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1.
Nano Lett ; 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449567

RESUMO

Recent experiments demonstrated that interfacial water dissociation (H2O ⇆ H+ + OH-) could be accelerated exponentially by an electric field applied to graphene electrodes, a phenomenon related to the Wien effect. Here we report an order-of-magnitude acceleration of the interfacial water dissociation reaction under visible-light illumination. This process is accompanied by spatial separation of protons and hydroxide ions across one-atom-thick graphene and enhanced by strong interfacial electric fields. The found photoeffect is attributed to the combination of graphene's perfect selectivity with respect to protons, which prevents proton-hydroxide recombination, and to proton transport acceleration by the Wien effect, which occurs in synchrony with the water dissociation reaction. Our findings provide fundamental insights into ion dynamics near atomically thin proton-selective interfaces and suggest that strong interfacial fields can enhance and tune very fast ionic processes, which is of relevance for applications in photocatalysis and designing reconfigurable materials.

2.
Nano Lett ; 22(15): 6268-6275, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857927

RESUMO

Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures continue to attract intense interest as a route of designing materials with novel properties that cannot be found in nature. Unfortunately, this approach is currently limited to only a few layers that can be stacked on top of each other. Here, we report a bulk vdW material consisting of superconducting 1H TaS2 monolayers interlayered with 1T TaS2 monolayers displaying charge density waves (CDW). This bulk vdW heterostructure is created by phase transition of 1T-TaS2 to 6R at 800 °C in an inert atmosphere. Its superconducting transition (Tc) is found at 2.6 K, exceeding the Tc of the bulk 2H phase. Using first-principles calculations, we argue that the coexistence of superconductivity and CDW within 6R-TaS2 stems from amalgamation of the properties of adjacent 1H and 1T monolayers, where the former dominates the superconducting state and the latter the CDW behavior.

3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4031, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821120

RESUMO

Nanoporous membranes based on two dimensional materials are predicted to provide highly selective gas transport in combination with extreme permeance. Here we investigate membranes made from multilayer graphdiyne, a graphene-like crystal with a larger unit cell. Despite being nearly a hundred of nanometers thick, the membranes allow fast, Knudsen-type permeation of light gases such as helium and hydrogen whereas heavy noble gases like xenon exhibit strongly suppressed flows. Using isotope and cryogenic temperature measurements, the seemingly conflicting characteristics are explained by a high density of straight-through holes (direct porosity of ∼0.1%), in which heavy atoms are adsorbed on the walls, partially blocking Knudsen flows. Our work offers important insights into intricate transport mechanisms playing a role at nanoscale.

5.
Adv Mater ; 34(16): e2110464, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084782

RESUMO

Liquid crystal devices using organic molecules are nowadays widely used to modulate transmitted light, but this technology still suffers from relatively weak response, high cost, toxicity and environmental concerns, and cannot fully meet the demand of future sustainable society. Here, an alternative approach to color-tunable optical devices, which is based on sustainable inorganic liquid crystals derived from 2D mineral materials abundant in nature, is described. The prototypical 2D mineral of vermiculite is massively produced by a green method, possessing size-to-thickness aspect ratios of >103 , in-plane magnetization of >10 emu g-1 , and an optical bandgap of >3 eV. These characteristics endow 2D vermiculite with sensitive magneto-birefringence response, been several orders of magnitude larger than organic counterparts, as well as capability of broad-spectrum modulation. The finding consequently permits the fabrication of various magnetochromic or mechanochromic devices with low or even zero-energy consumption during operation. This work creates opportunities for the application of sustainable materials in advanced optics.

6.
Adv Mater ; 33(39): e2103257, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365697

RESUMO

Superconductors with nontrivial band structure topology represent a class of materials with unconventional and potentially useful properties. Recent years have seen much success in creating artificial hybrid structures exhibiting the main characteristics of 2D topological superconductors. Yet, bulk materials known to combine inherent superconductivity with nontrivial topology remain scarce, largely because distinguishing their central characteristic-the topological surface states-has proved challenging due to a dominant contribution from the superconducting bulk. In this work, a highly anomalous behavior of surface superconductivity in topologically nontrivial 3D superconductor In2 Bi, where the surface states result from its nontrivial band structure, itself a consequence of the non-symmorphic crystal symmetry and strong spin-orbit coupling, is reported. In contrast to smoothly decreasing diamagnetic susceptibility above the bulk critical field, Hc2 , as seen in conventional superconductors, a near-perfect, Meissner-like screening of low-frequency magnetic fields well above Hc2 is observed. The enhanced diamagnetism disappears at a new phase transition close to the critical field of surface superconductivity, Hc3 . Using theoretical modeling, the anomalous screening is shown to be consistent with modification of surface superconductivity by the topological surface states. The possibility of detecting signatures of the surface states using macroscopic magnetization provides a new tool for the discovery and identification of topological superconductors.

