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1.
Cell ; 178(4): 1004-1015.e14, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398326

RESUMO

Lassa virus (LASV) causes hemorrhagic fever and is endemic in West Africa. Protective antibody responses primarily target the LASV surface glycoprotein (GPC), and GPC-B competition group antibodies often show potent neutralizing activity in humans. However, which features confer potent and broadly neutralizing antibody responses is unclear. Here, we compared three crystal structures of LASV GPC complexed with GPC-B antibodies of varying neutralization potency. Each GPC-B antibody recognized an overlapping epitope involved in binding of two adjacent GPC monomers and preserved the prefusion trimeric conformation. Differences among GPC-antibody interactions highlighted specific residues that enhance neutralization. Using structure-guided amino acid substitutions, we increased the neutralization potency and breadth of these antibodies to include all major LASV lineages. The ability to define antibody residues that allow potent and broad neutralizing activity, together with findings from analyses of inferred germline precursors, is critical to develop potent therapeutics and for vaccine design and assessment.

2.
Curr Opin Virol ; 37: 97-104, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401518

RESUMO

Serum from convalescent Lassa fever patients was previously shown to be ineffective as a source of protective antibodies in some early studies. Subsequently, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the Lassa virus (LASV) glycoprotein produced by memory B cells of West African patients who survived Lassa fever were identified. Development of MAbs as potential Lassa immunotherapeutics was facilitated by structural studies and mutational analyses that identified protective epitopes on the prefusion form of the LASV glycoprotein. Human mAbs were screened for reactivity to different neutralizing epitopes, potency, and broad reactivity against multiple lineages of LASV. MAbs were downselected in a guinea pig model of Lassa fever. A cocktail of three human MAbs designated Arevirumab-3 rescued 100% of Cynomolgus macaques at advanced stages of disease more than a week post-infection. Antibody therapeutics may be further developed in clinical trials in endemic areas potentially offering a key treatment option for Lassa fever.

3.
iScience ; 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402258

RESUMO

Here, we show that the US Food and Drug Administration-approved oral drug nitazoxanide (NTZ) broadly amplifies the host innate immune response to viruses and inhibits Ebola virus (EBOV) replication. We find that NTZ enhances retinoic-acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I)-like-receptor, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein, interferon regulatory factor 3, and interferon activities and induces transcription of the antiviral phosphatase GADD34. NTZ significantly inhibits EBOV replication in human cells through its effects on RIG-I and protein kinase R (PKR), suggesting that it counteracts EBOV VP35 protein's ability to block RIG-I and PKR sensing of EBOV. NTZ also inhibits a second negative-strand RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), through RIG-I and GADD34, but not PKR, consistent with VSV's distinct host innate immune evasion mechanisms. Thus, NTZ counteracts varied virus-specific immune evasion strategies by generally enhancing the RNA sensing and interferon axis that is triggered by foreign cytoplasmic RNA exposure, and holds promise as an oral therapy against EBOV.

4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(9): 925-927, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300333
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7329, 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065012

RESUMO

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7755, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123310

RESUMO

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne bunyavirus, can cause a life-threatening hemorrhagic syndrome in humans but not in its animal host. The virus is widely distributed throughout southeastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Disease management has proven difficult and there are no broadly licensed vaccines or therapeutics. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses (rVSV) expressing foreign glycoproteins (GP) have shown promise as experimental vaccines for several viral hemorrhagic fevers. Here, we developed and assessed a replication competent rVSV vector expressing the CCHFV glycoprotein precursor (GPC), which encodes CCHFV structural glycoproteins. This construct drives strong expression of CCHFV-GP, in vitro. Using these vectors, we vaccinated STAT-1 knock-out mice, an animal model for CCHFV. The vector was tolerated and 100% efficacious against challenge from a clinical strain of CCHFV. Anti-CCHFV-GP IgG and neutralizing antibody titers were observed in surviving animals. This study demonstrates that a rVSV expressing only the CCHFV-GP has the potential to serve as a replication competent vaccine platform against CCHF infections.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1144-1152, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107231

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes high case-fatality rates (CFRs) in humans. Two NiV strains have caused outbreaks: the Malaysia strain (NiVM), discovered in 1998-1999 in Malaysia and Singapore (≈40% CFR); and the Bangladesh strain (NiVB), discovered in Bangladesh and India in 2001 (≈80% CFR). Recently, NiVB in African green monkeys resulted in a more severe and lethal disease than NiVM. No NiV vaccines or treatments are licensed for human use. We assessed replication-restricted single-injection recombinant vesicular stomatitis vaccine NiV vaccine vectors expressing the NiV glycoproteins against NiVB challenge in African green monkeys. All vaccinated animals survived to the study endpoint without signs of NiV disease; all showed development of NiV F Ig, NiV G IgG, or both, as well as neutralizing antibody titers. These data show protective efficacy against a stringent and relevant NiVB model of human infection.

