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1.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842617

RESUMO

Accurate staging and treatment planning are imperative for precise management in Anal Cancer (ACa) patients. We aimed to evaluate the additive and prognostic value of pre-treatment 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (2-[18F]FDG PET/CT) in the staging and management of ACa compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective study was conducted on 54 patients. Pre-treatment 2-[18F]FDG PET/CT studies and MRI reports were compared considering the primary tumor, pelvic lymph nodes, and metastatic lesions. The impact of 2-[18F]FDG PET/CT in the management and its prognostic value, using maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), were assessed. Discordant findings were found in 46.3% of patients (5 in T; 1 in T and N; 18 in N; and 1 in M stage). 2-[18F]FDG PET/CT resulted in up-staging in 9.26% and down-staging in 3.7% of patients. Perirectal lymph nodes were metabolically inactive in 12.9% of patients. Moreover, 2-[18F]FDG PET/CT resulted in management change in 24.1% of patients. Finally, SUVmax provided no prognostic value. 2-[18F]FDG PET/CT altered staging and management in a sizable number of patients in this study, and supports a need for a change in guidelines for it to be used as a routine complementary test in the initial management of ACa.

2.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 45: 102443, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiation has been discussed as a potential causative factor for Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, it is unresolved whether radiation increases the aggressiveness of the immune system or whether it alters the nervous tissue to become vulnerable to a pre-existing autoimmune attackdisposition. We report a patient with an MS-like disease confined to the irradiated part of his central nervous system (CNS). CASE REPORT: within the course of a year, a 29 year-old man developed three relapses that were distinguishable regarding their neurological signs and symptoms. Clinically and on MRI, all relapses were localised to the cervico-thoracic spinal cord (sensory level Th6, monoparesis right leg, sign of Lhermitte). Four years before, he had been diagnosed with supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin´s lymphoma stage IIa. Four courses of chemotherapy with the ABVD-protocol and irradiation with 29,5 Gray led to complete tumour remission. Consecutive MR-imaging of the brain and spinal cord revealed fluctuating and partially contrast-enhancing lesions exclusively in those sections of the spinal cord that were localised in the field irradiated four years before. Treatment with pulsed i.v. steroids led to improvement. CSF analysis showed mild pleocytosis and isolated oligoclonal bands. Extensive work-up for differential diagnoses was negative. Genetic sequencing for DNA repair enzymes and in-vitro assays of the patients peripheral blood mononuclear cells for increased sensitivity to irradiation was unrevealing. CONCLUSION: The fact that this patients MS-like disease was strictly confined to the irradiated parts of the body suggests that the co-occurrence of Hodgkins and MS-like disease was not simple coincidence but that they are pathogenetically linked. An increased aggressiveness of the immune system caused by the radiation is an unlikely explanation as the autoimmune attack would not be expected to spare the non-radiated parts of the CNS. We propose that in our patient the nervous tissue in the radiation clinical target volume was altered by radiation. This alteration of antigenic make-up, in turn, may have enabled an MS-specific autoimmune attack by a pre-existent immunological mechanism. This hypothesis is supported by experimental studies of induction of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in irradiated rats.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental , Doença de Hodgkin , Esclerose Múltipla , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Bleomicina , Dacarbazina , Doxorrubicina , Doença de Hodgkin/complicações , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Ratos , Medula Espinal , Vimblastina
3.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708097