7.
Nano Lett ; 21(15): 6678-6683, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296602

RESUMO

We describe how the out-of-plane dielectric polarizability of monolayer graphene influences the electrostatics of bilayer graphene-both Bernal (BLG) and twisted (tBLG). We compare the polarizability value computed using density functional theory with the output from previously published experimental data on the electrostatically controlled interlayer asymmetry potential in BLG and data on the on-layer density distribution in tBLG. We show that monolayers in tBLG are described well by polarizability αexp = 10.8 Å3 and effective out-of-plane dielectric susceptibility ϵz = 2.5, including their on-layer electron density distribution at zero magnetic field and the interlayer Landau level pinning at quantizing magnetic fields.

8.
Nano Lett ; 21(15): 6356-6358, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296884
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3092, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035239

RESUMO

Membrane-based applications such as osmotic power generation, desalination and molecular separation would benefit from decreasing water friction in nanoscale channels. However, mechanisms that allow fast water flows are not fully understood yet. Here we report angstrom-scale capillaries made from atomically flat crystals and study the effect of confining walls' material on water friction. A massive difference is observed between channels made from isostructural graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, which is attributed to different electrostatic and chemical interactions at the solid-liquid interface. Using precision microgravimetry and ion streaming measurements, we evaluate the slip length, a measure of water friction, and investigate its possible links with electrical conductivity, wettability, surface charge and polarity of the confining walls. We also show that water friction can be controlled using hybrid capillaries with different slip lengths at opposing walls. The reported advances extend nanofluidics' toolkit for designing smart membranes and mimicking manifold machinery of biological channels.

10.
Adv Mater ; 33(11): e2007682, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522015

RESUMO

2D nanoslit devices, where two crystals with atomically flat surfaces are separated by only a few nanometers, have attracted considerable attention because their tunable control over the confinement allows for the discovery of unusual transport behavior of gas, water, and ions. Here, the passage of double-stranded DNA molecules is studied through nanoslits fabricated from exfoliated 2D materials, such as graphene or hexagonal boron nitride, and the DNA polymer behavior is examined in this tight confinement. Two types of events are observed in the ionic current: long current blockades that signal DNA translocation and short spikes where DNA enters the slits but withdraws. DNA translocation events exhibit three distinct phases in their current-blockade traces-loading, translation, and exit. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation allows the different polymer configurations of these phases to be identified. DNA molecules, including folds and knots in their polymer structure, are observed to slide through the slits with near-uniform velocity without noticeable frictional interactions of DNA with the confining graphene surfaces. It is anticipated that this new class of 2D-nanoslit devices will provide unique ways to study polymer physics and enable lab-on-a-chip biotechnology.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Nanoporos , Grafite/química , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
11.
Sci Adv ; 6(49)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277256

RESUMO

In van der Waals heterostructures, electronic bands of two-dimensional (2D) materials, their nontrivial topology, and electron-electron interactions can be markedly changed by a moiré pattern induced by twist angles between different layers. This process is referred to as twistronics, where the tuning of twist angle can be realized through mechanical manipulation of 2D materials. Here, we demonstrate an experimental technique that can achieve in situ dynamical rotation and manipulation of 2D materials in van der Waals heterostructures. Using this technique, we fabricated heterostructures where graphene is perfectly aligned with both top and bottom encapsulating layers of hexagonal boron nitride. Our technique enables twisted 2D material systems in one single stack with dynamically tunable optical, mechanical, and electronic properties.

