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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87003, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surrounding green, air pollution, and noise have been associated with cardiometabolic diseases, but most studies have assessed only one of these correlated exposures. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate associations of combined exposures to green, air pollution, and road traffic noise with cardiometabolic diseases. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we studied associations between self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, hypertension, heart attack, and stroke from a Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults and residential surrounding green, annual average air pollutant concentrations [including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), PM with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), and oxidative potential (OP) with the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay ([Formula: see text])] and road traffic noise. Logistic regression models were used to analyze confounding and interaction of surrounding green, air pollution, and noise exposure. RESULTS: In single-exposure models, surrounding green was inversely associated with diabetes, while air pollutants ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) and road traffic noise were positively associated with diabetes. In two-exposure analyses, associations with green and air pollution were attenuated but remained. The association between road traffic noise and diabetes was reduced to unity when adjusted for surrounding green or air pollution. Air pollution and surrounding green, but not road traffic noise, were associated with hypertension in single-exposure models. The weak inverse association of surrounding green with hypertension attenuated and lost significance when adjusted for air pollution. Only [Formula: see text] was associated with stroke and heart attack. CONCLUSIONS: Studies including only one of the correlated exposures surrounding green, air pollution, and road traffic noise may overestimate the association of diabetes and hypertension attributed to the studied exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3857.

2.
Environ Int ; 131: 104991, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green space has been hypothesized to improve cardiometabolic health of adolescents, whereas air pollution and traffic noise may negatively impact cardiometabolic health. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of green space, air pollution and traffic noise with cardiometabolic health in adolescents aged 12 and 16 years. METHODS: Waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured in subsets of participants of the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort, who participated in medical examinations at ages 12 (n = 1505) and/or 16 years (n = 797). We calculated a combined cardiometabolic risk score for each participant, with a higher score indicating a higher cardiometabolic risk. We estimated exposure to green space (i.e. the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and percentages of green space in circular buffers of 300 m and 3000 m), air pollution (by land-use regression models) and traffic noise (using the Standard Model Instrumentation for Noise Assessments (STAMINA) model) at the adolescents' home addresses at the time of the medical examinations. We assessed associations of these exposures with cardiometabolic health outcomes at ages 12 and 16 by multiple linear regression, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We did not observe consistent patterns of associations of green space, air pollution and traffic noise with the cardiometabolic risk score, blood pressure, total cholesterol levels, the total/HDL cholesterol ratio and HbA1c. We found inverse associations of air pollution with waist circumference at both age 12 and 16. These associations weakened after adjustment for region, except for particulate matter with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5) at age 12. The association of PM2.5 with waist circumference at age 12 remained after adjustment for green space and road traffic noise (adjusted difference - 1.42 cm [95% CI -2.50, -0.35 cm] per 1.16 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5). CONCLUSION: This study does not provide evidence for beneficial effects of green space or adverse effects of air pollution and traffic noise on cardiometabolic health in adolescents.

4.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pet and dampness or mould exposure are considered risk factors for asthma and sensitization. It is unclear whether timing of exposure to these factors is differentially associated with asthma risk and sensitization in adolescence. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of timing of pet and dampness or mould exposure in asthma and sensitization in adolescence. Understanding this role is essential to build targeted prevention strategies. METHODS: We used data from 1871 participants of the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) cohort. Residential exposure to pets, dampness or mould was assessed by repeated parental questionnaires. We used asthma data from the 17-year questionnaire and sensitization data from the 16-year medical examination. We characterized timing using longitudinal exposure patterns from pregnancy till age 17 using longitudinal latent class growth modelling. We used logistic regression models to analyse associations of exposure patterns with asthma at age 17 and sensitization at age 16. RESULTS: For none of the time windows, exposure to pets and dampness or mould was associated with asthma at age 17, but a lower sensitization risk at age 16 was suggested, for example the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for sensitization was 0.63 (0.35-1.11) and 0.69 (0.44-1.08) for early life and persistently high pet exposure, respectively, compared with very low exposure. An inverse association was also suggested for sensitization and moderate early childhood dampness or mould exposure (0.71 [0.42-1.19]). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Different timing of pet and dampness or mould exposure was not associated with asthma, but lower risk of sensitization in adolescence was suggested, which could be partly attributable to reversed causation. Current findings are not sufficient to recommend pet avoidance to prevent allergic disease. More prospective studies are needed to obtain insights that can be used in clinical practice.

