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1.
Curr Opin Immunol ; 62: 1-8, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670115

RESUMO

Macrophages are found in large numbers in the adipose tissue where they closely associate with the adipocytes and the vasculature. Adipose tissue macrophages are a heterogenous population of cells with 'hard wired' diversity brought upon by distinct developmental lineages. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief history of macrophages in control of adipose tissue metabolism with the emphasis on the importance of macrophage ontogeny.

2.
Dev Cell ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735669

RESUMO

The use of adult Drosophila melanogaster as a model for hematopoiesis or organismal immunity has been debated. Addressing this question, we identify an extensive reservoir of blood cells (hemocytes) at the respiratory epithelia (tracheal air sacs) of the thorax and head. Lineage tracing and functional analyses demonstrate that the majority of adult hemocytes are phagocytic macrophages (plasmatocytes) from the embryonic lineage that parallels vertebrate tissue macrophages. Surprisingly, we find no sign of adult hemocyte expansion. Instead, hemocytes play a role in relaying an innate immune response to the blood cell reservoir: through Imd signaling and the Jak/Stat pathway ligand Upd3, hemocytes act as sentinels of bacterial infection, inducing expression of the antimicrobial peptide Drosocin in respiratory epithelia and colocalizing fat body domains. Drosocin expression in turn promotes animal survival after infection. Our work identifies a multi-signal relay of organismal humoral immunity, establishing adult Drosophila as model for inter-organ immunity.

3.
Nat Med ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768065

RESUMO

Histiocytoses are clonal hematopoietic disorders frequently driven by mutations mapping to the BRAF and MEK1 and MEK2 kinases. Currently, however, the developmental origins of histiocytoses in patients are not well understood, and clinically meaningful therapeutic targets outside of BRAF and MEK are undefined. In this study, we uncovered activating mutations in CSF1R and rearrangements in RET and ALK that conferred dramatic responses to selective inhibition of RET (selpercatinib) and crizotinib, respectively, in patients with histiocytosis.

4.
Immunity ; 51(4): 655-670.e8, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587991

RESUMO

Tissue environment plays a powerful role in establishing and maintaining the distinct phenotypes of resident macrophages, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we characterized transcriptomic and epigenetic changes in repopulating liver macrophages following acute Kupffer cell depletion as a means to infer signaling pathways and transcription factors that promote Kupffer cell differentiation. We obtained evidence that combinatorial interactions of the Notch ligand DLL4 and transforming growth factor-b (TGF-ß) family ligands produced by sinusoidal endothelial cells and endogenous LXR ligands were required for the induction and maintenance of Kupffer cell identity. DLL4 regulation of the Notch transcriptional effector RBPJ activated poised enhancers to rapidly induce LXRα and other Kupffer cell lineage-determining factors. These factors in turn reprogrammed the repopulating liver macrophage enhancer landscape to converge on that of the original resident Kupffer cells. Collectively, these findings provide a framework for understanding how macrophage progenitor cells acquire tissue-specific phenotypes.