8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(1): 49-58.e5, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629918

RESUMO

Recent and ongoing outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD) underscore the unpredictable nature of ebolavirus reemergence and the urgent need for antiviral treatments. Unfortunately, available experimental vaccines and immunotherapeutics are specific for a single member of the Ebolavirus genus, Ebola virus (EBOV), and ineffective against other ebolaviruses associated with EVD, including Sudan virus (SUDV) and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). Here we show that MBP134AF, a pan-ebolavirus therapeutic comprising two broadly neutralizing human antibodies (bNAbs), affords unprecedented effectiveness and potency as a therapeutic countermeasure to antigenically diverse ebolaviruses. MBP134AF could fully protect ferrets against lethal EBOV, SUDV, and BDBV infection, and a single 25-mg/kg dose was sufficient to protect NHPs against all three viruses. The development of MBP134AF provides a successful model for the rapid discovery and translational advancement of immunotherapeutics targeting emerging infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Furões/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular , Cercopithecus aethiops , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Filoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Filoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Filoviridae/virologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Cobaias , Células HEK293 , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Macaca , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Primatas , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
9.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S486-S495, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476250

RESUMO

The domestic ferret is a uniformly lethal model of infection for 3 species of Ebolavirus known to be pathogenic in humans. Reagents to systematically analyze the ferret host response to infection are lacking; however, the recent publication of a draft ferret genome has opened the potential for transcriptional analysis of ferret models of disease. In this work, we present comparative analysis of longitudinally sampled blood taken from ferrets and nonhuman primates infected with lethal doses of the Makona variant of Zaire ebolavirus. Strong induction of proinflammatory and prothrombotic signaling programs were present in both ferrets and nonhuman primates, and both transcriptomes were similar to previously published datasets of fatal cases of human Ebola virus infection.

10.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; 13(11): 1027-1040, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269599

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Small animal models have played a critical role in understanding the pathogenesis and transmission of disease caused by filoviruses. Notably, small animals have served to identify and validate many different approaches to countering infection with these highly pathogenic viruses. Nonetheless, predictive efficacy between each model does not appear to be equivalent as higher order animals seem to be more prognostic and therefore successful in the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM). Areas covered: This review comprehensively details the available small animal models of filovirus infection and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of each model with respect to the development of MCM. An up-to-date evaluation of mouse, hamster, guinea pig, and ferret models is provided. Expert opinion: The recent development of the domestic ferret model for ebolavirus offers a small animal model that faithfully reproduces most features of human disease without the need for viral adaptation or an immunocompromised host. That being said, choosing a small animal model to evaluate a particular MCM must consider potential confounders associated with each model. These confounding issues include incomplete host immune systems or mutations in the challenge virus that enables the disease.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S565-S573, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982718

RESUMO

Background: The 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemics in West Africa highlighted a need for effective therapeutics for treatment of the disease caused by filoviruses. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are promising therapeutic candidates for prophylaxis or treatment of virus infections. Data about efficacy of human mAb monotherapy against filovirus infections in preclinical nonhuman primate models are limited. Methods: Previously, we described a large panel of human mAbs derived from the circulating memory B cells from Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) infection survivors that bind to the surface glycoprotein (GP) of the virus. We tested one of these neutralizing mAbs that recognized the glycan cap of the GP, designated mAb BDBV289, as monotherapy in rhesus macaques. Results: We found that recombinant mAb BDBV289-N could confer up to 100% protection to BDBV-infected rhesus macaques when treatment was initiated as late as 8 days after virus challenge. Protection was associated with survival and decreased viremia levels in the blood of treated animals. Conclusions: These findings define the efficacy of monotherapy of lethal BDBV infection with a glycan cap-specific mAb and identify a candidate mAb therapeutic molecule that could be included in antibody cocktails for prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infections.

12.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S582-S587, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939296

RESUMO

A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing the Marburg virus (MARV) Musoke variant glycoprotein fully protects macaques against 2 MARV variants and Ravn virus as a preventive vaccine and MARV variant Musoke as a postexposure treatment. To evaluate postexposure efficacy against the most pathogenic MARV variant, Angola, we engineered rVSVs expressing homologous Angola glycoprotein. Macaques were challenged with high or low doses of variant Angola and treated 20-30 minutes after exposure. A total of 25% and 60%-75% of treated macaques survived the high-dose and low-dose challenges, respectively. The more rapid disease progression of variant Angola versus variant Musoke may account for the incomplete protection observed.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S553-S564, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939318

RESUMO

Background: Several vaccine platforms have been successfully evaluated for prevention of Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) in nonhuman primates and humans. Despite remarkable efficacy by multiple vaccines, the immunological correlates of protection against EVD are incompletely understood. Methods: We systematically evaluated the antibody response to various EBOV proteins in 79 nonhuman primates vaccinated with various EBOV vaccine platforms. We evaluated the serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G titers against EBOV glycoprotein (GP), the ability of the vaccine-induced antibodies to bind GP at acidic pH or to displace ZMapp, and virus neutralization titers. The correlation of these outcomes with survival from EVD was evaluated by appropriate statistical methods. Results: Irrespective of the vaccine platform, protection from EVD strongly correlated with anti-GP IgG titers. The GP-directed antibody levels required for protection in animals vaccinated with virus-like particles (VLPs) lacking nucleoprotein (NP) was significantly higher than animals immunized with NP-containing VLPs or adenovirus-expressed GP, platforms that induce strong T-cell responses. Furthermore, protective immune responses correlated with anti-GP antibody binding strength at acidic pH, neutralization of GP-expressing pseudovirions, and the ability to displace ZMapp components from GP. Conclusions: These findings suggest key quantitative and qualitative attributes of antibody response to EVD vaccines as potential correlates of protection.