12.
Nano Lett ; 20(12): 8634-8639, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179495

RESUMO

Blue energy converts the chemical potential difference from salinity gradients into electricity via reverse electrodialysis and provides a renewable source of clean energy. To achieve high energy conversion efficiency and power density, nanoporous membrane materials with both high ionic conductivity and ion selectivity are required. Here, we report ion transport through a network of holey-graphene-like sheets made by bottom-up polymerization. The resulting ultrathin membranes provide controlled pores of <10 Å in diameter with an estimated density of about 1012 cm-2. The pores' interior contains NH2 groups that become electrically charged with varying pH and allow tunable ion selectivity. Using the holey-graphene-like membranes, we demonstrate power outputs reaching hundreds of watts per square meter. The work shows a viable route toward creating membranes with high-density angstrom-scale pores, which can be used for energy generation, ion separation, and related technologies.

13.
Nature ; 584(7820): 215-220, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788735

RESUMO

Two-dimensional atomic crystals can radically change their properties in response to external influences, such as substrate orientation or strain, forming materials with novel electronic structure1-5. An example is the creation of weakly dispersive, 'flat' bands in bilayer graphene for certain 'magic' angles of twist between the orientations of the two layers6. The quenched kinetic energy in these flat bands promotes electron-electron interactions and facilitates the emergence of strongly correlated phases, such as superconductivity and correlated insulators. However, the very accurate fine-tuning required to obtain the magic angle in twisted-bilayer graphene poses challenges to fabrication and scalability. Here we present an alternative route to creating flat bands that does not involve fine-tuning. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, together with numerical simulations, we demonstrate that graphene monolayers placed on an atomically flat substrate can be forced to undergo a buckling transition7-9, resulting in a periodically modulated pseudo-magnetic field10-14, which in turn creates a 'post-graphene' material with flat electronic bands. When we introduce the Fermi level into these flat bands using electrostatic doping, we observe a pseudogap-like depletion in the density of states, which signals the emergence of a correlated state15-17. This buckling of two-dimensional crystals offers a strategy for creating other superlattice systems and, in particular, for exploring interaction phenomena characteristic of flat bands.

14.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 993-1002, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815429

RESUMO

Marcus-Hush theory of electron transfer is one of the pillars of modern electrochemistry with a large body of supporting experimental evidence presented to date. However, some predictions, such as the electrochemical behavior at disk ultramicroelectrodes, remain unverified. Herein, we present a study of electron tunneling across a hexagonal boron nitride acting as a barrier between a graphite electrode and redox mediators in a liquid solution. This was achieved by the fabrication of disk ultramicroelectrodes with a typical diameter of 5 µm. Analysis of voltammetric measurements, using two common outer-sphere redox mediators, yielded several electrochemical parameters, including the electron transfer rate constant, limiting current, and transfer coefficient. They depart significantly from the Butler-Volmer kinetics and instead show behavior previously predicted by the Marcus-Hush theory of electron transfer. In addition, our system provides a noteworthy experimental platform, which could be applied to address a number of scientific problems such as identification of reaction mechanisms, surface modification, or long-range electron transfer.

15.
Nature ; 576(7785): 75-79, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802019

RESUMO

Hydrodynamics, which generally describes the flow of a fluid, is expected to hold even for fundamental particles such as electrons when inter-particle interactions dominate1. Although various aspects of electron hydrodynamics have been revealed in recent experiments2-11, the fundamental spatial structure of hydrodynamic electrons-the Poiseuille flow profile-has remained elusive. Here we provide direct imaging of the Poiseuille flow of an electronic fluid, as well as a visualization of its evolution from ballistic flow. Using a scanning carbon nanotube single-electron transistor12, we image the Hall voltage of electronic flow through channels of high-mobility graphene. We find that the profile of the Hall field across the channel is a key physical quantity for distinguishing ballistic from hydrodynamic flow. We image the transition from flat, ballistic field profiles at low temperatures into parabolic field profiles at elevated temperatures, which is the hallmark of Poiseuille flow. The curvature of the imaged profiles is qualitatively reproduced by Boltzmann calculations, which allow us to create a 'phase diagram' that characterizes the electron flow regimes. Our results provide direct confirmation of Poiseuille flow in the solid state, and enable exploration of the rich physics of interacting electrons in real space.