5.
Nature ; 568(7753): 541-545, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971820

RESUMO

Osteoclasts are multinucleated giant cells that resorb bone, ensuring development and continuous remodelling of the skeleton and the bone marrow haematopoietic niche. Defective osteoclast activity leads to osteopetrosis and bone marrow failure1-9, whereas excess activity can contribute to bone loss and osteoporosis10. Osteopetrosis can be partially treated by bone marrow transplantation in humans and mice11-18, consistent with a haematopoietic origin of osteoclasts13,16,19 and studies that suggest that they develop by fusion of monocytic precursors derived from haematopoietic stem cells in the presence of CSF1 and RANK ligand1,20. However, the developmental origin and lifespan of osteoclasts, and the mechanisms that ensure maintenance of osteoclast function throughout life in vivo remain largely unexplored. Here we report that osteoclasts that colonize fetal ossification centres originate from embryonic erythro-myeloid progenitors21,22. These erythro-myeloid progenitor-derived osteoclasts are required for normal bone development and tooth eruption. Yet, timely transfusion of haematopoietic-stem-cell-derived monocytic cells in newborn mice is sufficient to rescue bone development in early-onset autosomal recessive osteopetrosis. We also found that the postnatal maintenance of osteoclasts, bone mass and the bone marrow cavity involve iterative fusion of circulating blood monocytic cells with long-lived osteoclast syncytia. As a consequence, parabiosis or transfusion of monocytic cells results in long-term gene transfer in osteoclasts in the absence of haematopoietic-stem-cell chimerism, and can rescue an adult-onset osteopetrotic phenotype caused by cathepsin K deficiency23,24. In sum, our results identify the developmental origin of osteoclasts and a mechanism that controls their maintenance in bones after birth. These data suggest strategies to rescue osteoclast deficiency in osteopetrosis and to modulate osteoclast activity in vivo.

6.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578351

RESUMO

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rß1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12-dependent IFN-γ immunity and IL-23-dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL-12 or IL-23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αß T, γδ T, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-23. We also show that the development of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium-specific TH1* cells (CD45RA-CCR6+), is dependent on both IL-12 and IL-23. Last, we show that IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, relative to IL-12Rß1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. There are fewer symptomatic IL-23R- and IL-12Rß2-deficient than IL-12Rß1-deficient patients, not because these genetic disorders are rarer, but because the isolated absence of IL-12 or IL-23 is, in part, compensated by the other cytokine for the production of IFN-γ, thereby providing some protection against mycobacteria. These experiments of nature show that human IL-12 and IL-23 are both required for optimal IFN-γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-23/deficiência , Interleucina-23/genética , Linhagem
7.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578352

RESUMO

Inherited IL-12Rß1 and TYK2 deficiencies impair both IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity and are rare monogenic causes of tuberculosis, each found in less than 1/600,000 individuals. We show that homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A allele, which is found in about 1/600 Europeans and between 1/1000 and 1/10,000 individuals in regions other than East Asia, is more frequent in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis from endemic areas than in ethnicity-adjusted controls (P = 8.37 × 10-8; odds ratio, 89.31; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1725). Moreover, the frequency of P1104A in Europeans has decreased, from about 9% to 4.2%, over the past 4000 years, consistent with purging of this variant by endemic tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we also show that TYK2 P1104A impairs cellular responses to IL-23, but not to IFN-α, IL-10, or even IL-12, which, like IL-23, induces IFN-γ via activation of TYK2 and JAK2. Moreover, TYK2 P1104A is properly docked on cytokine receptors and can be phosphorylated by the proximal JAK, but lacks catalytic activity. Last, we show that the catalytic activity of TYK2 is essential for IL-23, but not IL-12, responses in cells expressing wild-type JAK2. In contrast, the catalytic activity of JAK2 is redundant for both IL-12 and IL-23 responses, because the catalytically inactive P1057A JAK2, which is also docked and phosphorylated, rescues signaling in cells expressing wild-type TYK2. In conclusion, homozygosity for the catalytically inactive P1104A missense variant of TYK2 selectively disrupts the induction of IFN-γ by IL-23 and is a common monogenic etiology of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , TYK2 Quinase/genética , Tuberculose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interleucina-23/deficiência , TYK2 Quinase/imunologia
8.
J Exp Med ; 215(10): 2536-2553, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201786

RESUMO

Tissue-resident macrophages can self-maintain without contribution of adult hematopoiesis. Herein we show that tissue-resident interstitial macrophages (Res-TAMs) in mouse lungs contribute to the pool of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) together with CCR2-dependent recruited macrophages (MoD-TAMs). Res-TAMs largely correlated with tumor cell growth in vivo, while MoD-TAMs accumulation was associated with enhanced tumor spreading. Both cell subsets were depleted after chemotherapy, but MoD-TAMs rapidly recovered and performed phagocytosis-mediated tumor clearance. Interestingly, anti-VEGF treatment combined with chemotherapy inhibited both Res and Mod-TAM reconstitution without affecting monocyte infiltration and improved its efficacy. Our results reveal that the developmental origin of TAMs dictates their relative distribution, function, and response to cancer therapies in lung tumors.

