Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 102
Filtrar
1.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International standards for safe anesthetic care have been developed by the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Whether these standards are met is unknown in many nations, including Guatemala, a country with universal health coverage. We aimed to establish an overview of anesthesia care capacity in public surgical hospitals in Guatemala to help guide public sector health care development. METHODS: In partnership with the Guatemalan Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS), a national survey of all public hospitals providing surgical care was conducted using the WFSA anesthesia facility assessment tool (AFAT) in 2018. Each facility was assessed for infrastructure, service delivery, workforce, medications, equipment, and monitoring practices. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented. RESULTS: Of the 46 public hospitals in Guatemala in 2018, 36 (78%) were found to provide surgical care, including 20 district, 14 regional, and 2 national referral hospitals. We identified 573 full-time physician surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians (SAO) in the public sector, with an estimated SAO density of 3.3/100,000 population. There were 300 full-time anesthesia providers working at public hospitals. Physician anesthesiologists made up 47% of these providers, with an estimated physician anesthesiologist density of 0.8/100,000 population. Only 10% of district hospitals reported having an anesthesia provider continuously present intraoperatively during general or neuraxial anesthesia cases. No hospitals reported assessing pain in the immediate postoperative period. While the availability of some medications such as benzodiazepines and local anesthetics was robust (100% availability across all hospitals), not all hospitals had essential medications such as ketamine, epinephrine, or atropine. There were deficiencies in the availability of essential equipment and basic intraoperative monitors, such as end-tidal carbon dioxide detectors (17% availability across all hospitals). Postoperative care and access to resuscitative equipment, such as defibrillators, were also lacking. CONCLUSIONS: This first countrywide, MSPAS-led assessment of anesthesia capacity at public facilities in Guatemala revealed a lack of essential materials and personnel to provide safe anesthesia and surgery. Hospitals surveyed often did not have resources regardless of hospital size or level, which may suggest multiple factors preventing availability and use. Local and national policy initiatives are needed to address these deficiencies.

2.
Ophthalmology ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926912

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Delaying cataract surgery is associated with an increased risk of falls, but whether routine preoperative testing delays cataract surgery long enough to cause clinical harm is unknown. We sought to determine whether the use of routine preoperative testing leads to harm in the form of delayed surgery and falls in Medicare beneficiaries awaiting cataract surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study using 2006-2014 Medicare claims. PARTICIPANTS: Medicare beneficiaries 66+ years of age with a Current Procedural Terminology claim for ocular biometry. METHODS: We measured the mean and median number of days between biometry and cataract surgery, calculated the proportion of patients waiting ≥ 30 days or ≥ 90 days for surgery, and determined the odds of sustaining a fall within 90 days of biometry among patients of high-testing physicians (testing performed in ≥ 75% of their patients) compared with patients of low-testing physicians. We also estimated the number of days of delay attributable to high-testing physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of falls occurring between biometry and surgery, odds of falling within 90 days of biometry, and estimated delay associated with physician testing behavior. RESULTS: Of 248 345 beneficiaries, 16.4% were patients of high-testing physicians. More patients of high-testing physicians waited ≥ 30 days and ≥ 90 days to undergo surgery (31.4% and 8.2% vs. 25.0% and 5.5%, respectively; P < 0.0001 for both). Falls before surgery in patients of high-testing physicians increased by 43% within the 90 days after ocular biometry (1.0% vs. 0.7%; P < 0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio of falling within 90 days of biometry in patients of high-testing physicians versus low-testing physicians was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.19; P = 0.008). After adjusting for surgical wait time, the odds ratio decreased to 1.07 (95% CI, 1.00-1.15; P = 0.06). The delay associated with having a high-testing physician was approximately 8 days (estimate, 7.97 days; 95% CI, 6.40-9.55 days; P < 0.0001). Other factors associated with delayed surgery included patient race (non-White), Northeast region, ophthalmologist ≤ 40 years of age, and low surgical volume. CONCLUSIONS: Overuse of routine preoperative medical testing by high-testing physicians is associated with delayed surgery and increased falls in cataract patients awaiting surgery.

