Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 201
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Circulation ; 141(9): 751-767, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a hallmark of cardiac remodeling and functionally involved in heart failure development, a leading cause of deaths worldwide. Clinically, no therapeutic strategy is available that specifically attenuates maladaptive responses of cardiac fibroblasts, the effector cells of fibrosis in the heart. Therefore, our aim was to develop novel antifibrotic therapeutics based on naturally derived substance library screens for the treatment of cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: Antifibrotic drug candidates were identified by functional screening of 480 chemically diverse natural compounds in primary human cardiac fibroblasts, subsequent validation, and mechanistic in vitro and in vivo studies. Hits were analyzed for dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation of human cardiac fibroblasts, modulation of apoptosis, and extracellular matrix expression. In vitro findings were confirmed in vivo with an angiotensin II-mediated murine model of cardiac fibrosis in both preventive and therapeutic settings, as well as in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat model. To investigate the mechanism underlying the antifibrotic potential of the lead compounds, treatment-dependent changes in the noncoding RNAome in primary human cardiac fibroblasts were analyzed by RNA deep sequencing. RESULTS: High-throughput natural compound library screening identified 15 substances with antiproliferative effects in human cardiac fibroblasts. Using multiple in vitro fibrosis assays and stringent selection algorithms, we identified the steroid bufalin (from Chinese toad venom) and the alkaloid lycorine (from Amaryllidaceae species) to be effective antifibrotic molecules both in vitro and in vivo, leading to improvement in diastolic function in 2 hypertension-dependent rodent models of cardiac fibrosis. Administration at effective doses did not change plasma damage markers or the morphology of kidney and liver, providing the first toxicological safety data. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified the conserved microRNA 671-5p and downstream the antifibrotic selenoprotein P1 as common effectors of the antifibrotic compounds. CONCLUSIONS: We identified the molecules bufalin and lycorine as drug candidates for therapeutic applications in cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction.

2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 454-463, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871210

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis interferes with normal liver function and facilitates hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, representing a major threat to human health. Here, we present a comprehensive perspective of microRNA (miRNA) function on targeting the fibrotic microenvironment. Starting from a murine HCC model, we identify a miRNA network composed of 8 miRNA hubs and 54 target genes. We show that let-7, miR-30, miR-29c, miR-335, and miR-338 (collectively termed antifibrotic microRNAs [AF-miRNAs]) down-regulate key structural, signaling, and remodeling components of the extracellular matrix. During fibrogenic transition, these miRNAs are transcriptionally regulated by the transcription factor Pparγ and thus we identify a role of Pparγ as regulator of a functionally related class of AF-miRNAs. The miRNA network is active in human HCC, breast, and lung carcinomas, as well as in 2 independent mouse liver fibrosis models. Therefore, we identify a miRNA:mRNA network that contributes to formation of fibrosis in tumorous and nontumorous organs of mice and humans.

3.
RNA Biol ; 17(1): 112-124, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538530

RESUMO

The duck represents an important reservoir of influenza viruses for transmission to other avian and mammalian hosts, including humans. The increased pathogenicity of the recently emerging clades of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype in ducks features systemic viral spread and organ-to-organ variation in viral transcription and tissue damage. We previously reported that experimental infection of Sudani ducks (Cairina moschata) with an Egyptian HPAI (H5N1) virus (clade 2.2.1.2) features high viral replication and severe tissue damage in lung, but lower viral replication and only mild histological changes in brain. Little is known about the involvement of miRNA in organ-specific responses to H5N1 viruses in ducks, and involvement of the other classes of small noncoding RNA (sncRNA) has not been investigated so far. Following RNA sequencing, we have annotated the duck sncRNome and compared global expression changes of the four major sncRNA classes (miRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs) between duck lung and brain during a 120 h time course of infection with this HPAI strain. We find major organ-specific differences in miRNA, piRNA and snoRNA populations even before infection and substantial reprogramming of all sncRNA classes throughout infection, which was less pronounced in brain. Pathway prediction analysis of miRNA targets revealed enrichment of inflammation-, infection- and apoptosis-related pathways in lung, but enrichment of metabolism-related pathways (including tryptophan metabolism) in brain. Thus, organ-specific differences in sncRNA responses may contribute to differences in viral replication and organ damage in ducks infected with isolates from this emerging HPAI clade, and likely other strains.