5.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

6.
Environ Int ; 129: 525-537, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is emerging that poor mental health is associated with the environmental exposures of surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise. Most studies have evaluated only associations of single exposures with poor mental health. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate associations of combined exposure to surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise with poor mental health. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we linked data from a Dutch national health survey among 387,195 adults including questions about psychological distress, based on the Kessler 10 scale, to an external database on registered prescriptions of anxiolytics, hypnotics & sedatives and antidepressants. We added data on residential surrounding green in a 300 m and a 1000 m buffer based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and a land-use database (TOP10NL), modeled annual average air pollutant concentrations (including particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and modeled road- and rail-traffic noise (Lden and Lnight) to the survey. We used logistic regression to analyze associations of surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise exposure with poor mental health. RESULTS: In single exposure models, surrounding green was inversely associated with poor mental health. Air pollution was positively associated with poor mental health. Road-traffic noise was only positively associated with prescription of anxiolytics, while rail-traffic noise was only positively associated with psychological distress. For prescription of anxiolytics, we found an odds ratio [OR] of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) per interquartile range [IQR] increase in NDVI within 300 m, an OR of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.19) per IQR increase in NO2 and an OR of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.11) per IQR increase in road-traffic noise. In multi exposure analyses, associations with surrounding green and air pollution generally remained but attenuated. Joint odds ratios [JOR], based on the Cumulative Risk Index (CRI) method, of combined exposure to air pollution, traffic noise and decreased surrounding green were higher than the ORs of single exposure models. Associations of environmental exposures with poor mental health differed somewhat by age. CONCLUSIONS: Studies including only one of these three correlated exposures may overestimate the influence of poor mental health attributed to the studied exposure, while underestimating the influence of combined environmental exposures.

9.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 39, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spirometric lung function measurements have been proven to be excellent objective markers of respiratory morbidity. The use of different types of spirometers in epidemiological and clinical studies may present systematically different results affecting interpretation and implication of results. We aimed to explore considerations in the use of different spirometers in epidemiological studies by comparing forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) measurements between the Masterscreen pneumotachograph and EasyOne spirometers. We also provide a correction equation for correcting systematic differences using regression calibration. METHODS: Forty-nine volunteers had lung function measured on two different spirometers in random order with at least three attempts on each spirometer. Data were analysed using correlation plots, Bland and Altman plots and formal paired t-tests. We used regression calibration to provide a correction equation. RESULTS: The mean (SD) FEV1 and FVC was 3.78 (0.63) L and 4.78 (0.63) L for the Masterscreen pneumotachograph and 3.54 (0.60) L and 4.41 (0.83) L for the EasyOne spirometer. The mean FEV1 difference of 0.24 L and mean FVC difference of 0.37 L between the spirometers (corresponding to 6.3 and 8.4% difference, respectively) were statistically significant and consistent between younger (< 30 years) and older volunteers (> 30 years) and between males and females. Regression calibration indicated that an increase of 1 L in the EasyOne measurements corresponded to an average increase of 1.032 L in FEV1 and 1.005 L in FVC in the Masterscreen measurements. CONCLUSION: Use of different types of spirometers may result in significant systematic differences in lung function values. Epidemiological researchers need to be aware of these potential systematic differences and correct for them in analyses using methods such as regression calibration.

