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1.
J Proteome Res ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657576

RESUMO

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm of early childhood with a poor survival rate thus there is a requirement for improved treatment strategies. Induced pluripotent stem cells offer the ability to model disease and develop new treatment strategies. JMML is frequently associated with mutations in PTPN11. Children with Noonan syndrome, a development disorder, have an increased incidence of JMML associated with specific germline mutations in PTPN11. We undertook a proteomic assessment of myeloid cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells obtained from Noonan syndrome patients with PTPN11 mutations, either associated or not associated with increased incidence of JMML. We report that the proteomic perturbations induced by the leukaemia-associated PTPN11 mutations are associated with TP53 and NF-ĸb signalling. We have previously shown that MYC is involved in the differential gene expression observed in Noonan syndrome patients associated with increased incidence of JMML. Thus, we employed drugs to target these pathways and demonstrate differentential effects on clonogenic hematopoietic cells derived from Noonan syndrome patients whom develop JMML and those who do not. Further, we demonstrated these small molecular inhibitors, JQ1 and CBL0137, preferentially extinguish primitive haematopoietic cells from sporadic JMML patients as opposed to cells from healthy individuals.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4722, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624253

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of sporadic congenital heart disease (CHD) is characterized by enrichment in damaging de novo variants in chromatin-modifying genes. To test the hypothesis that gene pathways contributing to de novo forms of CHD are distinct from those for recessive forms, we analyze 2391 whole-exome trios from the Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium. We deploy a permutation-based gene-burden analysis to identify damaging recessive and compound heterozygous genotypes and disease genes, controlling for confounding effects, such as background mutation rate and ancestry. Cilia-related genes are significantly enriched for damaging rare recessive genotypes, but comparatively depleted for de novo variants. The opposite trend is observed for chromatin-modifying genes. Other cardiac developmental gene classes have less stratification by mode of inheritance than cilia and chromatin-modifying gene classes. Our analyses reveal dominant and recessive CHD are associated with distinct gene functions, with cilia-related genes providing a reservoir of rare segregating variation leading to CHD.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477843

RESUMO

Following the publication of the article, it was noted that the last column in Table 1, the total % should have read 5/8 (62.5) for the 'Epilepsy' row, and not 5.7 (71.4). This has now been amended in the HTML and PDF of the original article.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388190

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome (SIHIWES) is a recently described multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by de novo variants in CHD4. In this study, we investigated the clinical spectrum of the disorder, genotype-phenotype correlations, and the effect of different missense variants on CHD4 function. METHODS: We collected clinical and molecular data from 32 individuals with mostly de novo variants in CHD4, identified through next-generation sequencing. We performed adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis and nucleosome remodeling assays on variants from five different CHD4 domains. RESULTS: The majority of participants had global developmental delay, mild to moderate intellectual disability, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, and dysmorphic features. Macrocephaly was a frequent but not universal finding. Additional common abnormalities included hypogonadism in males, skeletal and limb anomalies, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. The majority of variants were nontruncating and affected the SNF2-like region of the protein. We did not identify genotype-phenotype correlations based on the type or location of variants. Alterations in ATP hydrolysis and chromatin remodeling activities were observed in variants from different domains. CONCLUSION: The CHD4-related syndrome is a multisystemic neurodevelopmental disorder. Missense substitutions in different protein domains alter CHD4 function in a variant-specific manner, but result in a similar phenotype in humans.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 640-657, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402090

RESUMO

The identification of genetic variants implicated in human developmental disorders has been revolutionized by second-generation sequencing combined with international pooling of cases. Here, we describe seven individuals who have diverse yet overlapping developmental anomalies, and who all have de novo missense FBXW11 variants identified by whole exome or whole genome sequencing and not reported in the gnomAD database. Their phenotypes include striking neurodevelopmental, digital, jaw, and eye anomalies, and in one individual, features resembling Noonan syndrome, a condition caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. FBXW11 encodes an F-box protein, part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex, involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus fundamental to many protein regulatory processes. FBXW11 targets include ß-catenin and GLI transcription factors, key mediators of Wnt and Hh signaling, respectively, critical to digital, neurological, and eye development. Structural analyses indicate affected residues cluster at the surface of the loops of the substrate-binding domain of FBXW11, and the variants are predicted to destabilize the protein and/or its interactions. In situ hybridization studies on human and zebrafish embryonic tissues demonstrate FBXW11 is expressed in the developing eye, brain, mandibular processes, and limb buds or pectoral fins. Knockdown of the zebrafish FBXW11 orthologs fbxw11a and fbxw11b resulted in embryos with smaller, misshapen, and underdeveloped eyes and abnormal jaw and pectoral fin development. Our findings support the role of FBXW11 in multiple developmental processes, including those involving the brain, eye, digits, and jaw.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(28): 14049-14054, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235600