4.
mBio ; 10(6)2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796535

RESUMO

In tuberculosis (TB), as in other infectious diseases, studies of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNA) in peripheral blood have focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) but have neglected the other major sncRNA classes in spite of their potential functions in host gene regulation. Using RNA sequencing of whole blood, we have therefore determined expression of miRNA, PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA), small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), and small nuclear RNA (snRNA) in patients with TB (n = 8), latent TB infection (LTBI; n = 21), and treated LTBI (LTBItt; n = 6) and in uninfected exposed controls (ExC; n = 14). As expected, sncRNA reprogramming was greater in TB than in LTBI, with the greatest changes seen in miRNA populations. However, substantial dynamics were also evident in piRNA and snoRNA populations. One miRNA and 2 piRNAs were identified as moderately accurate (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.70 to 0.74) biomarkers for LTBI, as were 1 miRNA, 1 piRNA, and 2 snoRNAs (AUC = 0.79 to 0.91) for accomplished LTBI treatment. Logistic regression identified the combination of 4 sncRNA (let-7a-5p, miR-589-5p, miR-196b-5p, and SNORD104) as a highly sensitive (100%) classifier to discriminate TB from all non-TB groups. Notably, it reclassified 8 presumed LTBI cases as TB cases, 5 of which turned out to have features of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection on chest radiographs. SNORD104 expression decreased during M. tuberculosis infection of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and M2-like (P = 0.03) but not M1-like (P = 0.31) macrophages, suggesting that its downregulation in peripheral blood in TB is biologically relevant. Taken together, the results demonstrate that snoRNA and piRNA should be considered in addition to miRNA as biomarkers and pathogenesis factors in the various stages of TB.IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis is the infectious disease with the worldwide largest disease burden and there remains a great need for better diagnostic biomarkers to detect latent and active M. tuberculosis infection. RNA molecules hold great promise in this regard, as their levels of expression may differ considerably between infected and uninfected subjects. We have measured expression changes in the four major classes of small noncoding RNAs in blood samples from patients with different stages of TB infection. We found that, in addition to miRNAs (which are known to be highly regulated in blood cells from TB patients), expression of piRNA and snoRNA is greatly altered in both latent and active TB, yielding promising biomarkers. Even though the functions of many sncRNA other than miRNA are still poorly understood, our results strongly suggest that at least piRNA and snoRNA populations may represent hitherto underappreciated players in the different stages of TB infection.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1763-1776, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826721

RESUMO

Influenza is an acute respiratory infection causing high morbidity and mortality in annual outbreaks worldwide. Antiviral drugs are limited and pose the risk of resistance development, calling for new treatment options. IFN-α subtypes are immune-stimulatory cytokines with strong antiviral activities against IAV in vitro and in vivo. However, the clinical use of IFN-α2, the only licensed subtype of this multi-gene family, could not prevent or limit IAV infections in humans. However, the other subtypes were not investigated.Therefore, this study evaluated the induction and antiviral potential of all human IFN-α subtypes during H3N2 IAV infection in human lung explants. We found that subtypes with weak antiviral activities were preferentially induced during IAV infection in human lungs. Intriguingly, non-induced subtypes α16, α5 and α4 suppressed viral replication up to 230-fold more efficiently than α2. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that subtypes with stronger antiviral activities induce higher expression of IAV-specific restriction factors and that MxA expression is a determinant of the subtype-specific antiviral activity towards H3N2 IAV. These results corroborate that IFN-α subtypes exhibit differential antiviral activities and emphasize that subtypes α16, α5 and α4 should be further investigated for the prevention and treatment of severe infections with seasonal H3N2 IAV.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 129(12): 5108-5122, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479431

RESUMO

The transcription factor B cell CLL/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B) is indispensable for T lineage development of lymphoid progenitors. Here, we show that chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) expression during early phases of ex vivo generation of lymphoid progenitors suppressed BCL11B, leading to suppression of T cell-associated gene expression and acquisition of NK cell-like properties. Upon adoptive transfer into hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, CAR-expressing lymphoid progenitors differentiated into CAR-induced killer (CARiK) cells that mediated potent antigen-directed antileukemic activity even across MHC barriers. CD28 and active immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs were critical for a functional CARiK phenotype. These results give important insights into differentiation of murine and human lymphoid progenitors driven by synthetic CAR transgene expression and encourage further evaluation of ex vivo-generated CARiK cells for targeted immunotherapy.

