The patient with the L-domain mutation presented with ID and predominant neuropsychiatric features but little dysmorphic features of either FG or Lujan syndrome. Transcript levels of three Gli3-dependent SHH-signaling genes, CREB5, BMP4, and NEUROG2, were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and found to be significantly elevated in lymphoblasts from patients with three mutations in the MED12-LS domain. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a critical role of MED12 in regulating Gli3-dependent SHH signaling and in developing ID and related congenital malformations in XLID syndromes. Differences in the expression profile of SHH-signaling genes potentially contribute to variability in clinical phenotypes in patients with MED12-related XLID disorders.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adulto , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Proteína A de Ligação a Elemento de Resposta do AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína A de Ligação a Elemento de Resposta do AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Complexo Mediador/química , Complexo Mediador/metabolismo , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Linhagem , Domínios Proteicos , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Blood ; 133(16): 1729-1741, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755422

RESUMO

Somatically acquired mutations in PHF6 (plant homeodomain finger 6) frequently occur in hematopoietic malignancies and often coincide with ectopic expression of TLX3. However, there is no functional evidence to demonstrate whether these mutations contribute to tumorigenesis. Similarly, the role of PHF6 in hematopoiesis is unknown. We report here that Phf6 deletion in mice resulted in a reduced number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), an increased number of hematopoietic progenitor cells, and an increased proportion of cycling stem and progenitor cells. Loss of PHF6 caused increased and sustained hematopoietic reconstitution in serial transplantation experiments. Interferon-stimulated gene expression was upregulated in the absence of PHF6 in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. The numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells and cycling hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were restored to normal by combined loss of PHF6 and the interferon α and ß receptor subunit 1. Ectopic expression of TLX3 alone caused partially penetrant leukemia. TLX3 expression and loss of PHF6 combined caused fully penetrant early-onset leukemia. Our data suggest that PHF6 is a hematopoietic tumor suppressor and is important for fine-tuning hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell homeostasis.

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1865(9): 2083-2093, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557699

RESUMO

Mutations in the X chromosomal tRNA 2'­O­methyltransferase FTSJ1 cause intellectual disability (ID). Although the gene is ubiquitously expressed affected individuals present no consistent clinical features beyond ID. In order to study the pathological mechanism involved in the aetiology of FTSJ1 deficiency-related cognitive impairment, we generated and characterized an Ftsj1 deficient mouse line based on the gene trapped stem cell line RRD143. Apart from an impaired learning capacity these mice presented with several statistically significantly altered features related to behaviour, pain sensing, bone and energy metabolism, the immune and the hormone system as well as gene expression. These findings show that Ftsj1 deficiency in mammals is not phenotypically restricted to the brain but affects various organ systems. Re-examination of ID patients with FTSJ1 mutations from two previously reported families showed that several features observed in the mouse model were recapitulated in some of the patients. Though the clinical spectrum related to Ftsj1 deficiency in mouse and man is variable, we suggest that an increased pain threshold may be more common in patients with FTSJ1 deficiency. Our findings demonstrate novel roles for Ftsj1 in maintaining proper cellular and tissue functions in a mammalian organism.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206914, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419043

RESUMO

Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene encodes a paired-type homeodomain transcription factor with critical roles in development. Here we identify that ARX protein is phosphorylated. Using mass spectrometry and in vitro kinase assays we identify phosphorylation at serines 37, 67 and 174. Through yeast-2-hybrid and CoIP we identified PICK1 (Protein interacting with C kinase 1) binding with the C-terminal region of ARX. PICK1 is a scaffold protein known to facilitate phosphorylation of protein partners by protein kinase C alpha (PRKCA). We confirm that ARX is phosphorylated by PRKCA and demonstrate phosphorylation at serine 174. We demonstrate that phosphorylation is required for correct transcriptional activity of the ARX protein using transcriptome-wide analysis of gene expression of phospho-null mutants (alanines replacing serines) compared to ARX wild-type (ARX-WT) overexpressed in pancreatic alpha TC cells. Compared to untransfected cells, ARX-WT overexpression significantly altered expression of 70 genes (Log2FC >+/-1.0, P-value <0.05). There were fewer genes with significantly altered expression compared to untransfected cells with the double phospho-null mutant Ser37Ala+Ser67Ala (26%) and Ser174Ala (39%), respectively. We demonstrate that the c-terminal region of ARX required to bind PICK1 causes a shift in PICK1 subcellular localisation to the nucleus to co-locate with the ARX protein, and truncation of this C-terminal region leads to the same loss of transcriptional activation as S174A mutant. In conclusion, we show that ARX is phosphorylated at several sites and that this modification affects its transcriptional activity.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476144