3.
BMJ Open ; 10(6): e038313, 2020 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606066

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Medication errors (MEs), which occur commonly in the perioperative period, have the potential to cause patient harm or death. Many published recommendations exist for preventing perioperative MEs; however, many of these recommendations conflict and are often not applicable to middle-income and low-income countries. The goal of this study is to develop and disseminate consensus-based recommendations for perioperative medication safety that are tailored to country income level. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The primary site of this mixed-methods study is Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School. Participants include a minimum of 108 international medication safety experts, 27 from each of the World Bank's four country income groups (high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low-income). Using the Delphi method, participants will rate the appropriateness of candidate medication safety recommendations by completing online surveys using RedCAP. We will use Condorcet ranking methods to prioritise the final recommendations for each country income group. We will execute a comprehensive dissemination strategy for the recommendations across each country income group. Finally, we will conduct semistructured interviews with our participants to evaluate the initial adoption and implementation of the recommendations in each country income group. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Human Research Committee/Institutional Review Board at Partners Healthcare (2019P003567). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at local and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04240301.

4.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 32(3): 210-226, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433102

RESUMO

Perioperative stroke is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Stroke recognition and diagnosis are challenging perioperatively, and surgical patients receive therapeutic interventions less frequently compared with stroke patients in the outpatient setting. These updated guidelines from the Society for Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care provide evidence-based recommendations regarding perioperative care of patients at high risk for stroke. Recommended areas for future investigation are also proposed.

5.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(1): e88-e103, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Capnography is universally accepted as an essential patient safety monitor in high-income countries (HICs) yet is often unavailable in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Increasing capnography availability has been proposed as one of many potential approaches to improving perioperative outcomes in LMICs. This scoping review summarises the existing literature on the effect of capnography on patient outcomes to help prioritise interventions and guide expansion of capnography in LMICs. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles published between 1980 and March 2019. Studies that assessed the impact of capnography on morbidity, mortality, or the use of airway interventions both inside and outside the operating room were included. RESULTS: The search resulted in 7445 unique papers, and 31 were included for analysis. Retrospective and non-randomised data suggest capnography use may improve outcomes in the operating room, ICU, and emergency department, and during resuscitation. Prospective data on capnography use for procedural sedation suggest earlier detection of hypoventilation and a reduction in haemoglobin desaturation events. No randomised studies exist that assess the impact of capnography on patient outcomes. CONCLUSION: Despite widespread endorsement of capnography as a mandatory perioperative monitor, rigorous data demonstrating its impact on patient outcomes are limited, especially in LMICs. The association between capnography use and a reduction in serious airway complications suggests that closing the capnography gap in LMICs may represent a significant opportunity to improve patient safety. Additional data are needed to quantify the global capnography gap and better understand the barriers to capnography scale-up in LMICs.


Assuntos
Capnografia/métodos , Capnografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pobreza
6.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(1): 13-21, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531829

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Perioperative stroke is associated with significant morbidity and mortality yet patients may not be aware of their risk or receive appropriate counselling. Our objectives were to 1) compare patient's perceived vs calculated risk of stroke; 2) determine level of worry; and 3) assess prior discussion about perioperative stroke risk amongst elective patients undergoing non-cardiac, non-neurologic surgery. METHODS: Over a consecutive four-week period, surveys were distributed at two pre-anesthetic clinics to adult patients scheduled for non-cardiac, non-neurologic surgery. The survey included questions about demographics, perioperative stroke risk factors, patient perception of their quantitative and qualitative stroke risk, level of worry about stroke, and risk discussions. We identified independent predictors of risk underestimation amongst medium- and high-risk patients. RESULTS: Six hundred patients completed the survey (response rate 78%). Of these, 479, 104, and 15 patients were classified as low-, medium-, and high-risk, respectively (with two patients missing this data point). Most medium- (86%) and high-risk (80%) patients did not identify their elevated risk. Amongst medium- and high-risk patients, independent predictors of risk underestimation were lower education and absence of kidney disease. Medium- and high-risk patients were more worried than low-risk patients about perioperative stroke (median [interquartile range] visual analogue scale score 2 [0.5-4] vs 1 [0-2], P = 0.001). Fewer than half of patients had discussed perioperative stroke previously (40%, 23%, and 12% of high-, medium-, and low-risk patients, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients at higher risk of stroke frequently underestimate their risk of perioperative stroke. The majority of patients had not discussed perioperative stroke prior to anesthetic consultation.

