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1.
Br J Psychiatry ; 187: 35-42, 2005 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15994569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between physical health and depression are consistent across cultures among adults up to 65 years of age. In later life, the impact of physical health on depression is much more substantial and may depend on sociocultural factors. AIMS: To examine cross-national differences in the association between physical health and depressive symptoms in elderly people across western Europe. METHOD: Fourteen community-based studies on depression in later life in nine western European countries contributed to a total study sample of 22 570 respondents aged 65 years and older. Measures were harmonized for depressive symptoms (EURO-D scale), functional limitations and chronic physical conditions. RESULTS: In the majority of the participating samples, the association of depressive symptoms with functional disability was stronger than with chronic physical conditions. Associations were slightly more pronounced in the UK and Ireland. CONCLUSIONS: The association between physical health and depressive symptoms in later life is consistent across western Europe.


Assuntos
Depressão/etiologia , Nível de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Cognição , Comparação Transcultural , Depressão/epidemiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
2.
Psychol Med ; 32(4): 609-18, 2002 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12102375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between depression and mortality has become a topic of interest. Little is known about the association between the course of depression and mortality. METHODS: In an initially non-depressed cohort (N = 325) and a depressed cohort (N = 327), depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) at eight successive waves over a period of 3 years. Both cohorts were then followed with respect to mortality status for up to 3.5 additional years. Clinical course types as well as theoretical course type parameters (basic symptom levels, increases in symptoms and instability over time) were distinguished to study the effect of the course of depression on mortality. RESULTS: Contrary to transient states of depression, both chronic depression and chronic intermittent depression predicted mortality at follow-up. Additionally, evidence was found that the effect on mortality is related to severity of depression; high basic symptom levels and increases in symptoms over time were predictive of mortality. A high degree of instability over time was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Since the mortality effect of depression is a function of both exposure time and symptom severity, more attention should be paid to the treatment of depression in order to prevent severe longstanding depression.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Transtorno Depressivo/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social
3.
Psychol Med ; 31(8): 1361-71, 2001 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11722151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The temporal relationship between depression and adverse functional outcomes in older adults is ambiguous. In the present eight-wave prospective community-based study, the longitudinal effect of depression on functional limitations and disability (in terms of disability days and bed days) was studied, thereby taking into account the role of chronic physical diseases. METHODS: The study is based on a sample which at the outset consisted of 325 non-depressed and 327 depressed persons (55-85 years) drawn from a larger random community based sample in the Netherlands. Generalized estimating equations time-lag models were used to examine the longitudinal relation between depression and both functional limitations and disability. RESULTS: Functional limitations were very persistent over time, whereas disability days and bed days were more fluctuating functional outcomes. Only in the presence of chronic physical diseases, there was a significant longitudinal association between depression at the previous measurement and functional limitations, disability days and bed days at the next measurement. The effect on functional limitations was small, which was probably partly due to their persistent nature. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of a longitudinal relationship between depression and functional outcomes in older adults with a compromised health status provides a rationale for treatment of chronic physical diseases as well as depression in depressed chronically ill elderly, in order to prevent a spiralling decline in psychological and physical health.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo
4.
J Affect Disord ; 65(2): 131-8, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11356236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to assess onset and persistence of late-life depression, systematically comparing the factors associated with prevalence, onset and prognosis. METHODS: The data were derived from a large (n=2200), random, age and sex stratified sample of the elderly (55-85 years) in The Netherlands. Using a 3-year, prospective longitudinal design, both the onset and the persistence of depression were assessed. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Risk factors associated with prevalence, onset and persistence were compared using both bivariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: In those not depressed at index assessment, the onset of depression was 9.7%. Among those depressed at baseline, persistence occurred in 50.4%. Risk factors predicting onset were almost identical to those associated with prevalence. Persistence was predicted by very few factors (external locus of control and chronic physical illness). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that cross-sectional studies are biased due to their overrepresenting chronic depressive episodes. However, the risk factors derived from cross-sectional studies do seem to adequately reflect factors associated with onset. The prognosis is not adequately predicted by variables usually included in epidemiological studies of late life depression. It is speculated that including more biological correlates of depression and data concerning positive life-changes may improve our understanding of the prognosis of late life depression.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geriatria , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
5.
Psychol Med ; 30(2): 369-80, 2000 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10824657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor physical health has long been recognized to be one of the most important risk factors for depression in older adults. Since many aspects of physical health can be targeted for improvement in primary care, it is important to know whether physical health problems predict the onset and/or the persistence of depression. METHODS: The study is based on a sample which at the outset consisted of 327 depressed and 325 non-depressed older adults (55-85) drawn from a larger random community-based sample in the Netherlands. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) at eight successive waves. RESULTS: From all incident episodes, the majority (57%) was short-lived. These short episodes could generally not be predicted by physical health problems. The remaining incident episodes (43%) were not short-lived and could be predicted by poor physical health. Chronicity (34%) was also predicted by physical health problems. CONCLUSIONS: The study design with its frequent measurements recognized more incident cases than previous studies; these cases however did have a better prognosis than is often assumed. The prognosis of prevalent cases was rather poor. Physical health problems were demonstrated to be a predictor of both the onset and the persistence of depression. This may well have implications for prevention and intervention.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Papel do Doente
6.
Arch Gen Psychiatry ; 56(10): 889-95, 1999 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10530630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between depression and mortality in older community-dwelling populations is still unresolved. This study determined the effect of both minor and major depression on mortality and examined the role of confounding and explanatory variables on this relationship. METHODS: A cohort of 3056 men and women from the Netherlands aged 55 to 85 years were followed up for 4 years. Major depression was defined according to DSM-III criteria by means of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Minor depression was defined as clinically relevant depression (defined by a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score > or = 16) not fulfilling diagnostic criteria for major depression. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounding variables (sociodemographics, health status), men with minor depression had a 1.80-fold higher risk of death (95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.39) during follow-up than nondepressed men. In women, minor depression did not significantly increase the mortality risk. Irrespective of sex, major depression was associated with a 1.83-fold higher mortality risk (95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.10) after adjustment for sociodemographics and health status. Health behaviors such as smoking and physical inactivity explained only a small part of the excess mortality risk associated with depression. CONCLUSION: Even after adjustment for sociodemographics, health status, and health behaviors, minor depression in older men and major depression in both older men and women increase the risk of dying.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Morbidade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
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