9.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 973-985, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127434

RESUMO

Human inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial diseases. We describe patients with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) disease who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of SPPL2A. This gene encodes a transmembrane protease that degrades the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 (HLA invariant chain) in antigen-presenting cells. The CD74 NTF therefore accumulates in the HLA class II+ myeloid and lymphoid cells of SPPL2a-deficient patients. This toxic fragment selectively depletes IL-12- and IL-23-producing CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and their circulating progenitors. Moreover, SPPL2a-deficient memory TH1* cells selectively fail to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Finally, Sppl2a-/- mice lack cDC2s, have CD4+ T cells that produce small amounts of IFN-γ after BCG infection, and are highly susceptible to infection with BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that inherited SPPL2a deficiency in humans underlies mycobacterial disease by decreasing the numbers of cDC2s and impairing IFN-γ production by mycobacterium-specific memory TH1* cells.

10.
Elife ; 72018 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29537367

RESUMO

Most humans are exposed to Tropheryma whipplei (Tw). Whipple's disease (WD) strikes only a small minority of individuals infected with Tw (<0.01%), whereas asymptomatic chronic carriage is more common (<25%). We studied a multiplex kindred, containing four WD patients and five healthy Tw chronic carriers. We hypothesized that WD displays autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance, with age-dependent incomplete penetrance. We identified a single very rare non-synonymous mutation in the four patients: the private R98W variant of IRF4, a transcription factor involved in immunity. The five Tw carriers were younger, and also heterozygous for R98W. We found that R98W was loss-of-function, modified the transcriptome of heterozygous leukocytes following Tw stimulation, and was not dominant-negative. We also found that only six of the other 153 known non-synonymous IRF4 variants were loss-of-function. Finally, we found that IRF4 had evolved under purifying selection. AD IRF4 deficiency can underlie WD by haploinsufficiency, with age-dependent incomplete penetrance.

11.
Hypertension ; 71(1): 87-94, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29133360

RESUMO

Direct targeting to the kidneys is a promising strategy to improve drug therapeutic index for the treatment of kidney diseases. We sought to investigate the renal selectivity and safety of kidney-targeted mesoscale nanoparticle technology. We found that direct intravenous administration of these particles resulted in 26-fold renal selectivity and localized negligibly in the liver or other organs. The nanoparticles targeted the renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, as evidenced by intravital microscopy and ex vivo imaging. Mice treated with the nanoparticles exhibited no negative systemic consequences, immune reaction, liver impairment, or renal impairment. The localization of material selectively to the renal tubules is uncommon, and this work portends the development of renal-targeted drugs for the treatment of kidney diseases.


Assuntos
Nefropatias , Túbulos Renais Proximais , Nanopartículas , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/terapia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/diagnóstico por imagem , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/patologia , Camundongos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Eliminação Renal , Distribuição Tecidual
12.
Nature ; 549(7672): 389-393, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854169