8.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 32(1): 41-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of choice of anesthesia on clinical outcome for endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a pilot trial of 43 patients with acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke having EVT. Patients were randomly allocated to receive general anesthesia or conscious sedation. We documented the rate of recruitment and rate of conversion from conscious sedation to general anesthesia. In addition, we recorded the change in National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) on day 7, the rate of successful reperfusion and measured neurological function by certified researchers using modified Rankin Score (mRS 0 to 2) at 90 days. RESULTS: The recruitment rate was 31.4% and majority of patients were excluded because of delay in hospital presentation and posterior circulation stroke. The rate of conversion from conscious sedation to general anesthesia was 18.2%. This was primarily related to excessive sedation and uncontrolled movement. Change in NIHSS score, rate of successful reperfusion and functional recovery were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to randomize AIS patients receiving either general anesthesia or conscious sedation for EVT.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Anestesia/métodos , Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Idoso , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Sedação Consciente/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reperfusão , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Indian J Anaesth ; 63(12): 965-971, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879420

RESUMO

The increasing focus on and importance of surgical care in achieving universal health coverage requires the development of safe and accessible anaesthesia services. Increasing access to care by supporting the necessary inputs to the anaesthesia system, including medications, equipment and personnel, must be accompanied by processes that support high-quality care, including support for education, and guidelines for standards, and training. As safe, high-quality care requires an integrated approach, each element must be supported together, i.e., in an integrated manner to ensure that anaesthesia care reaches those who need it, and in the safest possible manner. Several important efforts have been undertaken globally to address and foster these elements, and resources to guide these processes exist for low- and middle-income countries to improve them. This review highlights both the needs and resources for safe and high-quality care that patients deserve.

10.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(11): 1425-1426, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414380

RESUMO

The legend of the Figure currently reads: "A formula for advancing surgical system strengthening and World Health Assembly resolution 68.15 through the World Health Organization's thirteenth General Programme of Work (GPW-13). This graphic depicts the three strategic shifts outlined in GPW-13 and ties them to specific avenues for surgical system strengthening to achieve overarching goals. GPW-13 = Thirteenth General Programme of Work; NSOAPs = National Surgical, Obstetric, and Anesthesia Plans; PHC = primary healthcare; SDG 3 = Sustainable Development Goal 3; UHC = universal health coverage; WHA 68.18 = World Health Assembly resolution 68.15. " The corrected Figure legend should read: A formula for advancing surgical system strengthening and World Health Assembly resolution 68.15 through the World Health Organization's thirteenth General Programme of Work (GPW-13). This graphic depicts the three strategic shifts outlined in GPW-13 and ties them to specific avenues for surgical system strengthening to achieve overarching goals. GPW-13 = Thirteenth General Programme of Work; NSOAPs = National Surgical, Obstetric, and Anesthesia Plans; PHC = primary healthcare; SDG 3 = Sustainable Development Goal 3; UHC = universal health coverage; WHA 68.15 = World Health Assembly resolution 68.15.