10.
Environ Int ; 128: 63-69, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that adults who use cleaning agents in their homes have a higher risk of asthma and allergic symptoms. The associations of asthma and allergic symptoms with household use of cleaning agents in adolescents have not been investigated yet. OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of household cleaning agents use with the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in adolescents. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, we included participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study with data on household use of 10 types of cleaning agents and information on asthma, rhinitis and/or eczema from parent-completed questionnaires at age 14 (N = 2333). For the cleaning agents, we developed a composite score ranging from 0 (no exposure) to 30 points (household use on 4-7 days per week for all 10 types of cleaning agents). Logistic regression was used to analyse associations between household cleaning agents use (composite score and specific cleaning agents) and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Seven, 13 and 11% of the participants had asthma, rhinitis and eczema, respectively, at age 14. The composite score for household use of cleaning agents was not associated with asthma, rhinitis and eczema. For instance, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema comparing those with the highest use of cleaning agents (≥10 points) to those with never/seldom use (0-4 points) were 0.95 (0.56, 1.63), 1.23 (0.82, 1.82) and 0.95 (0.56, 1.63), respectively. For individual cleaning agents, we only found the use of ammonia to be significantly associated with a lower risk of rhinitis [0.60, (0.44, 0.82)]. CONCLUSIONS: There was no indication of an increased prevalence of asthma, rhinitis or eczema among adolescents living in households within the highest category of cleaning agents use.

11.
Environ Res ; 169: 348-356, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution, traffic noise and absence of green space may contribute to the development of overweight in children. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the combined associations of air pollution, traffic noise and green space with overweight throughout childhood. METHODS: We used data for 3680 participants of the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort. We estimated exposure to air pollution, traffic noise and green space (i.e. the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and percentages of green space in circular buffers of 300 m and 3000 m) at the children's home addresses at the time of parental reported weight and height measurements. Associations of these exposures with overweight from age 3 to 17 years were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models, adjusting for potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR's) are presented for an interquartile range increase in exposure. RESULTS: odds of being overweight increased with increasing exposure to NO2 (adjusted OR 1.40 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.74] per 8.90 µg/m3) and tended to decrease with increasing exposure to green space in a 3000 m buffer (adjusted OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.71-1.04] per 0.13 increase in the NDVI; adjusted OR 0.86 [95% CI 0.71-1.03] per 29.5% increase in the total percentage of green space). After adjustment for NO2, the associations with green space in a 3000 m buffer weakened. No associations of traffic noise with overweight throughout childhood were found. In children living in an urban area, living further away from a park was associated with a lower odds of being overweight (adjusted OR 0.67 [95% CI 0.52-0.85] per 359.6 m). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to traffic-related air pollution, but not traffic noise or green space, may contribute to childhood overweight. Future studies examining the associations of green space with childhood overweight should account for air pollution exposure.

12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351340

RESUMO

International collaborations among birth cohorts to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original individual participant data. We harmonized data from 14 birth cohorts, with three to 20 follow-ups, from nine European countries, as part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Asthma and Allergies (MeDALL) project. The harmonization process followed six steps: organization of the harmonization panel; identification of variables relevant to MeDALL objectives (candidate variables); proposal of a definition for each candidate variable (reference definition); assessment of the compatibility of each cohort variable to its reference definition (inferential equivalence) and classifications of this inferential equivalence as complete, partial, or impossible; workshop to agree on the reference definitions and classifications of inferential equivalence; and data preparation and delivery through a knowledge management portal. We agreed on 137 reference definitions. The inferential equivalence of 3,551 cohort variables to their corresponding reference definition was classified as complete, partial and impossible for 70%, 15% and 15% of the variables, respectively. A harmonized database was delivered. In birth cohorts of asthma and allergies, the harmonization of data for pooled analyses is feasible and may achieve high inferential comparability. The MeDALL harmonization approach can be used in other collaborative projects.