RESUMO

THOC6 encodes a subunit of the THO complex that is part of a highly-conserved TREX complex, known to have roles in mRNA processing and export. Few homozygous or compound heterozygote variants have been identified in the THOC6 gene in patients with a syndromic form of intellectual disability (ID) (Beaulieu-Boycott-Innes syndrome, BBIS MIM# 613680). Here we report two additional individuals affected with BBIS originating from the north of Europe and sharing an haplotype composed by threevery rare missense changes in the THOC6gene: p.(Trp100Arg; Val234Leu; Gly275Asp). The first individual is a boy who is homozygous for the three-variant haplotype, due to a maternal uniparental disomy event. The second is a girl, who is compound heterozygote for this haplotype and a previously reported p.(Gly190Glu) missense variant. We analyzed the impact of these different amino acid changes on THOC6 protein expression,cellular localization, and interaction with the other THO complex subunits. We show that the different THOC6 variants alter the physiological nuclear localization of the protein and its interaction with at least two THO subunits, THOC1 and THOC5. Two amino acid changes from the three-variant-haplotype have alone specific effects and might contribute to the pathogenicity of the haplotype. Overall, we expanded the cohort of currently known BBIS affected individuals by reporting two individuals carrying the same recurrent European haplotype composed of three amino acid changes, affecting THOC6 localization and interaction with THO protein partners.

11.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335141

RESUMO

We report two unrelated families with multigenerational nonsyndromic intellectual disability segregating with a recurrent de novo missense variant (c.1543C>T:p.Leu515Phe) in the alkali cation/proton exchanger gene SLC9A7 (also commonly referred to as NHE7). SLC9A7 is located on human X chromosome at Xp11.3 and has not yet been associated with a human phenotype. The gene is widely transcribed, but especially abundant in brain, skeletal muscle and various secretory tissues. Within cells, SLC9A7 resides in the Golgi apparatus, with prominent enrichment in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and post-Golgi vesicles. In transfected Chinese hamster ovary AP-1 cells, the Leu515Phe mutant protein was correctly targeted to the TGN/post-Golgi vesicles, but its N-linked oligosaccharide maturation as well as that of a co-transfected secretory membrane glycoprotein, vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSVG) glycoprotein, was reduced compared to cells co-expressing SLC9A7 wild-type and VSVG. This correlated with alkalinization of the TGN/post-Golgi compartments, suggestive of a gain-of-function. Membrane trafficking of glycosylation-deficient Leu515Phe and co-transfected VSVG to the cell surface, however, was relatively unaffected. Mass spectrometry analysis of patient sera also revealed an abnormal N-glycosylation profile for transferrin, a clinical diagnostic marker for congenital disorders of glycosylation. These data implicate a crucial role for SLC9A7 in the regulation of TGN/post-Golgi pH homeostasis and glycosylation of exported cargo which may underlie the cellular pathophysiology and neurodevelopmental deficits associated with this particular nonsyndromic form of X-linked intellectual disability.

12.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245510

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Contiguous gene deletions are known to cause several neurodevelopmental syndromes, many of which are caused by recurrent events on chromosome 16. However, chromosomal microarray studies (CMA) still yield copy-number variants (CNVs) of unknown clinical significance. We sought to characterize eight individuals with overlapping 205-kb to 504-kb 16p13.3 microdeletions that are distinct from previously published deletion syndromes. METHODS: Clinical information on the patients and bioinformatic scores for the deleted genes were analyzed. RESULTS: All individuals in our cohort displayed developmental delay, intellectual disability, and various forms of seizures. Six individuals were microcephalic and two had strabismus. The deletion was absent in all 13 parents who were available for testing. The area of overlap encompasses seven genes including TBC1D24, ATP6V0C, and PDPK1 (also known as PDK1). Bi-allelic TBC1D24 pathogenic variants are known to cause nonsyndromic deafness, epileptic disorders, or DOORS syndrome (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation, seizures). Sanger sequencing of the nondeleted TBC1D24 allele did not yield any additional pathogenic variants. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that 16p13.3 microdeletions resulting in simultaneous haploinsufficiencies of TBC1D24, ATP6V0C, and PDPK1 cause a novel rare contiguous gene deletion syndrome of microcephaly, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and epilepsy.