7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007706, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Somatic migration of Toxocara canis- and T. cati-larvae in humans may cause neurotoxocarosis (NT) when larvae accumulate and persist in the central nervous system (CNS). Host- or parasite-induced immunoregulatory processes contribute to the pathogenesis; however, detailed data on involvement of bioactive lipid mediators, e.g. oxylipins or eico-/docosanoids, which are involved in the complex molecular signalling network during infection and inflammation, are lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate if T. canis- and T. cati-induced NT affects the homeostasis of oxylipins during the course of infection, a comprehensive lipidomic profiling in brains (cerebra and cerebella) of experimentally infected C57BL/6J mice was conducted at six different time points post infection (pi) by liquid-chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Only minor changes were detected regarding pro-inflammatory prostaglandins (cyclooxygenase pathway). In contrast, a significant increase of metabolites resulting from lipoxygenase pathways was observed for both infection groups and brain regions, implicating a predominantly anti-inflammatory driven immune response. This observation was supported by a significantly increased 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE)/9-HODE ratio during the subacute phase of infection, indicating an anti-inflammatory response to neuroinfection. Except for the specialised pro-resolving mediator (SPM) neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), which was detected in mice infected with both pathogens during the subacute phase of infection, no other SPMs were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The obtained results demonstrate the influence of Toxocara spp. on oxylipins as part of the immune response of the paratenic hosts. Furthermore, this study shows differences in the alteration of the oxylipin composition between T. canis- and T. cati-brain infection. Results contribute to a further understanding of the largely unknown pathogenesis and mechanisms of host-parasite interactions during NT.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/parasitologia , Oxilipinas/química , Toxocara canis/fisiologia , Toxocaríase/imunologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Química Encefálica , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Larva/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxilipinas/imunologia
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1908): 20191114, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409249

RESUMO

Wildlife disease dynamics are strongly influenced by the structure of host communities and their symbiotic microbiota. Conspicuous amphibian declines associated with the waterborne fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) have been observed in aquatic-breeding frogs globally. However, less attention has been given to cryptic terrestrial-breeding amphibians that have also been declining in tropical regions. By experimentally manipulating multiple tropical amphibian assemblages harbouring natural microbial communities, we tested whether Bd spillover from naturally infected aquatic-breeding frogs could lead to Bd amplification and mortality in our focal terrestrial-breeding host: the pumpkin toadlet Brachycephalus pitanga. We also tested whether the strength of spillover could vary depending on skin bacterial transmission within host assemblages. Terrestrial-breeding toadlets acquired lethal spillover infections from neighbouring aquatic hosts and experienced dramatic but generally non-protective shifts in skin bacterial composition primarily attributable to their Bd infections. By contrast, aquatic-breeding amphibians maintained mild Bd infections and higher survival, with shifts in bacterial microbiomes that were unrelated to Bd infections. Our results indicate that Bd spillover from even mildly infected aquatic-breeding hosts may lead to dysbiosis and mortality in terrestrial-breeding species, underscoring the need to further investigate recent population declines of terrestrial-breeding amphibians in the tropics.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3422, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366921

RESUMO

Severe influenza infection has no effective treatment available. One of the key barriers to developing host-directed therapy is a lack of reliable prognostic factors needed to guide such therapy. Here, we use a network analysis approach to identify host factors associated with severe influenza and fatal outcome. In influenza patients with moderate-to-severe diseases, we uncover a complex landscape of immunological pathways, with the main changes occurring in pathways related to circulating neutrophils. Patients with severe disease display excessive neutrophil extracellular traps formation, neutrophil-inflammation and delayed apoptosis, all of which have been associated with fatal outcome in animal models. Excessive neutrophil activation correlates with worsening oxygenation impairment and predicted fatal outcome (AUROC 0.817-0.898). These findings provide new evidence that neutrophil-dominated host response is associated with poor outcomes. Measuring neutrophil-related changes may improve risk stratification and patient selection, a critical first step in developing host-directed immune therapy.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenza Humana/patologia , Ativação de Neutrófilo/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Pulmão/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia
10.
JCI Insight ; 52019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335322