13.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 435-442, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that children who are exposed to agricultural pesticides have an increased risk of asthma, but evidence for associations betweeen residential pesticide exposure and childhood asthma is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations of residential pesticide exposure with the prevalence of asthma and related symptoms within a Dutch birth cohort study. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, we included participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study with data on residential pesticide exposure and asthma from parent-completed questionnaires at age 14, collected in 2012 (N = 1473). We used spatial data on the presence of individual crops (cereals, open field vegetables, commercial crops, open field floriculture/bulbs, corn and potatoes) and pesticide application on these crops to estimate residential exposure to pesticides with known irritant properties for the respiratory system within distances of 100, 500, and 1000 m of the participants' homes. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between exposure and outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: No associations were found between living within 100, 500 and 1000 m of agricultural fields likely treated with pesticides and symptoms of asthma. For instance, for participants living within 100 m of fields with any crops likely treated with pesticides, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for the prevalence of asthma, shortness of breath and dry night cough at age 14 were 0.31 (0.07, 1.32), 0.61 (0.23, 1.57) and 1.26 (0.56, 2.80), respectively. No associations were found between estimated exposure to pesticides with known irritant properties for the respiratory system and asthma or related symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between living near agricultural fields likely treated with pesticides and asthma and related respiratory symptoms, among our study participants.

14.
Eur Respir J ; 52(3)2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139777

RESUMO

Evidence for the effects of air pollution exposure on lung function growth into adolescence is scarce. We investigated associations of air pollution exposure with lung function and lung function growth until age 16.We conducted both longitudinal (n=915) and cross-sectional (n=721) analyses of associations of air pollution exposure with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) growth from ages eight to 16 and FEV1 and FVC at age 16. We estimated residential concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), "soot" and particulate matter (PMx, where x is the 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter in µm) with diameters of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10) and 2.5-10 µm (PMcoarse) during the preschool, primary school and secondary school time windows by land use regression models. Associations with (growth in) FEV1 and FVC were analysed by linear (mixed effects) regression.Higher air pollution exposure was associated with reduced FEV1 growth (e.g. adjusted difference -0.26% (95% CI -0.49 to -0.03%) per interquartile range increase in secondary school PM2.5) and lower FEV1 (adjusted difference -2.36% (95% CI -3.76 to -0.94%)), but was not adversely associated with FVC. Associations with FEV1 were stronger in boys than girls and were not modified by asthma status.Higher air pollution exposure may lead to increased airway obstruction, but not reduced lung volume in adolescence.

15.
Environ Health ; 17(1): 61, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been found to adversely affect children's lung function. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity from spirometry have been studied most frequently, but measurements of airway resistance may provide additional information. We assessed associations of long-term air pollution exposure with airway resistance. METHODS: We measured airway resistance at age 8 with the interrupter resistance technique (Rint) in participants of the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. We linked Rint with estimated annual average air pollution concentrations [nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx), PM2.5 absorbance ("soot"), and particulate matter < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), < 10 µm (PM10) and 2.5-10 µm (PMcoarse)] at the birth address and current home address (n = 983). Associations between air pollution exposure and interrupter resistance (Rint) were assessed using multiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: We found that higher levels of NO2 at the current address were associated with higher Rint [adj. mean difference (95% confidence interval) per interquartile range increase in NO2: 0.018 (0.001, 0.035) kPa·s·L- 1]. Similar trends were observed for the other pollutants, except, PM10. No association was found between Rint and exposure at the birth address. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that air pollution exposure is associated with a lower lung function in schoolchildren.

16.
Epidemiology ; 29(5): 618-626, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may increase attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children, but findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of eight European population-based birth/child cohorts, including 29,127 mother-child pairs. METHODS: Air pollution concentrations (nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and particulate matter [PM]) were estimated at the birth address by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011. We extrapolated concentrations back in time to exact pregnancy periods. Teachers or parents assessed ADHD symptoms at 3-10 years of age. We classified children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range and within the clinical range using validated cutoffs. We combined all adjusted area-specific effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis and multiple imputations and applied inverse probability-weighting methods to correct for loss to follow-up. RESULTS: We classified a total of 2,801 children as having ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range, and 1,590 within the clinical range. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy was not associated with a higher odds of ADHD symptoms within the borderline/clinical range (e.g., adjusted odds ratio [OR] for ADHD symptoms of 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89, 1.01 per 10 µg/m increase in NO2 and 0.98, 95% CI = 0.80, 1.19 per 5 µg/m increase in PM2.5). We observed similar associations for ADHD within the clinical range. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence for an increase in risk of ADHD symptoms with increasing prenatal air pollution levels in children aged 3-10 years. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B379.

