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J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(6): 744-754, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395124


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients presenting with syncope to the emergency department (ED) is largely unknown. This information, however, is necessary to balance the potential medical benefit or harm of systematic PE screening in patients presenting with syncope to the ED. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the prevalence of PE in patients with syncope. METHODS: Unselected patients presenting with syncope to the ED were prospectively enrolled in a diagnostic multicenter study. Pre-test clinical probability for PE was assessed using the 2-level Wells score and the results of D-dimer testing using age-adapted cutoffs. Presence of PE was evaluated by imaging modalities, when ordered as part of the clinical assessment by the treating ED physician or by long-term follow-up data. RESULTS: Long-term follow-up was complete in 1,380 patients (99%) at 360 days and 1,156 patients (83%) at 720 days. Among 1,397 patients presenting with syncope to the ED, PE was detected at presentation in 19 patients (1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87% to 2.11%). The incidence of new PEs or cardiovascular death during 2-year follow-up was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5% to 1.5%). In the subgroup of patients hospitalized (47%), PE was detected at presentation in 15 patients (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.4% to 3.7%). The incidence of new PEs or cardiovascular death during 2-year follow-up was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4% to 2.0%). CONCLUSIONS: PE seems to be a rather uncommon cause of syncope among patients presenting to the ED. Therefore, systematic PE-screening in all patients with syncope does not seem warranted. (BAsel Syncope EvaLuation Study [BASEL IX]; NCT01548352).

Front Pediatr ; 7: 208, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192175


Background: Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) are well-established immunodiagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) in adults. In children these tests are associated with higher rates of false-negative and indeterminate results. Age is presumed to be one factor influencing cytokine release and therefore test performance. The aim of this study was to systematically review factors associated with indeterminate IGRA results in pediatric patients. Methods: Systematic literature review guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Studies reporting results of at least one commercially available IGRA (QuantiFERON-TB, T-SPOT.TB) in pediatric patient groups were included. Random effects meta-analysis was used to assess proportions of indeterminate IGRA results. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 value. Risk differences were calculated for studies comparing QuantiFERON-TB and T-SPOT.TB in the same study. Meta-regression was used to further explore the influence of study level variables on heterogeneity. Results: Of 1,293 articles screened, 133 studies were included in the final analysis. These assessed QuantiFERON-TB only in 77.4% (103/133), QuantiFERON-TB and T-SPOT.TB in 15.8% (21/133), and T-SPOT.TB only in 6.8% (9/133) resulting in 155 datasets including 107,418 participants. Overall 4% of IGRA results were indeterminate, and T-SPOT.TB (0.03, 95% CI 0.02-0.05) and QuantiFERON-TB assays (0.05, 95% CI 0.04-0.06) showed similar proportions of indeterminate results; pooled risk difference was-0.01 (95% CI -0.03 to 0.00). Significant differences with lower proportions of indeterminate assays with T-SPOT.TB compared to QuantiFERON-TB were only seen in subgroup analyses of studies performed in Africa and in non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients. Meta-regression confirmed lower proportions of indeterminate results for T-SPOT.TB compared to QuantiFERON-TB only among studies that reported results from non-HIV-infected immunocompromised patients (p < 0.001). Conclusion: On average indeterminate IGRA results occur in 1 in 25 tests performed. Overall, there was no difference in the proportion of indeterminate results between both commercial assays. However, our findings suggest that in patients in Africa and/or patients with immunocompromising conditions other than HIV infection the T-SPOT.TB assay appears to produce fewer indeterminate results.