13.
Nature ; 562(7726): 268-271, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258228

RESUMO

There are thousands of rare human disorders that are caused by single deleterious, protein-coding genetic variants1. However, patients with the same genetic defect can have different clinical presentations2-4, and some individuals who carry known disease-causing variants can appear unaffected5. Here, to understand what explains these differences, we study a cohort of 6,987 children assessed by clinical geneticists to have severe neurodevelopmental disorders such as global developmental delay and autism, often in combination with abnormalities of other organ systems. Although the genetic causes of these neurodevelopmental disorders are expected to be almost entirely monogenic, we show that 7.7% of variance in risk is attributable to inherited common genetic variation. We replicated this genome-wide common variant burden by showing, in an independent sample of 728 trios (comprising a child plus both parents) from the same cohort, that this burden is over-transmitted from parents to children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Our common-variant signal is significantly positively correlated with genetic predisposition to lower educational attainment, decreased intelligence and risk of schizophrenia. We found that common-variant risk was not significantly different between individuals with and without a known protein-coding diagnostic variant, which suggests that common-variant risk affects patients both with and without a monogenic diagnosis. In addition, previously published common-variant scores for autism, height, birth weight and intracranial volume were all correlated with these traits within our cohort, which suggests that phenotypic expression in individuals with monogenic disorders is affected by the same variants as in the general population. Our results demonstrate that common genetic variation affects both overall risk and clinical presentation in neurodevelopmental disorders that are typically considered to be monogenic.

15.
J Hum Genet ; 63(9): 945-955, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925960

RESUMO

Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) have been by far the most prevalent cell type used to study the genetics underlying normal and disease-relevant human phenotypic variation, across personal to epidemiological scales. In contrast, only few studies have explored the use of LCLs in functional genomics and mechanistic studies. Two major reasons are technical, as (1) interrogating the sub-cellular spatial information of LCLs is challenged by their non-adherent nature, and (2) LCLs are refractory to gene transfection. Methodological details relating to techniques that overcome these limitations are scarce, largely inadequate (without additional knowledge and expertise), and optimisation has never been described. Here we compare, optimise, and convey such methods in-depth. We provide a robust method to adhere LCLs to coverslips, which maintained cellular integrity, morphology, and permitted visualisation of sub-cellular structures and protein localisation. Next, we developed the use of lentiviral-based gene delivery to LCLs. Through empirical and combinatorial testing of multiple transduction conditions, we improved transduction efficiency from 3% up to 48%. Furthermore, we established strategies to purify transduced cells, to achieve sustainable cultures containing >85% transduced cells. Collectively, our methodologies provide a vital resource that enables the use of LCLs in functional cell and molecular biology experiments. Potential applications include the characterisation of genetic variants of unknown significance, the interrogation of cellular disease pathways and mechanisms, and high-throughput discovery of genetic modifiers of disease states among others.

16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892053

RESUMO

Epilepsy and Mental Retardation Limited to Females (EFMR) is an infantile onset disorder characterized by clusters of seizures. EFMR is due to mutations in the X-chromosome gene PCDH19, and is underpinned by cellular mosaicism due to X-chromosome inactivation in females or somatic mutation in males. This review characterizes the neuropsychiatric profile of this disorder and examines the association of clinical and molecular factors with neuropsychiatric outcomes. Data were extracted from 38 peer-reviewed original articles including 271 individual cases. We found that seizure onset ≤12 months was significantly associated (p = 4.127 × 10-7) with more severe intellectual disability, compared with onset >12 months. We identified two recurrent variants p.Asn340Ser and p.Tyr366Leufs*10 occurring in 25 (20 unrelated) and 30 (11 unrelated) cases, respectively. PCDH19 mutations were associated with psychiatric comorbidities in approximately 60% of females, 80% of affected mosaic males, and reported in nine hemizygous males. Hyperactive, autistic, and obsessive-compulsive features were most frequently reported. There were no genotype-phenotype associations in the individuals with recurrent variants or the group overall. Age at seizure onset can be used to provide more informative prognostic counseling.

17.
Hum Mutat ; 39(8): 1126-1138, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29851191

RESUMO

Highly conserved TREX-mediated mRNA export is emerging as a key pathway in neuronal development and differentiation. TREX subunit variants cause neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) by interfering with mRNA export from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm. Previously we implicated four missense variants in the X-linked THOC2 gene in intellectual disability (ID). We now report an additional six affected individuals from five unrelated families with two de novo and three maternally inherited pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in THOC2 extending the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. These comprise three rare missense THOC2 variants that affect evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues and reduce protein stability and two with canonical splice-site THOC2 variants that result in C-terminally truncated THOC2 proteins. We present detailed clinical assessment and functional studies on a de novo variant in a female with an epileptic encephalopathy and discuss an additional four families with rare variants in THOC2 with supportive evidence for pathogenicity. Severe neurocognitive features, including movement and seizure disorders, were observed in this cohort. Taken together our data show that even subtle alterations to the canonical molecular pathways such as mRNA export, otherwise essential for cellular life, can be compatible with life, but lead to NDDs in humans.

18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728705

RESUMO

RLIM, also known as RNF12, is an X-linked E3 ubiquitin ligase acting as a negative regulator of LIM-domain containing transcription factors and participates in X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in mice. We report the genetic and clinical findings of 84 individuals from nine unrelated families, eight of whom who have pathogenic variants in RLIM (RING finger LIM domain-interacting protein). A total of 40 affected males have X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) and variable behavioral anomalies with or without congenital malformations. In contrast, 44 heterozygous female carriers have normal cognition and behavior, but eight showed mild physical features. All RLIM variants identified are missense changes co-segregating with the phenotype and predicted to affect protein function. Eight of the nine altered amino acids are conserved and lie either within a domain essential for binding interacting proteins or in the C-terminal RING finger catalytic domain. In vitro experiments revealed that these amino acid changes in the RLIM RING finger impaired RLIM ubiquitin ligase activity. In vivo experiments in rlim mutant zebrafish showed that wild type RLIM rescued the zebrafish rlim phenotype, whereas the patient-specific missense RLIM variants failed to rescue the phenotype and thus represent likely severe loss-of-function mutations. In summary, we identified a spectrum of RLIM missense variants causing syndromic XLID and affecting the ubiquitin ligase activity of RLIM, suggesting that enzymatic activity of RLIM is required for normal development, cognition and behavior.

19.
Neurobiol Dis ; 116: 106-119, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29763708

RESUMO

PCDH19-Girls Clustering Epilepsy (PCDH19-GCE) is a childhood epileptic encephalopathy characterised by a spectrum of neurodevelopmental problems. PCDH19-GCE is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the X-chromosome gene, Protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) encoding a cell-cell adhesion molecule. Intriguingly, hemizygous males are generally unaffected. As PCDH19 is subjected to random X-inactivation, heterozygous females are comprised of a mosaic of cells expressing either the normal or mutant allele, which is thought to drive pathology. Despite being the second most prevalent monogeneic cause of epilepsy, little is known about the role of PCDH19 in brain development. In this study we show that PCDH19 is highly expressed in human neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) and investigate its function in vitro in these cells of both mouse and human origin. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse NSPCs lacking Pcdh19 revealed changes to genes involved in regulation of neuronal differentiation, and we subsequently show that loss of Pcdh19 causes increased NSPC neurogenesis. We reprogramed human fibroblast cells harbouring a pathogenic PCDH19 mutation into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) and employed neural differentiation of these to extend our studies into human NSPCs. As in mouse, loss of PCDH19 function caused increased neurogenesis, and furthermore, we show this is associated with a loss of human NSPC polarity. Overall our data suggests a conserved role for PCDH19 in regulating mammalian cortical neurogenesis and has implications for the pathogenesis of PCDH19-GCE. We propose that the difference in timing or "heterochrony" of neuronal cell production originating from PCDH19 wildtype and mutant NSPCs within the same individual may lead to downstream asynchronies and abnormalities in neuronal network formation, which in-part predispose the individual to network dysfunction and epileptic activity.

20.
J Biol Chem ; 293(27): 10810-10824, 2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769320

RESUMO

It is estimated that ∼1% of the world's population has intellectual disability, with males affected more often than females. OGT is an X-linked gene encoding for the enzyme O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which carries out the reversible addition of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to Ser/Thr residues of its intracellular substrates. Three missense mutations in the tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeats of OGT have recently been reported to cause X-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here, we report the discovery of two additional novel missense mutations (c.775 G>A, p.A259T, and c.1016 A>G, p.E339G) in the TPR domain of OGT that segregate with XLID in affected families. Characterization of all five of these XLID missense variants of OGT demonstrates modest declines in thermodynamic stability and/or activities of the variants. We engineered each of the mutations into a male human embryonic stem cell line using CRISPR/Cas9. Investigation of the global O-GlcNAc profile as well as OGT and O-GlcNAc hydrolase levels by Western blotting showed no gross changes in steady-state levels in the engineered lines. However, analyses of the differential transcriptomes of the OGT variant-expressing stem cells revealed shared deregulation of genes involved in cell fate determination and liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor signaling, which has been implicated in neuronal development. Thus, here we reveal two additional mutations encoding residues in the TPR regions of OGT that appear causal for XLID and provide evidence that the relatively stable and active TPR variants may share a common, unelucidated mechanism of altering gene expression profiles in human embryonic stem cells.

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