RESUMO

The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases is poorly understood and there are few therapeutic options. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction and loss, and chronic glial activation. Whether microglial activation, which is generally viewed as a secondary process, is harmful or protective in neurodegeneration remains unclear. Late-onset neurodegenerative disease observed in patients with histiocytoses, which are clonal myeloid diseases associated with somatic mutations in the RAS-MEK-ERK pathway such as BRAF(V600E), suggests a possible role of somatic mutations in myeloid cells in neurodegeneration. Yet the expression of BRAF(V600E) in the haematopoietic stem cell lineage causes leukaemic and tumoural diseases but not neurodegenerative disease. Microglia belong to a lineage of adult tissue-resident myeloid cells that develop during organogenesis from yolk-sac erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) distinct from haematopoietic stem cells. We therefore hypothesized that a somatic BRAF(V600E) mutation in the EMP lineage may cause neurodegeneration. Here we show that mosaic expression of BRAF(V600E) in mouse EMPs results in clonal expansion of tissue-resident macrophages and a severe late-onset neurodegenerative disorder. This is associated with accumulation of ERK-activated amoeboid microglia in mice, and is also observed in human patients with histiocytoses. In the mouse model, neurobehavioural signs, astrogliosis, deposition of amyloid precursor protein, synaptic loss and neuronal death were driven by ERK-activated microglia and were preventable by BRAF inhibition. These results identify the fetal precursors of tissue-resident macrophages as a potential cell-of-origin for histiocytoses and demonstrate that a somatic mutation in the EMP lineage in mice can drive late-onset neurodegeneration. Moreover, these data identify activation of the MAP kinase pathway in microglia as a cause of neurodegeneration and this offers opportunities for therapeutic intervention aimed at the prevention of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Células Precursoras Eritroides/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Mutação , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/patologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Animais , Células Clonais/enzimologia , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Células Clonais/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Precursoras Eritroides/enzimologia , Células Precursoras Eritroides/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Histiocitose/enzimologia , Histiocitose/genética , Histiocitose/metabolismo , Histiocitose/patologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia/enzimologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Mosaicismo , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/enzimologia , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/enzimologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/metabolismo
13.
J Clin Invest ; 127(5): 1991-2006, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414293

RESUMO

Inborn errors of DNA repair or replication underlie a variety of clinical phenotypes. We studied 5 patients from 4 kindreds, all of whom displayed intrauterine growth retardation, chronic neutropenia, and NK cell deficiency. Four of the 5 patients also had postnatal growth retardation. The association of neutropenia and NK cell deficiency, which is unusual among primary immunodeficiencies and bone marrow failures, was due to a blockade in the bone marrow and was mildly symptomatic. We discovered compound heterozygous rare mutations in Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex subunit 1 (GINS1, also known as PSF1) in the 5 patients. The GINS complex is essential for eukaryotic DNA replication, and homozygous null mutations of GINS component-encoding genes are embryonic lethal in mice. The patients' fibroblasts displayed impaired GINS complex assembly, basal replication stress, impaired checkpoint signaling, defective cell cycle control, and genomic instability, which was rescued by WT GINS1. The residual levels of GINS1 activity reached 3% to 16% in patients' cells, depending on their GINS1 genotype, and correlated with the severity of growth retardation and the in vitro cellular phenotype. The levels of GINS1 activity did not influence the immunological phenotype, which was uniform. Autosomal recessive, partial GINS1 deficiency impairs DNA replication and underlies intra-uterine (and postnatal) growth retardation, chronic neutropenia, and NK cell deficiency.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Transtornos do Crescimento , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Células Matadoras Naturais , Neutropenia , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/imunologia , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Neutropenia/genética , Neutropenia/imunologia
14.
Immunity ; 45(6): 1205-1218, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002729

RESUMO

Inflammation triggers the differentiation of Ly6Chi monocytes into microbicidal macrophages or monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Yet, it is unclear whether environmental inflammatory cues control the polarization of monocytes toward each of these fates or whether specialized monocyte progenitor subsets exist before inflammation. Here, we have shown that naive monocytes are phenotypically heterogeneous and contain an NR4A1- and Flt3L-independent, CCR2-dependent, Flt3+CD11c-MHCII+PU.1hi subset. This subset acted as a precursor for FcγRIII+PD-L2+CD209a+, GM-CSF-dependent moDCs but was distal from the DC lineage, as shown by fate-mapping experiments using Zbtb46. By contrast, Flt3-CD11c-MHCII-PU.1lo monocytes differentiated into FcγRIII+PD-L2-CD209a-iNOS+ macrophages upon microbial stimulation. Importantly, Sfpi1 haploinsufficiency genetically distinguished the precursor activities of monocytes toward moDCs or microbicidal macrophages. Indeed, Sfpi1+/- mice had reduced Flt3+CD11c-MHCII+ monocytes and GM-CSF-dependent FcγRIII+PD-L2+CD209a+ moDCs but generated iNOS+ macrophages more efficiently. Therefore, intercellular disparities of PU.1 expression within naive monocytes segregate progenitor activity for inflammatory iNOS+ macrophages or moDCs.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Antígenos Ly/imunologia , Separação Celular , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos , Monócitos/citologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/imunologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
15.
Nat Immunol ; 17(12): 1424-1435, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27695000