17.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(4): 1343-1354, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939274

RESUMO

Multicentre studies are common in epidemiological research aiming at identifying disease risk factors. A major advantage of multicentre over single-centre studies is that, by including a larger number of participants, they allow consideration of rare outcomes and exposures. Their multicentric nature introduces some complexities at the step of data analysis, in particular when it comes to controlling for confounding by centre, which is the focus of this tutorial. Commonly, epidemiologists use one of the following options: pooling all centre-specific data and adjusting for centre using fixed effects; adjusting for centre using random effects; or fitting centre-specific models and combining the results in a meta-analysis. Here, we illustrate the similarities of and differences between these three modelling approaches, explain the reasons why they may provide different conclusions and offer advice on which model to choose depending on the characteristics of the study. Two key issues to examine during the analyses are to distinguish within-centre from between-centre associations, and the possible heterogeneity of the effects (of exposure and/or confounders) by centre. A real epidemiological study is used to illustrate a situation in which these various options yield different results. A synthetic dataset and R and Stata codes are provided to reproduce the results.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29880834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Land use regression (LUR) models are commonly used in environmental epidemiology to assign spatially resolved estimates of air pollution to study participants. In this setting, estimated LUR model parameters are assumed to be transportable to a main study (the ''transportability assumption''). We provide an empirical illustration of how violation of this assumption can affect exposure predictions and bias health-effect estimates. METHODS: We based our simulation on two existing LUR models, one for nitrogen dioxide, the other for particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm. We assessed the impact of error in exposure determinants used in the LUR models on resultant air pollution predictions and on bias in an exposure-health-effect estimate assessed in a hypothetical cohort. We assigned error to predictors at monitoring sites (sites used to develop the LUR model) and at prediction sites (sites for which exposure predictions were needed), allowing for different error levels between site types. RESULTS: Realistic error in the exposure determinants of the selected LUR models did not induce large additional error in exposure predictions and resulted in only minor (<1%) bias in health-effect estimates. Bias in the health-effect estimates strongly increased (up to 13.6%) when exposure determinant errors were different for monitoring sites than for prediction sites. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that only modest reductions in bias in estimated exposure health-effects are to be expected from reducing error in exposure determinants. It is important to avoid heterogeneous errors in exposure determinants between monitoring sites and prediction sites to satisfy the transportability assumption and avoid bias in estimated exposure health-effects.

20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(4): 047016, 2018 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29714963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green space may influence health through several pathways, for example, increased physical activity, enhanced social cohesion, reduced stress, and improved air quality. For green space to increase physical activity and social cohesion, spending time in green spaces is likely to be important. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether adolescents visit green spaces and for what purposes. Furthermore, we assessed the predictors of green space visits. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data for 1911 participants of the Dutch PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy) birth cohort were analyzed. At age 17, adolescents reported how often they visited green spaces for physical activities, social activities, relaxation, and to experience nature and quietness. We assessed the predictors of green space visits altogether and for different purposes by log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Fifty-three percent of the adolescents visited green spaces at least once a week in summer, mostly for physical and social activities. Adolescents reporting that a green environment was (very) important to them visited green spaces most frequently {adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] very vs. not important: 6.84 (5.10, 9.17) for physical activities and 4.76 (3.72, 6.09) for social activities}. Boys and adolescents with highly educated fathers visited green spaces more often for physical and social activities. Adolescents who own a dog visited green spaces more often to experience nature and quietness. Green space visits were not associated with the objectively measured quantity of residential green space, i.e., the average normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentages of urban, agricultural, and natural green space in circular buffers around the adolescents' homes. CONCLUSIONS: Subjective variables are stronger predictors of green space visits in adolescents than the objectively measured quantity of residential green space. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2429.

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