RESUMO

Genomic analyses of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have identified significant contribution from mutations affecting cilia genes and chromatin remodeling genes; however, the mechanism(s) connecting chromatin remodeling to CHD is unknown. Histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) is catalyzed by the RNF20 complex consisting of RNF20, RNF40, and UBE2B. Here, we show significant enrichment of loss-of-function mutations affecting H2Bub1 in CHD patients (enrichment 6.01, P = 1.67 × 10-03), some of whom had abnormal laterality associated with ciliary dysfunction. In Xenopus, knockdown of rnf20 and rnf40 results in abnormal heart looping, defective development of left-right (LR) asymmetry, and impaired cilia motility. Rnf20, Rnf40, and Ube2b affect LR patterning and cilia synergistically. Examination of global H2Bub1 level in Xenopus embryos shows that H2Bub1 is developmentally regulated and requires Rnf20. To examine gene-specific H2Bub1, we performed ChIP-seq of mouse ciliated and nonciliated tissues and showed tissue-specific H2Bub1 marks significantly enriched at cilia genes including the transcription factor Rfx3 Rnf20 knockdown results in decreased levels of rfx3 mRNA in Xenopus, and exogenous rfx3 can rescue the Rnf20 depletion phenotype. These data suggest that Rnf20 functions at the Rfx3 locus regulating cilia motility and cardiac situs and identify H2Bub1 as an upstream transcriptional regulator controlling tissue-specific expression of cilia genes. Our findings mechanistically link the two functional gene ontologies that have been implicated in human CHD: chromatin remodeling and cilia function.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1088-1096, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104772

RESUMO

Conceptual frameworks are useful in research because they can highlight priority research domains, inform decisions about interventions, identify outcomes and factors to measure, and display how factors might relate to each other to generate and test hypotheses. Discovery, translational, and implementation research are all critical to the overall mission of genomic medicine and prevention, but they have yet to be organized into a unified conceptual framework. To fill this gap, our diverse team collaborated to develop the Genomic Medicine Integrative Research (GMIR) Framework, a simple but comprehensive tool to aid the genomics community in developing research questions, strategies, and measures and in integrating genomic medicine and prevention into clinical practice. Here we present the GMIR Framework and its development, along with examples of its use for research development, demonstrating how we applied it to select and harmonize measures for use across diverse genomic medicine implementation projects. Researchers can utilize the GMIR Framework for their own research, collaborative investigations, and clinical implementation efforts; clinicians can use it to establish and evaluate programs; and all stakeholders can use it to help allocate resources and make sure that the full complexity of etiology is included in research and program design, development, and evaluation.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877278

RESUMO

DPH1 variants have been associated with an ultra-rare and severe neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly characterized by variable developmental delay, short stature, dysmorphic features, and sparse hair. We have identified four new patients (from two different families) carrying novel variants in DPH1, enriching the clinical delineation of the DPH1 syndrome. Using a diphtheria toxin ADP-ribosylation assay, we have analyzed the activity of seven identified variants and demonstrated compromised function for five of them [p.(Leu234Pro); p.(Ala411Argfs*91); p.(Leu164Pro); p.(Leu125Pro); and p.(Tyr112Cys)]. We have built a homology model of the human DPH1-DPH2 heterodimer and have performed molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of these variants on the catalytic sites as well as on the interactions between subunits of the heterodimer. The results show correlation between loss of activity, reduced size of the opening to the catalytic site, and changes in the size of the catalytic site with clinical severity. This is the first report of functional tests of DPH1 variants associated with the DPH1 syndrome. We demonstrate that the in vitro assay for DPH1 protein activity, together with structural modeling, are useful tools for assessing the effect of the variants on DPH1 function and may be used for predicting patient outcomes and prognoses.

11.
Circulation ; 138(21): e653-e711, 2018 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571578

RESUMO

This review provides an updated summary of the state of our knowledge of the genetic contributions to the pathogenesis of congenital heart disease. Since 2007, when the initial American Heart Association scientific statement on the genetic basis of congenital heart disease was published, new genomic techniques have become widely available that have dramatically changed our understanding of the causes of congenital heart disease and, clinically, have allowed more accurate definition of the pathogeneses of congenital heart disease in patients of all ages and even prenatally. Information is presented on new molecular testing techniques and their application to congenital heart disease, both isolated and associated with other congenital anomalies or syndromes. Recent advances in the understanding of copy number variants, syndromes, RASopathies, and heterotaxy/ciliopathies are provided. Insights into new research with congenital heart disease models, including genetically manipulated animals such as mice, chicks, and zebrafish, as well as human induced pluripotent stem cell-based approaches are provided to allow an understanding of how future research breakthroughs for congenital heart disease are likely to happen. It is anticipated that this review will provide a large range of health care-related personnel, including pediatric cardiologists, pediatricians, adult cardiologists, thoracic surgeons, obstetricians, geneticists, genetic counselors, and other related clinicians, timely information on the genetic aspects of congenital heart disease. The objective is to provide a comprehensive basis for interdisciplinary care for those with congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , American Heart Association , Aneuploidia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/genética , Variação Genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Hum Mutat ; 39(11): 1485-1493, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311384