RESUMO

The final stages of restriction to the T cell lineage occur in the thymus after the entry of thymus-seeding progenitors (TSPs). The identity and lineage potential of TSPs remains unclear. Because the first embryonic TSPs enter a non-vascularized thymic rudiment, we were able to directly image and establish the functional and molecular properties of embryonic thymopoiesis-initiating progenitors (T-IPs) before their entry into the thymus and activation of Notch signaling. T-IPs did not include multipotent stem cells or molecular evidence of T cell-restricted progenitors. Instead, single-cell molecular and functional analysis demonstrated that most fetal T-IPs expressed genes of and had the potential to develop into lymphoid as well as myeloid components of the immune system. Moreover, studies of embryos deficient in the transcriptional regulator RBPJ demonstrated that canonical Notch signaling was not involved in pre-thymic restriction to the T cell lineage or the migration of T-IPs.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Células Progenitoras Linfoides/fisiologia , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/fisiologia , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Timo/imunologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feto , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Cell ; 166(4): 991-1003, 2016 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27477514

RESUMO

Small immune complexes cause type III hypersensitivity reactions that frequently result in tissue injury. The responsible mechanisms, however, remain unclear and differ depending on target organs. Here, we identify a kidney-specific anatomical and functional unit, formed by resident macrophages and peritubular capillary endothelial cells, which monitors the transport of proteins and particles ranging from 20 to 700 kDa or 10 to 200 nm into the kidney interstitium. Kidney-resident macrophages detect and scavenge circulating immune complexes "pumped" into the interstitium via trans-endothelial transport and trigger a FcγRIV-dependent inflammatory response and the recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils. In addition, FcγRIV and TLR pathways synergistically "super-activate" kidney macrophages when immune complexes contain a nucleic acid. These data identify a physiological function of tissue-resident kidney macrophages and a basic mechanism by which they initiate the inflammatory response to small immune complexes in the kidney.


Assuntos
Doenças do Complexo Imune/imunologia , Rim/citologia , Rim/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo , Células Endoteliais , Macrófagos/citologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Receptores de IgG/imunologia
17.
Science ; 353(6304)2016 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492475

RESUMO

Tissue-resident macrophages support embryonic development and tissue homeostasis and repair. The mechanisms that control their differentiation remain unclear. We report here that erythro-myeloid progenitors in mice generate premacrophages (pMacs) that simultaneously colonize the whole embryo from embryonic day 9.5 in a chemokine-receptor-dependent manner. The core macrophage program initiated in pMacs is rapidly diversified as expression of transcriptional regulators becomes tissue-specific in early macrophages. This process appears essential for macrophage specification and maintenance, as inactivation of Id3 impairs the development of liver macrophages and results in selective Kupffer cell deficiency in adults. We propose that macrophage differentiation is an integral part of organogenesis, as colonization of organ anlagen by pMacs is followed by their specification into tissue macrophages, hereby generating the macrophage diversity observed in postnatal tissues.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Macrófagos/citologia , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/citologia , Organogênese , Animais , Receptor 1 de Quimiocina CX3C , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Indução Embrionária , Células Precursoras Eritroides/citologia , Células Precursoras Eritroides/metabolismo , Feminino , Hematopoese/genética , Hematopoese/fisiologia , Proteínas Inibidoras de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Macrófagos do Fígado/citologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Receptores de Quimiocinas/genética , Transcriptoma
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(25): 3023-30, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27382093