11.
Anesth Analg ; 129(3): 839-846, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Africa, most countries have fewer than 1 physician anesthesiologist (PA) per 100,000 population. Nonphysician anesthesia providers (NPAPs) play a large role in the workforce of many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), but little information has been systematically collected to describe existing human resources for anesthesia care models. An understanding of existing PA and NPAP training pathways and roles is needed to inform anesthesia workforce planning, especially for critically underresourced countries. METHODS: Between 2016 and 2018, we conducted electronic, phone, and in-person surveys of anesthesia providers in Africa. The surveys focused on the presence of anesthesia training programs, training program characteristics, and clinical scope of practice after graduation. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-one respondents completed surveys representing data for 51 of 55 countries in Africa. Most countries had both PA and NPAP training programs (57%; mean, 1.6 pathways per country). Thirty distinct training pathways to become an anesthesia provider could be discriminated on the basis of entry qualification, duration, and qualification gained. Of these 30 distinct pathways, 22 (73%) were for NPAPs. Physician and NPAP program durations were a median of 48 and 24 months (ranges: 36-72, 9-48), respectively. Sixty percent of NPAP pathways required a nursing background for entry, and 60% conferred a technical (eg, diploma/license) qualification after training. Physicians and NPAPs were trained to perform most anesthesia tasks independently, though few had subspecialty training (such as regional or cardiac anesthesia). CONCLUSIONS: Despite profound anesthesia provider shortages throughout Africa, most countries have both NPAP and PA training programs. NPAP training pathways, in particular, show significant heterogeneity despite relatively similar scopes of clinical practice for NPAPs after graduation. Such heterogeneity may reflect the varied needs and resources for different settings, though may also suggest lack of consensus on how to train the anesthesia workforce. Lack of consistent terminology to describe the anesthesia workforce is a significant challenge that must be addressed to accelerate workforce research and planning efforts.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Anestesiologistas/educação , Enfermeiras Anestesistas/educação , Inquéritos e Questionários , África/epidemiologia , Humanos
13.
Anesthesiology ; 131(1): 36-45, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Midazolam has been found to exacerbate or unmask limb motor dysfunction in patients with brain tumors. This study aimed to determine whether the exacerbated upper limb motor-sensory deficits are mediated through benzodiazepine sites by demonstrating reversibility by flumazenil in patients with gliomas in eloquent areas. METHODS: This was an interventional, parallel assignment, nonrandomized trial. Study subjects were admitted in the operating room. Patients with supratentorial eloquent area gliomas and volunteers of similar age without neurologic disease were sedated with midazolam, but still responsive and cooperative. Motor and sensory functions for upper extremities were evaluated by the Nine-Hole Peg Test before and after midazolam, as well as after flumazenil reversal. RESULTS: Thirty-two cases were included: 15 in the glioma group and 17 in the control group. The total dose of midazolam and flumazenil were comparable between the groups. In the glioma group, the times to task completion after midazolam in the contralateral hand (P = 0.001) and ipsilateral hand (P = 0.002) were 26.5 (95% CI, 11.3 to 41.7) and 13.7 (95% CI, 5.0 to 22.4) seconds slower than baseline, respectively. After flumazenil reversal, the contralateral hand (P = 0.99) and ipsilateral hand (P = 0.187) performed 1.2 (95% CI, -3.3 to 5.8) and 1.5 (95% CI, -0.5 to 3.5) seconds slower than baseline, respectively. In the control group, the dominant (P < 0.001) and nondominant hand (P = 0.006) were 2.9 (95% CI, 1.4 to 4.3) and 1.7 (95% CI, 0.5 to 2.9) seconds slower than baseline, respectively. After flumazenil, the dominant hand (P = 0.99) and nondominant hand (P = 0.019) performed 0.2 (95% CI, -0.7 to 1.0) and 1.3 (95% CI, -0.2 to 2.4) seconds faster than baseline, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with eloquent area gliomas, mild sedation with midazolam induced motor coordination deficits in upper limbs. This deficit was almost completely reversed by the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil, suggesting that this is a reversible abnormality linked to occupation of the receptor by midazolam.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Flumazenil/farmacologia , Glioma/fisiopatologia , Midazolam/farmacologia , Transtornos Motores/tratamento farmacológico , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Feminino , Moduladores GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Glioma/complicações , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Motores/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Motores/fisiopatologia
15.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(2): 218-229, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484168