16.
Nano Lett ; 19(12): 8526-8532, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664847

RESUMO

In graphite crystals, layers of graphene reside in three equivalent, but distinct, stacking positions typically referred to as A, B, and C projections. The order in which the layers are stacked defines the electronic structure of the crystal, providing an exciting degree of freedom which can be exploited for designing graphitic materials with unusual properties including predicted high-temperature superconductivity and ferromagnetism. However, the lack of control of the stacking sequence limits most research to the stable ABA form of graphite. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to control the stacking order using van der Waals technology. To this end, we first visualize the distribution of stacking domains in graphite films and then perform directional encapsulation of ABC-rich graphite crystallites with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). We found that hBN encapsulation, which is introduced parallel to the graphite zigzag edges, preserves ABC stacking, while encapsulation along the armchair edges transforms the stacking to ABA. The technique presented here should facilitate new research on the important properties of ABC graphite.

17.
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 6475-6481, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426634

RESUMO

Most of the studied two-dimensional (2D) materials have been obtained by exfoliation of van der Waals crystals. Recently, there has been growing interest in fabricating synthetic 2D crystals which have no layered bulk analogues. These efforts have been focused mainly on the surface growth of molecules in high vacuum. Here, we report an approach to making 2D crystals of covalent solids by chemical conversion of van der Waals layers. As an example, we used 2D indium selenide (InSe) obtained by exfoliation and converted it by direct fluorination into indium fluoride (InF3), which has a nonlayered, rhombohedral structure and therefore cannot  possibly be obtained by exfoliation. The conversion of InSe into InF3 is found to be feasible for thicknesses down to three layers of InSe, and the obtained stable InF3 layers are doped with selenium. We study this new 2D material by optical, electron transport, and Raman measurements and show that it is a semiconductor with a direct bandgap of 2.2 eV, exhibiting high optical transparency across the visible and infrared spectral ranges. We also demonstrate the scalability of our approach by chemical conversion of large-area, thin InSe laminates obtained by liquid exfoliation, into InF3 films. The concept of chemical conversion of cleavable thin van der Waals crystals into covalently bonded noncleavable ones opens exciting prospects for synthesizing a wide variety of novel atomically thin covalent crystals.

18.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(8): 756-761, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285609

RESUMO

When two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) are exposed to a magnetic field, they resonantly absorb electromagnetic radiation via electronic transitions between Landau levels1. In 2DEGs with a Dirac spectrum, such as graphene, theory predicts an exceptionally high infrared magneto-absorption, even at zero doping2-5. However, the measured Landau-level magneto-optical effects in graphene have been much weaker than expected2,6-12 because of imperfections in the samples available for such experiments. Here, we measure magneto-transmission and Faraday rotation in high-mobility encapsulated monolayer graphene using a custom-designed set-up for magneto-infrared microspectroscopy. Our results show strongly enhanced magneto-optical activity in the infrared and terahertz ranges, characterized by absorption of light near to the 50% maximum allowed, 100% magnetic circular dichroism and high Faraday rotation. Considering that sizeable effects have been already observed at routinely achievable magnetic fields, our findings demonstrate the potential of magnetic tuning in 2D Dirac materials for long-wavelength optoelectronics and plasmonics.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(1): 016601, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012652

RESUMO

Despite topological protection and the absence of magnetic impurities, two-dimensional topological insulators display quantized conductance only in surprisingly short channels, which can be as short as 100 nm for atomically thin materials. We show that the combined action of short-range nonmagnetic impurities located near the edges and on site electron-electron interactions effectively creates noncollinear magnetic scatterers, and, hence, results in strong backscattering. The mechanism causes deviations from quantization even at zero temperature and for a modest strength of electron-electron interactions. Our theory provides a straightforward conceptual framework to explain experimental results, especially those in atomically thin crystals, plagued with short-range edge disorder.

20.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(5): 480-487, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858521

RESUMO

A variety of physical phenomena associated with nanoscale electron transport often results in non-trivial spatial voltage and current patterns, particularly in nonlocal transport regimes. While numerous techniques have been devised to image electron flows, the need remains for a nanoscale probe capable of simultaneously imaging current and voltage distributions with high sensitivity and minimal invasiveness, in a magnetic field, across a broad range of temperatures and beneath an insulating surface. Here we present a technique for spatially mapping electron flows based on a nanotube single-electron transistor, which achieves high sensitivity for both voltage and current imaging. In a series of experiments using high-mobility graphene devices, we demonstrate the ability of our technique to visualize local aspects of intrinsically nonlocal transport, as in ballistic flows, which are not easily resolvable via existing methods. This technique should aid in understanding the physics of two-dimensional electronic devices and enable new classes of experiments that image electron flow through buried nanostructures in the quantum and interaction-dominated regimes.

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