RESUMO

Cardiac pressure overload (for example due to aortic stenosis) induces irreversible myocardial dysfunction, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis in patients. In contrast to adult, neonatal mice can efficiently regenerate the heart after injury in the first week after birth. To decipher whether insufficient cardiac regeneration contributes to the progression of pressure overload dependent disease, we established a transverse aortic constriction protocol in neonatal mice (nTAC). nTAC in the non-regenerative stage (at postnatal day P7) induced cardiac dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In contrast, nTAC in the regenerative stage (at P1) largely prevented these maladaptive responses and was in particular associated with enhanced myocardial angiogenesis and increased cardiomyocyte proliferation, which both supported adaptation during nTAC. A comparative transcriptomic analysis between hearts after regenerative versus non-regenerative nTAC suggested the transcription factor GATA4 as master regulator of the regenerative gene-program. Indeed, cardiomyocyte specific deletion of GATA4 converted the regenerative nTAC into a non-regenerative, maladaptive response. Our new nTAC model can be used to identify mediators of adaptation during pressure overload and to discover novel potential therapeutic strategies.

11.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310588

RESUMO

Fibrotic scarring drives the progression of heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, the development of specific treatment regimens to counteract fibrosis is of high clinical relevance. The transcription factor SOX9 functions as an important regulator during embryogenesis, but recent data point towards an additional causal role in organ fibrosis. We show here that SOX9 is upregulated in the scar after MI in mice. Fibroblast specific deletion of Sox9 ameliorated MI-induced left ventricular dysfunction, dilatation and myocardial scarring in vivo. Unexpectedly, deletion of Sox9 also potently eliminated persisting leukocyte infiltration of the scar in the chronic phase after MI. RNA-sequencing from the infarct scar revealed that Sox9 deletion in fibroblasts resulted in strongly downregulated expression of genes related to extracellular matrix, proteolysis and inflammation. Importantly, Sox9 deletion in isolated cardiac fibroblasts in vitro similarly affected gene expression as in the cardiac scar and reduced fibroblast proliferation, migration and contraction capacity. Together, our data demonstrate that fibroblast SOX9 functions as a master regulator of cardiac fibrosis and inflammation and might constitute a novel therapeutic target during MI.

12.
Diseases ; 7(2)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987377

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome 2 (ICF2) is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency disorder. So far, 27 patients have been reported. Here, we present three siblings with ICF2 due to a homozygous ZBTB24 gene mutation (c.1222 T>G, p. (Cys408Gly)). Immune deficiency in these patients ranged from late-onset combined immunodeficiency (CID) with severe respiratory tract infections and recurrent shingles to asymptomatic selective antibody deficiency. Evident clinical heterogeneity manifested despite a common genetic background, suggesting the pathogenic relevance of epigenetic modification. Immunological follow-up reveals a previously unidentified gradual depletion of B and CD4⁺ T cells in all three presented patients with transition of a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)-like disease to late-onset-CID in one of them. Considering all previously published cases with ICF2, we identify inadequate antibody responses to vaccines and reduction in CD27⁺ memory B cells as prevalent immunological traits. High mortality among ICF2 patients (20%) together with the progressive course of immunodeficiency suggest that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be considered as a treatment option in due time.

13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(12): 1804-1810, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843048

RESUMO

AIMS: Delayed re-endothelialization after balloon angioplasty in patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease impairs vascular healing and leads to neointimal proliferation. In the present study, we examined the effect of RNA-binding motif protein 38 (Rbm38) during re-endothelialization in a murine model of experimental vascular injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: Left common carotid arteries of C57BL/6 mice were electrically denudated and endothelial regeneration was evaluated. Profiling of RNA-binding proteins revealed dysregulated expression of Rbm38 in the denudated and regenerated areas. We next tested the importance of Rbm38 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECS) and analysed its effects on cellular proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Rbm38 silencing in vitro demonstrated important beneficial functional effects on migratory capacity and proliferation of endothelial cells. In vivo, local silencing of Rbm38 also improved re-endothelialization of denuded carotid arteries. Luciferase reporter assay identified miR-98 and let-7f to regulate Rbm38 and the positive proliferative properties of Rbm38 silencing in vitro and in vivo were mimicked by therapeutic overexpression of these miRNAs. CONCLUSION: The present data identified Rbm38 as an important factor of the regulation of various endothelial cell functions. Local inhibition of Rbm38 as well as overexpression of the upstream regulators miR-98 and let-7f improved endothelial regeneration in vivo and thus may be a novel therapeutic entry point to avoid endothelial damage after balloon angioplasty.