RESUMO

In the Sustainable Development Goals era, there is a new awareness of the need for an integrated approach to healthcare interventions and a strong commitment to Universal Health Coverage. To achieve the goal of strengthening entire health systems, surgery, as a crosscutting treatment modality, is indispensable. For any health system strengthening exercise, baseline data and longitudinal monitoring of progress are necessary. With improved data capabilities, there are unparalleled possibilities to map out and understand systems, integrating data from many sources and sectors. Nevertheless, there is also a need to prioritize among indicators to avoid information overload and data collection fatigue. There is a similar need to define indicators and collection methodology to create standardized and comparable data. Finally, there is a need to establish data pathways to ensure clear responsibilities amongst national and international institutions and integrate surgical metrics into existing mechanisms for sustainable data collection. This is a call to collect, aggregate, and analyze global anesthesia and surgery data, with an account of existing data sources and a proposed way forward.


Assuntos
Anestesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestesiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional
16.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 31(4): 366-377, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363004

RESUMO

The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist dexmedetomidine has sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, and sympatholytic effects. The potential advantages of neuroprotection, minimal impact on neuronal function, stable hemodynamics, opioid and anesthesia sparing effects, and minimal respiratory depression during awake procedures render it an effective anesthetic adjuvant in various neurosurgical settings. However, both the benefits and drawbacks of the use dexmedetomidine in neuroanesthesia should be considered. This narrative review will summarize the applications of dexmedetomidine in various neurosurgical settings, highlighting evidence regarding both its common and controversial uses.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Dexmedetomidina , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Humanos
20.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 46(supl.1): 46-51, Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-959827

RESUMO

Abstract Awake craniotomy is mainly used for mapping and resection of lesions in vitally important brain areas where imaging is not sufficiently sensitive. These are most commonly speech and motor areas. The awake approach has become increasingly popular with wider indications due to the advantage of better neurological and other perioperative outcomes including analge sia and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Improvements in anesthetic agents and techniques especially LMA have made a great contribution. Frequently used medications are propofol, dexmedetomidine, and remifentanil. Common anesthetic regi mens range from light-moderate sedation, deep sedation, or general anesthesia during the pre-mapping and postmapping phases. In all sedation-anesthesia techniques, the patients are awake and able to speak and/or move during the mapping phase. This approach to intracranial surgical procedure requires skill, experience, and commitment on the part of the entire OR team. This review, from the point of view of authors, discusses the indications and contraindications, benefits, anesthetic techni ques, challenges, and management, as well as potential future directions of awake craniotomy.


Resumen La craneotomía con el paciente despierto se utiliza fundamen talmente para el mapeo y la resección de lesiones en áreas de vital importancia en el cerebro, en donde las imágenes no son suficientemente sensibles. Se trata por lo general de las áreas del habla y motoras. El abordaje con el paciente despierto ha adquirido cada vez más popularidad y se han ampliado sus indicaciones gracias a la ventaja de mejores desenlaces neurológicos y perioperatorios, entre ellos la analgesia y la náusea y vómito postoperatorios. Los avances en los agentes y las técnicas de anestesia, particularmente la mascarilla laríngea (LMA), han hecho grandes aportes. Los medicamentos de uso frecuente son propofol, dexmedetomidina y remifentanilo. Los esquemas anestésicos comunes van desde la sedación leve a moderada, sedación profunda, o anestesia general durante las fases pre y post-mapeo. En todas las técnicas de sedación - anestesia, los pacientes se encuentran despiertos y con capacidad para hablar y/ o moverse durante la fase de mapeo. Este abordaje al procedi miento quirúrgico intracraneal requiere pericia, experiencia y compromiso por parte de todo el equipo de la sala de cirugía. Esta revisión, desde la perspectiva de los autores, hace referencia a las indicaciones y contraindicaciones, beneficios, técnicas de anestesia, desafíos y manejo, así como a posibles orientaciones a futuro de la craneotomía con el paciente despierto.


Assuntos
Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...