RESUMO

The current study endeavored to closely compare the detection rate of 68-Gallium labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen ([68Ga]Ga-PSMA) versus [18F]Fluorocholine in men with prostate cancer (PC), to investigate the benefits and pitfalls of each modality in the setting of various patient characteristics. We retrospectively analyzed 29 biopsy-proven PC patients in two categories, staging and restaging, who underwent both scans within a maximum of 30 days of each other. Variables including patient demographics, prostate specific antigen (PSA) level, Gleason score, clinical course, and following treatments were recorded. The number and location of suspicious lesions as well as uptake values were noted. A total of 148 suspicious lesions were detected, of which 70.9% (105/148) were concordantly visualized in both imaging modalities. [68Ga]Ga-PSMA positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) revealed a higher number of metastatic lesions per patients (91% vs 78%). The mean of maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max) in concordant lesions was significantly higher in [68Ga]Ga-PSMA compared to [18F]Fluorocholine PET/CT (14.6 ± 8.44 vs. 6.9 ± 3.4, p = 0.001). Discordant lesions were detected by both modalities, but more frequently by [68Ga]Ga-PSMA PET/CT (20.3% in [68Ga]Ga-PSMA versus 8.8% by [18F]Fluorocholine PET/CT). In patients with PSA levels below 1.0 ng/mL and <2.0 ng/mL, [18F]Fluorocholine PET/CT detection rate was half (57% and 55%, respectively) that of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA PET/CT. Tumor, nodes and metastases (TNM) staging, and subsequently patient management, was only influenced in 4/29 patients (14%), particularly by [68Ga]Ga-PSMA PET/CT with PSA values under 0.5 ng/mL. [68Ga]Ga-PSMA PET/CT revealed superior diagnostic performance to [18F]Fluorocholine PET/CT in staging and restaging of PC patients, especially in cases with low PSA levels. However, in a few hormone resistant high-risk PC patients, [18F]Fluorocholine PET/CT may improve overall diagnostic accuracy.

4.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 46(8): 1477-1483, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Morbidity after breast cancer surgery remains low with revision surgery below 5%. This retrospective monocentric study investigates whether new methods like neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT), oncoplastic surgery (OPS) or intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) affect overall morbidity. In addition, we sought to determine a possible effect of morbidity on oncologic outcome. METHODS: Clinical Data from all breast cancer cases, operated at the OnkoZert"- certified Breast Health Center of the "Sisters of Charity Hospital" in Linz between 2011 and 2014, were evaluated. Age (≤/>70), nCT, IORT, surgical technique and histological subtypes were analyzed concerning their impact on morbidity. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS: 829 patients were included, 24% were older than 70y, 19% underwent oncoplasty, 5.5% immediate reconstruction, 17% of the invasive cancers were treated with nCT and 4.1% received IORT. One or more complications occurred in 83 patients (10%), while 62 patients (7.5%) underwent revision surgery. Univariate analysis showed that mastectomy and age >70 doubled the risk of surgical morbidity. Multivariate regression analysis identified age >70 as the only independent prognostic parameter for the occurrence of morbidity (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.41-4.1, p = 0,00134). Morbidity was not associated with worse oncologic outcome in terms of OS or DFS. SUMMARY: In our patient collective, modern techniques such as nCT, OPS or IORT did not influence surgical morbidity rates. Those were only increased by patient's age. Additionally, surgical morbidity did not show any significant impact on OS and DFS.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Radiat Oncol ; 15(1): 111, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410643

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the long-term outcomes of neoadjuvant altered fractionation short-course radiotherapy in 271 consecutive patients with stage II-III rectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective single institution study with median follow-up of 101 months (8.4 years). Patients who were alive at the time of analysis in 2018 were contacted to obtain functional outcome data (phone interview). Radiotherapy consisted of 25 Gy in 10 fractions of 2.5 Gy administered twice daily. Median time interval to surgery was 5 days. RESULTS: Local relapse was observed in 12 patients (4.4%) after a median of 28 months. Overall survival after 5 and 10 years was 73 and 55.5%, respectively (corresponding disease-free survival 65.5 and 51%). Of all patients without permanent stoma, 79% reported no low anterior resection syndrome (LARS; 0-20 points), 9% reported LARS with 21-29 points and 12% serious LARS (30-42 points). CONCLUSION: The present radiotherapy regimen was feasible and resulted in low rates of local relapse. Most patients reported good functional outcomes.