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasia with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes in children. The somatic BRAF(V600E) mutation occurs frequently, but clinical significance remains to be determined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: BRAF(V600E) mutation was investigated in a French LCH cohort. We analyzed associations between mutation status and clinical presentation, extent of disease, reactivation rate, response to therapy, and long-term permanent sequelae. RESULTS: Among 315 patients with successfully determined BRAF status, 173 (54.6%) carried a BRAF(V600E) mutation. Patients with BRAF(V600E) manifested more severe disease than did those with wild-type BRAF. Patients with BRAF(V600E) comprised 87.8% of patients (43 of 49) with multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement (liver, spleen, hematology), 68.6% of patients (35 of 51) with multisystem LCH without risk organ involvement, 43.9% of patients (86 of 196) with single-system LCH, and 42.1% of patients (8 of 19) with lung-involved LCH (P < .001). BRAF(V600E) mutation was also associated with organ involvement that could lead to permanent, irreversible damage, such as neurologic (75%) and pituitary (72.9%) injuries. Compared with patients with wild-type BRAF, patients with BRAF(V600E) more commonly displayed resistance to combined vinblastine and corticosteroid therapy (21.9% v 3.3%; P = .001), showed a higher reactivation rate (5-year reactivation rate, 42.8% v 28.1%; P = .006), and had more permanent, long-term consequences from disease or treatment (27.9% v 12.6%; P = .001). CONCLUSION: In children with LCH, BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk features, permanent injury, and poor short-term response to chemotherapy. Further population-based studies should be undertaken to confirm our observations and to assess the impact of BRAF inhibitors for this subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/tratamento farmacológico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/enzimologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Sistema de Registros , Vimblastina/administração & dosagem
19.
Nat Commun ; 7: ncomms11852, 2016 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27292029

RESUMO

Peritoneal macrophages are one of the most studied macrophage populations in the body, yet the composition, developmental origin and mechanisms governing the maintenance of this compartment are controversial. Here we show resident F4/80(hi)GATA6(+) macrophages are long-lived, undergo non-stochastic self-renewal and retain cells of embryonic origin for at least 4 months in mice. However, Ly6C(+) monocytes constitutively enter the peritoneal cavity in a CCR2-dependent manner, where they mature into short-lived F4/80(lo)MHCII(+) cells that act, in part, as precursors of F4/80(hi)GATA6(+) macrophages. Notably, monocyte-derived F4/80(hi) macrophages eventually displace the embryonic population with age in a process that is highly gender dependent and not due to proliferative exhaustion of the incumbent embryonic population, despite the greater proliferative activity of newly recruited cells. Furthermore, although monocyte-derived cells acquire key characteristics of the embryonic population, expression of Tim4 was impaired, leading to cumulative changes in the population with age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Autorrenovação Celular , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Mieloides/citologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Peritônio/citologia , Fenótipo , Receptores CCR2/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Nat Immunol ; 17(7): 797-805, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135602

RESUMO

Perivascular, subdural meningeal and choroid plexus macrophages are non-parenchymal macrophages that mediate immune responses at brain boundaries. Although the origin of parenchymal microglia has recently been elucidated, much less is known about the precursors, the underlying transcriptional program and the dynamics of the other macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS). It was assumed that they have a high turnover from blood-borne monocytes. However, using parabiosis and fate-mapping approaches in mice, we found that CNS macrophages arose from hematopoietic precursors during embryonic development and established stable populations, with the notable exception of choroid plexus macrophages, which had dual origins and a shorter life span. The generation of CNS macrophages relied on the transcription factor PU.1, whereas the MYB, BATF3 and NR4A1 transcription factors were not required.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Transativadores/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Monócitos/imunologia , Parabiose , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Transativadores/genética
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