14.
Cancer Invest ; 37(2): 99-112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836770

RESUMO

Platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF-D) has been shown to mediate cellular processes of importance in cancer progression. This study aimed to investigate the expression and putative involvement of PDGF-D signaling in colorectal carcinogenesis. PDGF-D was expressed in vascular endothelial cells in tumor and normal tissues. PDGF-D stimulation of cells altered genes of importance in carcinogenic processes. In addition, PDGF-D increased the proliferation rate while imatinib inhibited these effects. PDGF-D and its PDGF receptor beta (PDGFR-ß) are expressed in colorectal cancer and blockage of PDGF-D/PDGFR-ß signaling using tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as imatinib, might be important in inhibiting tumor-promoting actions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Linfocinas/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Células CACO-2 , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 3(3): 381-389, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778181

RESUMO

Animal-associated microbiomes are integral to host health, yet key biotic and abiotic factors that shape host-associated microbial communities at the global scale remain poorly understood. We investigated global patterns in amphibian skin bacterial communities, incorporating samples from 2,349 individuals representing 205 amphibian species across a broad biogeographic range. We analysed how biotic and abiotic factors correlate with skin microbial communities using multiple statistical approaches. Global amphibian skin bacterial richness was consistently correlated with temperature-associated factors. We found more diverse skin microbiomes in environments with colder winters and less stable thermal conditions compared with environments with warm winters and less annual temperature variation. We used bioinformatically predicted bacterial growth rates, dormancy genes and antibiotic synthesis genes, as well as inferred bacterial thermal growth optima to propose mechanistic hypotheses that may explain the observed patterns. We conclude that temporal and spatial characteristics of the host's macro-environment mediate microbial diversity.


Assuntos
Anuros/microbiologia , Clima , Microbiota , Urodelos/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Pele/microbiologia
16.
FASEB J ; 33(2): 2359-2371, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285578

RESUMO

Experimental nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTN) is a model for T-cell-mediated human rapid progressive glomerulonephritis. T-cell receptor stimulation involves intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the activation of transcription factors, such as NF-κB. We explored the involvement of the NF-κB components IKK-2 and NEMO in NTN, by using cell-specific knockouts of IKK-2 and NEMO in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Our results demonstrate that although the course of disease was not grossly altered in CD4xIKK2Δ and CD4xNEMOΔ animals, renal regulatory T cells were significantly reduced and T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells significantly increased in both knockout mouse groups. The expression of the renal cytokines and chemokines IL-1ß, CCL-2, and CCL-20 was also significantly altered in both knockout mice. Lymphocyte transcriptome analysis confirmed the increased expression of Th17-related cytokines in spleen CD4+ T cells. Moreover, our array data demonstrate an interrupted canonical NF-κB pathway and an increased expression of noncanonical NF-κB pathway-related genes in nephritic CD4xNEMOΔ mice, highlighting different downstream effects of deletion of IKK-2 or NEMO in T lymphocytes. We propose that better understanding of the role of IKK-2 and NEMO in nephritis is essential for the clinical application of kinase inhibitors in patients with glomerulonephritis.-Guo, L., Huang, J., Chen, M., Piotrowski, E., Song, N., Zahner, G., Paust, H.-J., Alawi, M., Geffers, R., Thaiss, F. T-lymphocyte-specific knockout of IKK-2 or NEMO induces Th17 cells in an experimental nephrotoxic nephritis mouse model.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quinase I-kappa B/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Nefrite/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nefrite/induzido quimicamente , Nefrite/imunologia , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th17/patologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200513

RESUMO

The respiratory tract is constantly exposed to the environment and displays a favorable niche for colonizing microorganisms. However, the effects of respiratory bacterial carriage on the immune system and its implications for secondary responses remain largely unclear. We have employed respiratory carriage with Bordetella bronchiseptica as the underlying model to comprehensively address effects on subsequent immune responses. Carriage was associated with the stimulation of Bordetella-specific CD4⁺, CD8⁺, and CD4⁺CD25⁺Foxp3⁺ T cell responses, and broad transcriptional activation was observed in CD4⁺CD25⁺ T cells. Importantly, transfer of leukocytes from carriers to acutely B. bronchiseptica infected mice, resulted in a significantly increased bacterial burden in the recipient's upper respiratory tract. In contrast, we found that respiratory B. bronchiseptica carriage resulted in a significant benefit for the host in systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Adaptive responses to vaccination and influenza A virus infection, were unaffected by B. bronchiseptica carriage. These data showed that there were significant immune modulatory processes triggered by B. bronchiseptica carriage, that differentially affect subsequent immune responses. Therefore, our results demonstrated the complexity of immune regulation induced by respiratory bacterial carriage, which can be beneficial or detrimental to the host, depending on the pathogen and the considered compartment.