14.
J Infect Dis ; 218(suppl_5): S448-S452, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955887

RESUMO

The domestic ferret was recently described as a uniformly lethal model for 3 species of Ebolavirus. More importantly, this new model utilizes nonadapted wild-type Ebolaviruses. Here, in a proof-of-concept study, we infected ferrets with different variants of the closely related Marburg and Ravn viruses using different doses and routes of exposure. Although ferrets produced a neutralizing humoral response to challenge, we did not observe disease or viremia in any animal. The lack of disease in ferrets underscores the notion that differential mechanisms to immunity among filoviruses exist and may provide a model to better understand how differences contribute to disease.

15.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725132

RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/nrd.2017.251.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5939, 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651117

RESUMO

Lassa fever, a hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV), is endemic in West Africa. It is difficult to distinguish febrile illnesses that are common in West Africa from Lassa fever based solely on a patient's clinical presentation. The field performance of recombinant antigen-based Lassa fever immunoassays was compared to that of quantitative polymerase chain assays (qPCRs) using samples from subjects meeting the case definition of Lassa fever presenting to Kenema Government Hospital in Sierra Leone. The recombinant Lassa virus (ReLASV) enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for detection of viral antigen in blood performed with 95% sensitivity and 97% specificity using a diagnostic standard that combined results of the immunoassays and qPCR. The ReLASV rapid diagnostic test (RDT), a lateral flow immunoassay based on paired monoclonal antibodies to the Josiah strain of LASV (lineage IV), performed with 90% sensitivity and 100% specificity. ReLASV immunoassays performed better than the most robust qPCR currently available, which had 82% sensitivity and 95% specificity. The performance characteristics of recombinant antigen-based Lassa virus immunoassays indicate that they can aid in the diagnosis of LASV Infection and inform the clinical management of Lassa fever patients.

18.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 18(6): 594-595, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523495
19.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192312, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462200

RESUMO

The search for a universal filovirus vaccine that provides protection against multiple filovirus species has been prompted by sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus infections. A good prophylactic vaccine should be able to provide protection to all known filovirus species and as an upside potentially protect from newly emerging virus strains. We investigated the immunogenicity and protection elicited by multivalent vaccines expressing glycoproteins (GP) from Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and Marburg virus (MARV). Immune responses against filovirus GP have been associated with protection from disease. The GP antigens were expressed by adenovirus serotypes 26 and 35 (Ad26 and Ad35) and modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors, all selected for their strong immunogenicity and good safety profile. Using fully lethal NHP intramuscular challenge models, we assessed different vaccination regimens for immunogenicity and protection from filovirus disease. Heterologous multivalent Ad26-Ad35 prime-boost vaccination regimens could give full protection against MARV (range 75%-100% protection) and EBOV (range 50% to 100%) challenge, and partial protection (75%) against SUDV challenge. Heterologous multivalent Ad26-MVA prime-boost immunization gave full protection against EBOV challenge in a small cohort study. The use of such multivalent vaccines did not show overt immune interference in comparison with monovalent vaccines. Multivalent vaccines induced GP-specific antibody responses and cellular IFNγ responses to each GP expressed by the vaccine, and cross-reactivity to TAFV GP was detected in a trivalent vaccine expressing GP from EBOV, SUDV and MARV. In the EBOV challenge studies, higher humoral EBOV GP-specific immune responses (p = 0.0004) were associated with survival from EBOV challenge and less so for cellular immune responses (p = 0.0320). These results demonstrate that it is feasible to generate a multivalent filovirus vaccine that can protect against lethal infection by multiple members of the filovirus family.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Doença do Vírus de Marburg/prevenção & controle , Marburgvirus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino
20.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 17(6): 413-434, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29375139

RESUMO

The filoviruses - Ebola virus and Marburg virus - cause lethal haemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Filoviruses present a global health threat both as naturally acquired diseases and as potential agents of bioterrorism. In the recent 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus, the most promising therapies for post-exposure use with demonstrated efficacy in the gold-standard NHP models of filovirus disease were unable to show statistically significant protection in patients infected with Ebola virus. This Review briefly discusses these failures and what has been learned from these experiences, and summarizes the current status of post-exposure medical countermeasures in development, including antibodies, small interfering RNA and small molecules. We outline how our current knowledge could be applied to the identification of novel interventions and ways to use interventions more effectively.

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