Assuntos
Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Radioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Nucl Med ; 61(10): 1484-1490, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060214

RESUMO

The main objective of this prospective study was to determine the impact of multiphasic acquisition of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the detection of recurrent prostate cancer in the early stage of biochemical recurrence with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of less than 1 ng/mL. Also, 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT positivity was correlated with clinical parameters for the assessment of predictive markers. Methods: A prospective monocentric study was conducted on 135 prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence and a PSA level of less than 1 ng/mL. All patients had undergone initial prostatectomy, with additional radiation therapy in 19.3% of patients and androgen-deprivation therapy in 7.4%. The patients underwent dynamic acquisitions from the prostate bed (1-8 min after injection), standard whole-body acquisitions (60 min after injection), and limited-bed-position delayed acquisitions (120-150 min after injection). The studies were reviewed by 2 board-certified nuclear medicine specialists, independently. A combination of visual and semiquantitative analyses and correlation with morphologic (e.g., MRI) or clinical follow-up findings was used for the final interpretation of lesions as benign or malignant. 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT positivity was also correlated with primary clinical findings. Results: Incorporating the information from all phases, we were able to detect 116 lesions in 49.6% of patients (22 local recurrences, 63 lymph nodes, and 31 distant metastases). The detection rates were 31.8%, 44.9%, and 71.4% for PSA < 0.2 ng/mL, 0.2 ≤ PSA < 0.5, and 0.5 ≤ PSA < 1, respectively. Additional dynamic or delayed phases resulted in better determination of equivocal lesions and a higher diagnostic performance in 25.9% of patients. Stand-alone dynamic and delayed images led to better interpretation of equivocal findings in the prostate bed (31.4%) and in other lesions (lymph node or bone) (20%), respectively. Conclusion: 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT showed promise for early detection of recurrent disease in patients with a PSA level of 0.5-1.0 ng/mL. However, it showed limited value in patients with a PSA level of less than 0.5 ng/mL. Multiphasic 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT led to a better determination of equivocal findings. Although dynamic images may provide helpful information for assessment of the prostate bed, delayed acquisitions seem to have a greater impact in clarifying equivocal findings.


Assuntos
Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Oligopeptídeos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 127: 12-20, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962198

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate long-term results of patients with hormonal receptor-positive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and consecutive endocrine therapy (ET) with or without whole breast irradiation (WBI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Within the 8 A trial of the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group, a total of 869 patients received ET after BCS which was randomly followed by WBI (n = 439, group 1) or observation (n = 430, group 2). WBI was applied up to a mean total dosage of 50 Gy (+/- 10 Gy boost) in conventional fractionation. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 9.89 years, 10 in-breast recurrences (IBRs) were observed in group 1 and 31 in group 2, resulting in a 10-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) of 97.5% and 92.4%, respectively (p = 0.004). This translated into significantly higher rates for disease-free survival (DFS): 94.5% group 1 vs 88.4% group 2, p = 0.0156. For distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS), respective 10-year rates amounted 96.7% and 86.6% for group 1 versus 96.4% and 87.6%, for group 2 (ns). WBI (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.27, p < 0.01) and tumour grading (HR: 3.76, p = 0.03) were found as significant predictors for IBR in multiple cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: After a median follow-up of 10 years, WBI resulted in a better local control and DFS compared with ET alone. The omission of WBI and tumour grading, respectively, were the only negative predictors for LRFS.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Braquiterapia/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Mastectomia Segmentar/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 196(1): 48-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418046

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Published results of quality of life (QoL) studies mostly concern whole brain radiotherapy for limited or multiple brain metastases. This prospective multicentre study was designed to compare the QoL of patients with limited (1-3) brain metastases treated with either whole brain (WBRT) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT). METHODS: From 01/2007-03/2011, 90 limited brain metastases patients who were previously untreated (n = 77) or had undergone primary surgery (n = 13) were recruited at 14 centres in Germany and Austria. QoL was measured with the EORTC-QLQ-C15-PAL and BN20 brain modules before the start of radiotherapy and after 3 months. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (58%) received WBRT and 38 (42%) received SRT. At 3 months, 67 patients (74%) were still living, and 92.6% of the 3­month survivors completed the second set of questionnaires. Analysis of the QLQ-C15-PAL and BN20 scales revealed significant deterioration in patients treated with WBRT and SRT in physical function (p < 0.001 and p = 0.007), fatigue (p < 0.001 and p = 0.036), nausea (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002), appetite loss (p < 0.001 and p = 0.025), drowsiness (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011), hair loss (p = 0.019 and p = 0.023) and itchy skin (p = 0.030 and p = 0.018). Motor dysfunction (p < 0.001), communication deficits (p = 0.002) and leg weakness (p < 0.001) declined significantly only in patients treated with WBRT. Comparing the two radiotherapy techniques over time, the results showed significant differences in symptom scores for future uncertainty, fatigue and appetite loss. CONCLUSIONS: QoL data as an outcome of the paper should be considered in decision making on the irradiation technique in patients with small number of brain metastases. Larger studies are required to verify the results according to subgroups.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Irradiação Craniana/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Atividades Cotidianas/classificação , Alopecia/etiologia , Áustria , Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Transtornos da Comunicação/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Seguimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Rep Pract Oncol Radiother ; 24(4): 315-321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193851

RESUMO

Aim: To report long-term data regarding biochemical control and late toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost intensity modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) with tomotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. Background: Dose escalation improves cancer control after curative intended radiation therapy (RT) to patients with localized prostate cancer, without increasing toxicity, if IMRT is used. Materials and methods: In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated long-term toxicity and biochemical control of the first 40 patients with intermediate risk prostate cancer receiving SIB-IMRT. Primary target volume (PTV) 1 including the prostate and proximal third of the seminal vesicles with safety margins was treated with 70 Gy in 35 fractions. PTV 2 containing the prostate with smaller safety margins was treated as SIB to a total dose of 76 Gy with 2.17 Gy per fraction. Toxicity was evaluated using an adapted CTCAE-Score (Version 3). Results: Median follow-up of living patients was 66 (20-78) months. No late genitourinary toxicity higher than grade 2 has been reported. Grade 2 genitourinary toxicity rates decreased from 58% at the end of the treatment to 10% at 60 months. Late gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was also moderate, though the prescribed PTV Dose of 76 Gy was accepted at the anterior rectal wall. 74% of patients reported any GI toxicity during follow up and no toxicity rates higher than grade 2 were observed. Grade 2 side effects were reported by 13% of the patients at 60 months. 5-year freedom from biochemical failure was 95% at our last follow up. Conclusion: SIB-IMRT using daily MV-CT guidance showed excellent long-term biochemical control and low toxicity rates.

10.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 19(1): 58-62, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze risk factors for ipsilateral in-breast relapse and inferior disease-free survival (DFS) after standard adjuvant whole-breast radiotherapy (± boost and systemic treatment) as part of a multimodal breast-conserving approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Decision trees were built through recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). The median follow-up for all 2161 patients was 114 months (9.5 years). RESULTS: Local relapse in the treated breast was uncommon (actuarial rates after 5 and 10 years were 2.7% and 5.8%, respectively). In RPA, the first split was related to age (52 years), with younger patients having a significantly higher risk of local relapse. The younger patients were stratified further by lymph node ratio (LNR). In patients older than 52 years, lack of endocrine treatment was associated with significantly higher risk. DFS was 80.7% at 10 years. The first split was caused by LNR, and the group with unfavorable LNR (> 0.20) could not be stratified further. Ten-year DFS in this group was as low as 50.6%. Patients with favorable LNR (0-0.20) could be stratified by additional risk factors, in particular primary tumor size. CONCLUSION: RPA is a suitable method to assign patients with early stage breast cancer to different risk groups, both regarding local relapse and DFS. Although age was a major risk factor for local relapse after breast-conserving management, LNR was associated with both endpoints. The systemic treatment approaches used in this study failed to provide satisfactory DFS in patients with LNR > 0.20 and 2 other subgroups.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Mastectomia Segmentar/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 126: 13-18, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review published nomograms that predict endpoints such as overall survival (OS) or risk of intracranial relapse in patients with brain metastases from solid tumors. METHODS: The methods and results of nomogram studies identified by a systematic search were extracted and compared, stratified by endpoint predicted by the respective nomograms. In particular, validation strategies (external/internal), concordance indices (cut-off 0.75) and comparisons to older models were analyzed. RESULTS: Six publications reported on prediction of OS. Most of these analyses focused on one particular primary tumor site, e.g., breast cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma, while the largest study included different primary tumor sites. The median number of patients was 244. Three of six studies included external validation cohorts. With few exceptions, concordance indices <0.75 were reported. In all studies reporting this endpoint, the nomogram outperformed older prognostic scores. Two nomograms focused on development of new brain metastases after radiosurgery (one externally validated), one on survival free from salvage whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) after radiosurgery, and one on neurologic and non-neurologic death in patients receiving radiosurgery after WBRT failure. All concordance indices of these 4 nomograms were <0.70. CONCLUSION: Taking into account concordance indices and comparisons to older prognostic models, the most promising, externally validated nomograms are the breast cancer and the non-small cell lung cancer nomogram predicting OS, and the distant brain failure after radiosurgery nomogram. Additional validation studies as well as continuous monitoring of the models' performance appear necessary to ensure their clinical applicability in the present era of rapidly changing treatment paradigms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/patologia , Nomogramas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Terapia de Salvação , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
12.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 45(7): 1188-1196, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476228

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this prospective study, we evaluated the optimal time-point for 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT acquisition in the assessment of prostate cancer. We also examined, for the first time the feasibility of tracer production using a PSMA-11 sterile cold-kit in the clinical workflow of PET/CT centres. METHODS: Fifty prostate cancer patients (25 staging, 25 biochemical recurrence) were enrolled in this study. All patients received an intravenous dose of 2.0 MBq/kg body weight 68Ga-PSMA-11 prepared using a sterile cold kit (ANMI SA, Liege, Belgium), followed by an early (20 min after injection) semi-whole-body PET/CT scan and a standard-delay (100 min after injection) abdominopelvic PET/CT scan. The detection rates with 68Ga-PSMA-11 were compared between the two acquisitions. The pattern of physiological background activity and tumour to background ratio were also analysed. RESULTS: The total preparation time was reduced to 5 min using the PSMA-11 sterile cold kit, which improved the final radionuclide activity by about 30% per single 68Ge/68Ga generator elution. Overall, 158 pathological lesions were analysed in 45 patients (90%) suggestive of malignancy on both (early and standard-delay) 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images. There was a significant (p < 0.001) increase in SUVmax on delayed images in suspicious prostates (11.6 ± 8.2 to 14.8 ± 1.0) and lymph nodes (LNs; 9.7 ± 5.9 to 12.3 ± 8.8), while bone lesions showed no significant increase (8.5 ± 5.6 to 9.2 ± 7.0, p = 0.188). However, the SUVmax of suspicious lesions on early images was adequate to support the criteria for correct interpretation (mean SUVmax 9.83 ± 6.7).In 26 of 157 lesions, but a decrease in SUV was seen, mostly in subcentimetre lesions in patients with multiple metastases. However, it did not affect the staging of the disease or patient management. The tumour to background ratio of primary prostate lesions and LNs showed a significant (p < 0.001) increase from the early to the standard-delay acquisition, but no significant increase was seen in bony lesions (p = 0.11). CONCLUSION: The PSMA-11 sterile cold kit seems to be feasible for use in routine clinical practice, and it has a shorter radionuclide preparation time and is less operator-dependent than the synthesizer-based production method. In addition, early 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT imaging seems to provide a detection rate comparable with that of standard-delay imaging. Furthermore, the shorter preparation time using the 68Ga-PSMA-11 sterile cold kit and promising value of early PET/CT scanning could allow tailoring of imaging protocols which may reduce the costs and improve the time efficiency in PET/CT centres.


Assuntos
Ácido Edético/análogos & derivados , Oligopeptídeos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Temperatura Baixa , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 194(4): 284-292, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive evaluation of the current national and regional radiotherapy capacity in Austria with an estimation of demands for 2020 and 2030 was performed by the Austrian Society for Radiation Oncology, Radiobiology and Medical Radiophysics (ÖGRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All Austrian centers provided data on the number of megavoltage (MV) units, treatment series, fractions, percentage of retreatments and complex treatment techniques as well as the daily operating hours for the year 2014. In addition, waiting times until the beginning of radiotherapy were prospectively recorded over the first quarter of 2015. National and international epidemiological prediction data were used to estimate future demands. RESULTS: For a population of 8.51 million, 43 MV units were at disposal. In 14 radiooncological centers, a total of 19,940 series with a mean number of 464 patients per MV unit/year and a mean fraction number of 20 (range 16-24) per case were recorded. The average re-irradiation ratio was 14%. The survey on waiting times until start of treatment showed provision shortages in 40% of centers with a mean waiting time of 13.6 days (range 0.5-29.3 days) and a mean maximum waiting time of 98.2 days. Of all centers, 21% had no or only a limited ability to deliver complex treatment techniques. Predictions for 2020 and 2030 indicate an increased need in the overall number of MV units to a total of 63 and 71, respectively. CONCLUSION: This ÖGRO survey revealed major regional differences in radiooncological capacity. Considering epidemiological developments, an aggravation of the situation can be expected shortly. This analysis serves as a basis for improved public regional health care planning.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia/tendências , Sociedades Médicas , Áustria , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Previsões , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Radioterapia/instrumentação , Radioterapia de Alta Energia/instrumentação , Radioterapia de Alta Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia de Alta Energia/tendências , Retratamento/instrumentação , Retratamento/tendências , Listas de Espera
14.
Strahlenther Onkol ; 193(8): 648-655, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) is an established treatment for patients with primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Herein, the effects of definitive and salvage RT on the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations were investigated in patients with prostate cancer to study potential immune effects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 33 prostate cancer patients were treated with definitive (n = 10) or salvage RT (n = 23) after biochemical relapse. The absolute number of lymphocytes and the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry before RT, at the end of RT, and in the follow-up period. RESULTS: Absolute lymphocyte counts decreased significantly after RT in both patient groups and a significant drop was observed in the percentage of B cells directly after RT from 10.1 ± 1.3 to 6.0 ± 0.7% in patients with definitive RT and from 9.2 ± 0.8 to 5.8 ± 0.7% in patients with salvage RT. In contrast, the percentages of T and natural killer (NK) cells remained unaltered directly after RT in both patient groups. However, 1 year after RT, the percentage of CD3+ T cells was significantly lower in patients with definitive and salvage RT. The percentage of regulatory T cells was slightly upregulated in primary prostate cancer patients after definitive RT, but not after salvage RT. CONCLUSION: Definitive and salvage RT exert similar effects on the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations in prostate cancer patients. Total lymphocyte counts are lower in both patient groups compared to healthy controls and further decreased after RT. B cells are more sensitive to definitive and salvage RT than T and NK cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos/efeitos da radiação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Terapia de Salvação/estatística & dados numéricos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Nucl Med ; 57(Suppl 3): 55S-60S, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27694173

RESUMO

18F-fluorocholine is a specific promising agent for imaging tumor cell proliferation, particularly in prostate cancer, using PET/CT. It is a beneficial tool in the early detection of marrow-based metastases because it excludes distant metastases and evaluates the response to hormone therapy. In addition, 18F-fluorocholine has the potential to differentiate between degenerative and malignant osseous abnormalities because degenerative changes are not choline-avid; however, the agent may accumulate in recent traumatic bony lesions. On the other hand, 18F-NaF PET/CT can indicate increased bone turnover and is generally used in the assessment of primary and secondary osseous malignancies, the evaluation of response to treatment, and the clarification of abnormalities on other imaging modalities or clinical data. 18F-NaF PET/CT is a highly sensitive method in the evaluation of bone metastases from prostate cancer, but it has problematic specificity, mainly because of tracer accumulation in degenerative and inflammatory bone diseases. In summary, 18F-NaF PET/CT is a highly sensitive method, but 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT can detect early bone marrow metastases and provide greater specificity in the detection of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer. However, the difference seems not to be significant.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Colina/análogos & derivados , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluoreto de Sódio , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos
17.
Radiat Oncol ; 11: 46, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27000180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To implement total body irradiation (TBI) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). We applied the Varian RapidArc™ software to calculate and optimize the dose distribution. Emphasis was placed on applying a homogenous dose to the PTV and on reducing the dose to the lungs. METHODS: From July 2013 to July 2014 seven patients with leukaemia were planned and treated with a VMAT-based TBI-technique with photon energy of 6 MV. The overall planning target volume (PTV), comprising the whole body, had to be split into 8 segments with a subsequent multi-isocentric planning. In a first step a dose optimization of each single segment was performed. In a second step all these elements were calculated in one overall dose-plan, considering particular constraints and weighting factors, to achieve the final total body dose distribution. The quality assurance comprised the verification of the irradiation plans via ArcCheck™ (Sun Nuclear), followed by in vivo dosimetry via dosimeters (MOSFETs) on the patient. RESULTS: The time requirements for treatment planning were high: contouring took 5-6 h, optimization and dose calculation 25-30 h and quality assurance 6-8 h. The couch-time per fraction was 2 h on day one, decreasing to around 1.5 h for the following fractions, including patient information, time for arc positioning, patient positioning verification, mounting of the MOSFETs and irradiation. The mean lung dose was decreased to at least 80 % of the planned total body dose and in the central parts to 50 %. In two cases we additionally pursued a dose reduction of 30 to 50 % in a pre-irradiated brain and in renal insufficiency. All high dose areas were outside the lungs and other OARs. The planned dose was in line with the measured dose via MOSFETs: in the axilla the mean difference between calculated and measured dose was 3.6 % (range 1.1-6.8 %), and for the wrist/hip-inguinal region it was 4.3 % (range 1.1-8.1 %). CONCLUSION: TBI with VMAT provides the benefit of satisfactory dose distribution within the PTV, while selectively reducing the dose to the lungs and, if necessary, in other organs. Planning time, however, is extensive.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiometria/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Irradiação Corporal Total/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Leucemia/radioterapia , Linfoma de Células T/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Posicionamento do Paciente , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Radiother Oncol ; 118(1): 176-80, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26683801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (ChT) are frequently used to treat this cancer. Adjuvant RT has been shown to cause long-term changes in lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Herein, the time course of changes in lymphocyte subpopulations upon RT was studied in patients with and without adjuvant ChT in order to explore its potential clinical impact. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total lymphocyte counts and the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations before RT (t0), after 30 Gy (t1), at the end of RT (t2), and 6 weeks (t3), 6 months (t4), and 1 year (t5) after RT were studied by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Absolute lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in all breast cancer patients (n=40) before and also 1 year after RT compared to healthy controls. The percentage of CD3(+)/CD4(+) helper T cells and FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells increased significantly in patients without adjuvant ChT. Different NK cell subpopulations dropped during RT in patients with and without ChT, but recovered to initial levels 6months after RT (t4). During RT (t0-t2) the percentage of CD19(+) B cells significantly dropped in patients without ChT, but gradually increased in patients with adjuvant ChT. Both patient groups reached initial levels 6 months after RT (t4). CONCLUSION: Different lymphocyte subpopulations respond differently to RT with and without adjuvant ChT. CD4(+) T cells increase during RT, whereas NK cells and B cells decrease in patients without ChT, but recover within 6 months after RT. Treg cells gradually increase in patients without ChT from t0 to t5, but not in patients with adjuvant ChT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Quimiorradioterapia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Med Dosim ; 40(4): 378-82, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26419857

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of breathing motion on the delivered dose in esophageal cancer 3-dimensional (3D)-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). We assessed 16 patients with esophageal cancer. All patients underwent 4D-computed tomography (4D-CT) for treatment planning. For each of the analyzed patients, 1 3D-CRT, 1 IMRT, and 1 VMAT (RapidArc-RA) plan were calculated. Each of the 3 initial plans was recalculated on the 4D-CT (for the maximum free inspiration and maximum free expiration) to assess the effect of breathing motion. We assessed the minimum dose (Dmin) and mean dose (Dmean) to the esophagus within the planning target volume, the volume changes of the lungs, the Dmean and the total lung volume receiving at least 40Gy (V40), and the V30, V20, V10, and V5. For the heart we assessed the Dmean and the V25. Over all techniques and all patients the change in Dmean as compared with the planned Dmean (planning CT [PCT]) to the esophagus was 0.48% in maximum free inspiration (CT_insp) and 0.55% in maximum free expiration (CT_exp). The Dmin CT_insp change was 0.86% and CT_exp change was 0.89%. The Dmean change of the lungs (heart) was in CT_insp 1.95% (2.89%) and 3.88% (2.38%) in CT_exp. In all, 4 patients had a clinically relevant change of the dose (≥ 5% Dmean to the heart and the lungs) between inspiration and expiration. These patients had a very cranially or caudally situated tumor. There are no relevant differences in the delivered dose to the regions of interest among the 3 techniques. Breathing motion management could be considered to achieve a better sparing of the lungs or heart in patients with cranially or caudally situated tumors.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/radioterapia , Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional , Mecânica Respiratória , Humanos , Movimento , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Tumori ; 101(3): 263-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25908044

RESUMO

AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The primary objective was to assess the different reasons for refusal of surgical resection (SR) in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC), who were initially planned for neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (N-RCT) + SR, but SR was not performed after N-RCT. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: From 1988 to 2011, 311 patients with ESCC were treated with N-RCT in a tertiary referral center for esophageal diseases. Fifty-three patients were analyzed who received RCT with 40-45 Gy and concomitant chemotherapy in neoadjuvant intention, but in whom the treatment was stopped or switched to definitive RCT due to progression, patient decision, or new findings. RESULTS: The reasons for refusal of SR for these 53 patients were as follows: (1) patients' or physicians' preference for the planned treatment was changed during the N-RCT, such that RCT was continued to a curative dose without a break (group 1, n = 23, 44%); (2) patients were restaged after 4 weeks, and the tumor board decided to continue RCT because R0 resection was unlikely and/or patients were medically unfit (group 2, n = 15, 28%); (3) patients refused continuation of any treatment (group 3, n = 15, 28%). Refusal of SR was significantly more likely in patients with longitudinal tumor dimension >8 cm and those with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2. Median follow-up time from the start of N-RCT was 57 months (range 1-137 months). The survival rates at 2 and 5 years were 36 ± 7% and 27 ± 7%, respectively. Group 1 had significantly longer survival. CONCLUSIONS: The planned N-RCT+SR could not be completed in a considerable number of patients in a tertiary referral center. More strict selection criteria for multimodality treatment including SR could spare some of these patients an incomplete treatment and probably lead to increased utilization of definitive RCT.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Esofagectomia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Quimiorradioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Contraindicações , Tomada de Decisões , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Radioterapia Conformacional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Perda de Peso
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