Assuntos
Bordetella bronchiseptica/imunologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/microbiologia , Vacinação , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Infecções por Bordetella/sangue , Infecções por Bordetella/imunologia , Infecções por Bordetella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bordetella/prevenção & controle , Bordetella bronchiseptica/genética , Antígenos CD5/análise , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções Respiratórias/sangue , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 14(8): e1007235, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075026

RESUMO

During Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection hepatitis is a potentially life threatening complication, particularly in newborns. Studies with type I interferon (IFN-I) receptor (IFNAR)-deficient mice revealed a key role of the IFN-I axis in the protection against CVB3 infection, whereas the source of IFN-I and cell types that have to be IFNAR triggered in order to promote survival are still unknown. We found that CVB3 infected IFN-ß reporter mice showed effective reporter induction, especially in hepatocytes and only to a minor extent in liver-resident macrophages. Accordingly, upon in vitro CVB3 infection of primary hepatocytes from murine or human origin abundant IFN-ß responses were induced. To identify sites of IFNAR-triggering we performed experiments with Mx reporter mice, which upon CVB3 infection showed massive luciferase induction in the liver. Immunohistological studies revealed that during CVB3 infection MX1 expression of hepatocytes was induced primarily by IFNAR-, and not by IFN-III receptor (IFNLR)-triggering. CVB3 infection studies with primary human hepatocytes, in which either the IFN-I or the IFN-III axis was inhibited, also indicated that primarily IFNAR-, and to a lesser extent IFNLR-triggering was needed for ISG induction. Interestingly, CVB3 infected mice with a hepatocyte-specific IFNAR ablation showed severe liver cell necrosis and ubiquitous viral dissemination that resulted in lethal disease, as similarly detected in classical IFNAR-/- mice. In conclusion, we found that during CVB3 infection hepatocytes are major IFN-I producers and that the liver is also the organ that shows strong IFNAR-triggering. Importantly, hepatocytes need to be IFNAR-triggered in order to prevent virus dissemination and to assure survival. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that during CVB3 infection hepatocytes serve as important IFN-I producers and sensors not only in the murine, but also in the human system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coxsackievirus , Enterovirus Humano B/imunologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Interferon beta/genética , Fígado/patologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/complicações , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/genética , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/virologia , Enterovirus Humano B/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Fígado/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Necrose/virologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Células Vero , Carga Viral/genética , Carga Viral/imunologia
20.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 122: 114-124, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118791

RESUMO

Maladaptive cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) is increasingly contributing to the prevalence of chronic heart failure. Women show less severe remodeling, a reduced mortality and a better systolic function after MI compared to men. Although sex hormones are being made responsible for these differences, it remains currently unknown how this could be translated into therapeutic strategies. Because we had recently demonstrated that inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to its highly active metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by finasteride effectively reduces cardiac hypertrophy and improves heart function during pressure overload, we asked here whether this strategy could be applied to post-MI remodeling. We found increased abundance of DHT and increased expression of androgen responsive genes in the mouse myocardium after experimental MI. Treatment of mice with finasteride for 21 days (starting 7 days after surgery), reduced myocardial DHT levels and markedly attenuated cardiac dysfunction as well as hypertrophic remodeling after MI. Histological and molecular analyses showed reduced MI triggered interstitial fibrosis, reduced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and increased capillary density in the myocardium of finasteride treated mice. Mechanistically, this was associated with decreased activation of myocardial growth-signaling pathways, a comprehensive normalization of pathological myocardial gene-expression as revealed by RNA deep-sequencing and with direct effects of finasteride on cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated a beneficial role of anti-androgenic treatment with finasteride in post-MI remodeling of mice. As finasteride is already approved for the treatment of benign prostate disease, it could potentially be evaluated as therapeutic strategy for heart failure after MI.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Finasterida/uso terapêutico , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Variância , Animais , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular , Di-Hidrotestosterona/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Masculino , Camundongos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/patologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA