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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33603160

RESUMO

The BCAP31 gene, located at Xq28, encodes BAP31, which plays a role in ER-to-Golgi anterograde transport. To date, BCAP31 pathogenic variants have been reported in 12 male cases from seven families (six loss of function (LoF) and one missense). Patients had severe intellectual disability (ID), dystonia, deafness, and central hypomyelination, delineating a so-called deafness, dystonia and cerebral hypomyelination syndrome (DDCH). Female carriers are mostly asymptomatic but may present with deafness. BCAP31 is flanked by the SLC6A8 and ABCD1 genes. Contiguous deletions of BCAP31 and ABCD1 and/or SLC6A8 have been described in 12 patients. Patients with deletions including BCAP31 and SLC6A8 have the same phenotype as BCAP31 patients. Patients with deletions of BCAP31 and ABCD1 have contiguous ABCD1 and DXS1375E/BCAP31 deletion syndrome (CADDS), and demonstrate a more severe neurological phenotype with cholestatic liver disease and early death. We report 17 novel families, 14 with intragenic BCAP31 variants (LoF and missense) and three with a deletion of BCAP31 and adjacent genes (comprising two CADDS patients, one male and one symptomatic female). Our study confirms the phenotype reported in males with intragenic LoF variants and shows that males with missense variants exhibit a milder phenotype. Most patients with a LoF pathogenic BCAP31 variant have permanent or transient liver enzyme elevation. We further demonstrate that carrier females (n = 10) may have a phenotype comprising LD, ID, and/or deafness. The male with CADDS had a severe neurological phenotype, but no cholestatic liver disease, and the symptomatic female had moderate ID and cholestatic liver disease.

2.
Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411240

RESUMO

PCDH19-Clustering Epilepsy (PCDH19-CE) is an infantile onset disorder caused by mutation of the X-linked PCDH19 gene. Intriguingly, heterozygous females are affected while hemizygous males are not. While there is compelling evidence that this disorder stems from the coexistence of WT and PCDH19-null cells, the cellular mechanism underpinning the neurological phenotype remains unclear. Here, we investigate the impact of Pcdh19 WT and KO neuron mosaicism on synaptogenesis and network activity. Using our previously established knock-in and knock-out mouse models, together with CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology, we demonstrate a reduction in excitatory synaptic contacts between PCDH19-expressing and PCDH19-null neurons. Significantly altered neuronal morphology and neuronal network activities were also identified in the mixed populations. In addition, we show that in Pcdh19 heterozygous mice, where the coexistence of WT and KO neurons naturally occurs, aberrant contralateral axonal branching is present. Overall, our data show that mosaic expression of PCDH19 disrupts physiological neurite communication leading to abnormal neuronal activity, a hallmark of PCDH19-CE.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439542

RESUMO

Since the introduction of next-generation sequencing, an increasing number of disorders have been discovered to have genetic etiology. To address diverse clinical questions and coordinate research activities that arise with the identification of these rare disorders, we developed the Human Disease Genes website series (HDG website series): an international digital library that records detailed information on the clinical phenotype of novel genetic variants in the human genome (https://humandiseasegenes.info/). Each gene website is moderated by a dedicated team of clinicians and researchers, focused on specific genes, and provides up-to-date-including unpublished-clinical information. The HDG website series is expanding rapidly with 424 genes currently adopted by 325 moderators from across the globe. On average, a gene website has detailed phenotypic information of 14.4 patients. There are multiple examples of added value, one being the ARID1B gene website, which was recently utilized in research to collect clinical information of 81 new patients. Additionally, several gene websites have more data available than currently published in the literature. In conclusion, the HDG website series provides an easily accessible, open and up-to-date clinical data resource for patients with pathogenic variants of individual genes. This is a valuable resource not only for clinicians dealing with rare genetic disorders such as developmental delay and autism, but other professionals working in diagnostics and basic research. Since the HDG website series is a dynamic platform, its data also include the phenotype of yet unpublished patients curated by professionals providing higher quality clinical detail to improve management of these rare disorders.

4.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 63(3): 247-248, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314032
5.
NPJ Genom Med ; 5(1): 53, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298948

RESUMO

USP9X is an X-chromosome gene that escapes X-inactivation. Loss or compromised function of USP9X leads to neurodevelopmental disorders in males and females. While males are impacted primarily by hemizygous partial loss-of-function missense variants, in females de novo heterozygous complete loss-of-function mutations predominate, and give rise to the clinically recognisable USP9X-female syndrome. Here we provide evidence of the contribution of USP9X missense and small in-frame deletion variants in USP9X-female syndrome also. We scrutinise the pathogenicity of eleven such variants, ten of which were novel. Combined application of variant prediction algorithms, protein structure modelling, and assessment under clinically relevant guidelines universally support their pathogenicity. The core phenotype of this cohort overlapped with previous descriptions of USP9X-female syndrome, but exposed heightened variability. Aggregate phenotypic information of 35 currently known females with predicted pathogenic variation in USP9X reaffirms the clinically recognisable USP9X-female syndrome, and highlights major differences when compared to USP9X-male associated neurodevelopmental disorders.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(6): 1157-1169, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159883

RESUMO

Interpretation of the significance of maternally inherited X chromosome variants in males with neurocognitive phenotypes continues to present a challenge to clinical geneticists and diagnostic laboratories. Here we report 14 males from 9 families with duplications at the Xq13.2-q13.3 locus with a common facial phenotype, intellectual disability (ID), distinctive behavioral features, and a seizure disorder in two cases. All tested carrier mothers had normal intelligence. The duplication arose de novo in three mothers where grandparental testing was possible. In one family the duplication segregated with ID across three generations. RLIM is the only gene common to our duplications. However, flanking genes duplicated in some but not all the affected individuals included the brain-expressed genes NEXMIF, SLC16A2, and the long non-coding RNA gene FTX. The contribution of the RLIM-flanking genes to the phenotypes of individuals with different size duplications has not been fully resolved. Missense variants in RLIM have recently been identified to cause X-linked ID in males, with heterozygous females typically having normal intelligence and highly skewed X chromosome inactivation. We detected consistent and significant increase of RLIM mRNA and protein levels in cells derived from seven affected males from five families with the duplication. Subsequent analysis of MDM2, one of the targets of the RLIM E3 ligase activity, showed consistent downregulation in cells from the affected males. All the carrier mothers displayed normal RLIM mRNA levels and had highly skewed X chromosome inactivation. We propose that duplications at Xq13.2-13.3 including RLIM cause a recognizable but mild neurocognitive phenotype in hemizygous males.

7.
Development ; 147(21)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994169

RESUMO

Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS) is an intellectual disability and endocrine disorder caused by plant homeodomain finger 6 (PHF6) mutations. Individuals with BFLS present with short stature. We report a mouse model of BFLS, in which deletion of Phf6 causes a proportional reduction in body size compared with control mice. Growth hormone (GH) levels were reduced in the absence of PHF6. Phf6 - /Y animals displayed a reduction in the expression of the genes encoding GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in the brain, GH in the pituitary gland and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in the liver. Phf6 deletion specifically in the nervous system caused a proportional growth defect, indicating a neuroendocrine contribution to the phenotype. Loss of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), a negative regulator of growth hormone signaling partially rescued body size, supporting a reversible deficiency in GH signaling. These results demonstrate that PHF6 regulates the GHRH/GH/IGF1 axis.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 654-669, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937144

RESUMO

There is growing recognition that epivariations, most often recognized as promoter hypermethylation events that lead to gene silencing, are associated with a number of human diseases. However, little information exists on the prevalence and distribution of rare epigenetic variation in the human population. In order to address this, we performed a survey of methylation profiles from 23,116 individuals using the Illumina 450k array. Using a robust outlier approach, we identified 4,452 unique autosomal epivariations, including potentially inactivating promoter methylation events at 384 genes linked to human disease. For example, we observed promoter hypermethylation of BRCA1 and LDLR at population frequencies of ∼1 in 3,000 and ∼1 in 6,000, respectively, suggesting that epivariations may underlie a fraction of human disease which would be missed by purely sequence-based approaches. Using expression data, we confirmed that many epivariations are associated with outlier gene expression. Analysis of variation data and monozygous twin pairs suggests that approximately two-thirds of epivariations segregate in the population secondary to underlying sequence mutations, while one-third are likely sporadic events that occur post-zygotically. We identified 25 loci where rare hypermethylation coincided with the presence of an unstable CGG tandem repeat, validated the presence of CGG expansions at several loci, and identified the putative molecular defect underlying most of the known folate-sensitive fragile sites in the genome. Our study provides a catalog of rare epigenetic changes in the human genome, gives insight into the underlying origins and consequences of epivariations, and identifies many hypermethylated CGG repeat expansions.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Epigênese Genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Genoma Humano , Receptores de LDL/genética , Expansão das Repetições de Trinucleotídeos , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1298: 177-187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852734

RESUMO

Protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) pathogenic variants cause an infantile onset epilepsy syndrome called Girls Clustering Epilepsy due to the vast majority of affected individuals being female. This syndromic name was developed to foster early recognition and diagnosis in infancy. It has, however, sparked debate, as, there are rare males with postzygotic somatic, and therefore, mosaic, PCDH19 pathogenic variants with similar clinical features to females. Conversely, "transmitting" males with germline inherited PCDH19 variants are considered asymptomatic. To date, there has been no standardized neuropsychiatric assessment of males with PCDH19 pathogenic variants. Here, we studied 15 males with PCDH19 pathogenic variants (nine mosaic and six transmitting) aged 2 to 70 years. Our families completed a survey including standardized clinical assessments: Social Responsiveness Scale, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. We identified neuropsychiatric abnormalities in two males with germline PCDH19 possibly pathogenic variants. One had a prior history of a severe encephalopathic illness, which may have been unrelated. We also describe a non-penetrant somatic mosaic male with mosaicism confirmed in blood, but not identified in skin fibroblasts. Our data suggest that transmitting hemizygous males are generally unaffected, in contrast to males with postzygotic somatic mosaic variants who show a similar neuropsychiatric profile to females who are naturally mosaic, due to X-chromosome inactivation. The penetrance of PCDH19 pathogenic variants has been estimated to be 80%. Like females, not all mosaic males are affected. From our small sample, we estimate that males with mosaic PCHD19 pathogenic variants have a penetrance of 85%. With these insights into the male phenotypic spectrum of PCDH19 epilepsy, we propose the new term Clustering Epilepsy (CE). Both affected females and males typically present with infantile onset of clusters of seizures.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Epilepsia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Penetrância , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(10): 104010, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688058

RESUMO

The major and most well-studied genetic cause of Fragile-X syndrome (FXS) is expansion of a CGG repeat in the 5'-UTR of the FMR1 gene. Routine testing for this expansion is performed globally. Overall, there is a paucity of intragenic variants explaining FXS, a fact which is being addressed by a more systematic application of whole exome (WES) and whole genome (WGS) sequencing, even in the diagnostic setting. Here we report two families comprising probands with a clinical suspicion of FXS and no CGG repeat expansions. Using WES/WGS we identified deleterious variants within the coding region of FMR1 in both families. In a family from Finland we identified a complex indel c.1021-1028delinsTATTGG in exon 11 of FMR1 which gives rise to a frameshift and a premature termination codon (PTC), p.Asn341Tyrfs*7. Follow-up mRNA and protein studies on a cell line from the proband revealed that although the mRNA levels of FMR1 were not altered, Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 Protein (FMRP) was undetectable. Additionally, we identified a variant, c.881-1G > T, affecting the canonical acceptor splice site of exon 10 of FMR1 in an Australian family. Our findings reinforce the importance of intragenic FMR1 variant testing, particularly in cases with clinical features of FXS and no CGG repeat expansions identified.

11.
Curr Opin Genet Dev ; 65: 169-175, 2020 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726744

RESUMO

PCDH19 Clustering Epilepsy (CE) is an intriguing early-onset seizure, autism and neurocognitive disorder with unique inheritance. The causative gene, PCDH19, is on the X-chromosome and encodes a cell-cell adhesion protein with restricted expression during brain development. Unlike other X-linked disorders, PCDH19-CE manifests in heterozygous females. Strikingly, hemizygous males are not affected. However, males with postzygotic somatic mutation in PCDH19 are affected and clinically similar to the affected females. PCDH19-CE is a disorder of cellular mosaicism. The coexistence of two different, but otherwise 'normal' cells in a PCDH19-CE individual, that is the wild type and the variant PCDH19 cells, has been proposed as the driving force of the disorder. This 'cellular interference' hypothesis could and has now been tested using sophisticated mouse models.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(15): 2568-2578, 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667670

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations of the X-chromosome gene UPF3B cause male neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) via largely unknown mechanisms. We investigated initially by interrogating a novel synonymous UPF3B variant in a male with absent speech. In silico and functional studies using cell lines derived from this individual show altered UPF3B RNA splicing. The resulting mRNA species encodes a frame-shifted protein with a premature termination codon (PTC) predicted to elicit degradation via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). UPF3B mRNA was reduced in the cell line, and no UPF3B protein was produced, confirming a loss-of-function allele. UPF3B is itself involved in the NMD mechanism which degrades both PTC-bearing mutant transcripts and also many physiological transcripts. RNAseq analysis showed that ~1.6% of mRNAs exhibited altered expression. These mRNA changes overlapped and correlated with those we identified in additional cell lines obtained from individuals harbouring other UPF3B mutations, permitting us to interrogate pathogenic mechanisms of UPF3B-associated NDDs. We identified 102 genes consistently deregulated across all UPF3B mutant cell lines. Of the 51 upregulated genes, 75% contained an NMD-targeting feature, thus identifying high-confidence direct NMD targets. Intriguingly, 22 of the dysregulated genes encoded known NDD genes, suggesting UPF3B-dependent NMD regulates gene networks critical for cognition and behaviour. Indeed, we show that 78.5% of all NDD genes encode a transcript predicted to be targeted by NMD. These data describe the first synonymous UPF3B mutation in a patient with prominent speech and language disabilities and identify plausible mechanisms of pathology downstream of UPF3B mutations involving the deregulation of NDD-gene networks.

13.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 62(9): 1024-1030, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542675

RESUMO

AIM: To conduct a systematic review of phenotypic definition and case ascertainment in published genetic studies of cerebral palsy (CP) to inform guidelines for the reporting of such studies. METHOD: Inclusion criteria comprised genetic studies of candidate genes, with CP as the outcome, published between 1990 and 2019 in the PubMed, Embase, and BIOSIS Citation Index databases. RESULTS: Fifty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. We appraised how CP was defined, the quality of information on case ascertainment, and compliance with international consensus guidelines. Seven studies (12%) were poorly described, 33 studies (58%) gave incomplete information, and 17 studies (30%) were well described. Missing key information precluded determining how many studies complied with the definition by Rosenbaum et al. Only 18 out of 57 studies (32%) were compliant with the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE) international guidelines on defining CP. INTERPRETATION: Limited compliance with international consensus guidelines on phenotypic definition and mediocre reporting of CP case ascertainment hinders the comparison of results among genetic studies of CP (including meta-analyses), thereby limiting the quality, interpretability, and generalizability of study findings. Compliance with the SCPE guidelines is important for ongoing gene discovery efforts in CP, given the potential for misclassification of unrelated neurological conditions as CP.

14.
Hum Mutat ; 41(8): 1407-1424, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383243

RESUMO

The need to interpret the pathogenicity of novel missense variants of unknown significance identified in the homeodomain of X-chromosome aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene prompted us to assess the utility of conservation and constraint across these domains in multiple genes compared to conventional in vitro functional analysis. Pathogenic missense variants clustered in the homeodomain of ARX contribute to intellectual disability (ID) and epilepsy, with and without brain malformation in affected males. Here we report novel c.1112G>A, p.Arg371Gln and c.1150C>T, p.Arg384Cys variants in male patients with ID and severe seizures. The third case of a male patient with a c.1109C>T, p.Ala370Val variant is perhaps the first example of ID and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), without seizures or brain malformation. We compiled data sets of pathogenic variants from ClinVar and presumed benign variation from gnomAD and demonstrated that the high levels of sequence conservation and constraint of benign variation within the homeodomain impacts upon the ability of publicly available in silico prediction tools to accurately discern likely benign from likely pathogenic variants in these data sets. Despite this, considering the inheritance patterns of the genes and disease variants with the conservation and constraint of disease variants affecting the homeodomain in conjunction with current clinical assessments may assist in predicting the pathogenicity of missense variants, particularly for genes with autosomal recessive and X-linked patterns of disease inheritance, such as ARX. In vitro functional analysis demonstrates that the transcriptional activity of all three variants was diminished compared to ARX-Wt. We review the associated phenotypes of the published cases of patients with ARX homeodomain variants and propose expansion of the ARX-related phenotype to include severe ID and ASD without brain malformations or seizures. We propose that the use of the constraint and conservation data in conjunction with consideration of the patient phenotype and inheritance pattern may negate the need for the experimental functional validation currently required to achieve a diagnosis.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 127, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366910

RESUMO

Protocadherin-19 (PCDH19) pathogenic variants cause an early-onset seizure disorder called girls clustering epilepsy (GCE). GCE is an X-chromosome disorder that affects heterozygous females and mosaic males, however hemizygous ("transmitting") males are spared. We aimed to define the neuropsychiatric profile associated with PCDH19 pathogenic variants and determine if a clinical profile exists for transmitting males. We also examined genotype- and phenotype-phenotype associations. We developed an online PCDH19 survey comprising the following standardized assessments: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; the Social Responsiveness Scale, 2nd edition; the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; and the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Genetic, seizure, and developmental information were also collected. The survey was completed by patients or by caregivers on behalf of patients. Of the 112 individuals represented (15 males), there were 70 unique variants. Thirty-five variants were novel and included a newly identified recurrent variant Ile781Asnfs*3. There were no significant differences in phenotypic outcomes between published and unpublished cases. Seizures occurred in clusters in 94% of individuals, with seizures resolving in 28% at an average age of 17.5 years. Developmental delay prior to seizure onset occurred in 18% of our cohort. Executive dysfunction and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) occurred in approximately 60% of individuals. The ASD profile included features of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In addition, 21% of individuals met criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder that appeared to be distinct from ASD. There were no phenotypic differences between heterozygous females and mosaic males. We describe a mosaic male and two hemizygous males with atypical clinical profiles. Earlier seizure onset age and increased number of seizures within a cluster were associated with more severe ASD symptoms (p = 0.001), with seizure onset also predictive of executive dysfunction (p = 4.69 × 10-4) and prosocial behavior (p = 0.040). No clinical profile was observed for transmitting males. This is the first patient-derived standardized assessment of the neuropsychiatric profile of GCE. These phenotypic insights will inform diagnosis, management, and prognostic and genetic counseling.

16.
Neurology ; 94(20): e2148-e2167, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345733

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determining the genetic basis of speech disorders provides insight into the neurobiology of human communication. Despite intensive investigation over the past 2 decades, the etiology of most speech disorders in children remains unexplained. To test the hypothesis that speech disorders have a genetic etiology, we performed genetic analysis of children with severe speech disorder, specifically childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). METHODS: Precise phenotyping together with research genome or exome analysis were performed on children referred with a primary diagnosis of CAS. Gene coexpression and gene set enrichment analyses were conducted on high-confidence gene candidates. RESULTS: Thirty-four probands ascertained for CAS were studied. In 11/34 (32%) probands, we identified highly plausible pathogenic single nucleotide (n = 10; CDK13, EBF3, GNAO1, GNB1, DDX3X, MEIS2, POGZ, SETBP1, UPF2, ZNF142) or copy number (n = 1; 5q14.3q21.1 locus) variants in novel genes or loci for CAS. Testing of parental DNA was available for 9 probands and confirmed that the variants had arisen de novo. Eight genes encode proteins critical for regulation of gene transcription, and analyses of transcriptomic data found CAS-implicated genes were highly coexpressed in the developing human brain. CONCLUSION: We identify the likely genetic etiology in 11 patients with CAS and implicate 9 genes for the first time. We find that CAS is often a sporadic monogenic disorder, and highly genetically heterogeneous. Highly penetrant variants implicate shared pathways in broad transcriptional regulation, highlighting the key role of transcriptional regulation in normal speech development. CAS is a distinctive, socially debilitating clinical disorder, and understanding its molecular basis is the first step towards identifying precision medicine approaches.


Assuntos
Apraxias/genética , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Fala/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Apraxias/diagnóstico , Apraxias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Subunidades alfa Gi-Go de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia
17.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 13: 12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116545

RESUMO

Multiple TREX mRNA export complex subunits (e.g., THOC1, THOC2, THOC5, THOC6, THOC7) have now been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), neurodegeneration and cancer. We previously implicated missense and splicing-defective THOC2 variants in NDDs and a broad range of other clinical features. Here we report 10 individuals from nine families with rare missense THOC2 variants including the first case of a recurrent variant (p.Arg77Cys), and an additional individual with an intragenic THOC2 microdeletion (Del-Ex37-38). Ex vivo missense variant testing and patient-derived cell line data from current and published studies show 9 of the 14 missense THOC2 variants result in reduced protein stability. The splicing-defective and deletion variants result in a loss of small regions of the C-terminal THOC2 RNA binding domain (RBD). Interestingly, reduced stability of THOC2 variant proteins has a flow-on effect on the stability of the multi-protein TREX complex; specifically on the other NDD-associated THOC subunits. Our current, expanded cohort refines the core phenotype of THOC2 NDDs to language disorder and/or ID, with a variable severity, and disorders of growth. A subset of affected individuals' has severe-profound ID, persistent hypotonia and respiratory abnormalities. Further investigations to elucidate the pathophysiological basis for this severe phenotype are warranted.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(7): 973-978, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203200

RESUMO

Familial adult myoclonic epilepsy 1 (FAME1), first recognised in Japanese families, was recently shown to be caused by a TTTCA repeat insertion in intron 4 of SAMD12 on chromosome 8. We performed whole genome sequencing on two families with FAME, one of Sri Lankan origin and the other of Indian origin, and identified a TTTCA repeat insertion in SAMD12 in both families. Haplotype analysis revealed that both families shared the same core ancestral haplotype reported in Japanese and Chinese families with FAME1. Mutation dating, based on the length of shared haplotypes, estimated the age of the ancestral haplotype to be ~670 generations, or 17,000 years old. Our data extend the geographic range of this repeat expansion to Southern Asia and potentially implicate an even broader regional distribution given the age of the variant. This finding suggests patients of Asian ancestry with suspected FAME should be screened for the SAMD12 TTTCA expansion.

19.
Cell Rep ; 30(11): 3717-3728.e6, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187544

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms of activity-dependent gene transcription underlying adaptive behaviors is challenging at neuronal-subtype resolution. Using cell-type specific molecular analysis in agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons, we reveal that the profound hunger-induced transcriptional changes greatly depend on plant homeodomain finger protein 6 (PHF6), a transcriptional repressor enriched in AgRP neurons. Loss of PHF6 in the satiated mice results in a hunger-state-shifting transcriptional profile, while hunger fails to further induce a rapid and robust activity-dependent gene transcription in PHF6-deficient AgRP neurons. We reveal that PHF6 binds to the promoters of a subset of immediate-early genes (IEGs) and that this chromatin binding is dynamically regulated by hunger state. Depletion of PHF6 decreases hunger-driven feeding motivation and makes the mice resistant to body weight gain under repetitive fasting-refeeding conditions. Our work identifies a neuronal subtype-specific transcriptional repressor that modulates transcriptional profiles in different nutritional states and enables adaptive eating behavior.

20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(6): 706-714, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080367

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects ~1% of the world population. In total 5-10% of ID cases are due to variants in genes located on the X chromosome. Recently, variants in OGT have been shown to co-segregate with X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) in multiple families. OGT encodes O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), an essential enzyme that catalyses O-linked glycosylation with ß-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on serine/threonine residues of thousands of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. In this review, we compile the work from the last few years that clearly delineates a new syndromic form of ID, which we propose to classify as a novel Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation (OGT-CDG). We discuss potential hypotheses for the underpinning molecular mechanism(s) that provide impetus for future research studies geared towards informed interventions.

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