RESUMO

The RASopathies are a complex group of conditions regarding phenotype and genetic etiology. The ClinGen RASopathy Expert Panel (RAS EP) assessed published and other publicly available evidence supporting the association of 19 genes with RASopathy conditions. Using the semiquantitative literature curation method developed by the ClinGen Gene Curation Working Group, evidence for each gene was curated and scored for Noonan syndrome (NS), Costello syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, NS with multiple lentigines, and Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair. The curated evidence supporting each gene-disease relationship was then discussed and approved by the ClinGen RASopathy Expert Panel. Each association's strength was classified as definitive, strong, moderate, limited, disputed, or no evidence. Eleven genes were classified as definitively associated with at least one RASopathy condition. Two genes classified as strong for association with at least one RASopathy condition while one gene was moderate and three were limited. The RAS EP also disputed the association of two genes for all RASopathy conditions. Overall, our results provide a greater understanding of the different gene-disease relationships within the RASopathies and can help in guiding and directing clinicians, patients, and researchers who are identifying variants in individuals with a suspected RASopathy.

13.
Am J Med Genet A ; : e40632, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302932

RESUMO

This report summarizes and highlights the fifth International RASopathies Symposium: When Development and Cancer Intersect, held in Orlando, Florida in July 2017. The RASopathies comprise a recognizable pattern of malformation syndromes that are caused by germ line mutations in genes that encode components of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Because of their common underlying pathogenetic etiology, there is significant overlap in their phenotypic features, which includes craniofacial dysmorphology, cardiac, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and ocular abnormalities, neurological and neurocognitive issues, and a predisposition to cancer. The RAS pathway is a well-known oncogenic pathway that is commonly found to be activated in somatic malignancies. As in somatic cancers, the RASopathies can be caused by various pathogenetic mechanisms that ultimately impact or alter the normal function and regulation of the MAPK pathway. As such, the RASopathies represent an excellent model of study to explore the intersection of the effects of dysregulation and its consequence in both development and oncogenesis.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(3): 319-327, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193136

RESUMO

The Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research (CSER) consortium, now in its second funding cycle, is investigating the effectiveness of integrating genomic (exome or genome) sequencing into the clinical care of diverse and medically underserved individuals in a variety of healthcare settings and disease states. The consortium comprises a coordinating center, six funded extramural clinical projects, and an ongoing National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) intramural project. Collectively, these projects aim to enroll and sequence over 6,100 participants in four years. At least 60% of participants will be of non-European ancestry or from underserved settings, with the goal of diversifying the populations that are providing an evidence base for genomic medicine. Five of the six clinical projects are enrolling pediatric patients with various phenotypes. One of these five projects is also enrolling couples whose fetus has a structural anomaly, and the sixth project is enrolling adults at risk for hereditary cancer. The ongoing NHGRI intramural project has enrolled primarily healthy adults. Goals of the consortium include assessing the clinical utility of genomic sequencing, exploring medical follow up and cascade testing of relatives, and evaluating patient-provider-laboratory level interactions that influence the use of this technology. The findings from the CSER consortium will offer patients, healthcare systems, and policymakers a clearer understanding of the opportunities and challenges of providing genomic medicine in diverse populations and settings, and contribute evidence toward developing best practices for the delivery of clinically useful and cost-effective genomic sequencing in diverse healthcare settings.

16.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 39(7): 1453-1461, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948025

RESUMO

Few data exist regarding predictors of rapid aortic root dilation and referral for aortic surgery in Marfan syndrome (MFS). To identify independent predictors of the rate of aortic root (AoR) dilation and referral for aortic surgery, we investigated the data from the Pediatric Heart Network randomized trial of atenolol versus losartan in young patients with MFS. Data were analyzed from the echocardiograms at 0, 12, 24, and 36 months read in the core laboratory of 608 trial subjects, aged 6 months to 25 years, who met original Ghent criteria and had an AoR z-score (AoRz) > 3. Repeated measures linear and logistic regressions were used to determine multivariable predictors of AoR dilation. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine cut-points in AoR dilation predicting referral for aortic surgery. Multivariable analysis showed rapid AoR dilation as defined by change in AoRz/year > 90th percentile was associated with older age, higher sinotubular junction z-score, and atenolol use (R2 = 0.01) or by change in AoR diameter (AoRd)/year > 90th percentile with higher sinotubular junction z-score and non-white race (R2 = 0.02). Referral for aortic root surgery was associated with higher AoRd, higher ascending aorta z-score, and higher sinotubular junction diameter:ascending aorta diameter ratio (R2 = 0.17). Change in AoRz of 0.72 SD units/year had 42% sensitivity and 92% specificity and change in AoRd of 0.34 cm/year had 38% sensitivity and 95% specificity for predicting referral for aortic surgery. In this cohort of young patients with MFS, no new robust predictors of rapid AoR dilation or referral for aortic root surgery were identified. Further investigation may determine whether generalized proximal aortic dilation and effacement of the sinotubular junction will allow for better risk stratification. Rate of AoR dilation cut-points had high specificity, but low sensitivity for predicting referral for aortic surgery, limiting their clinical use. Clinical Trial Number ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00429364.

17.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2064, 2018 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29802345

RESUMO

Certain human traits such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) and congenital anomalies (CAs) are believed to be primarily genetic in origin. However, even after whole-genome sequencing (WGS), a substantial fraction of such disorders remain unexplained. We hypothesize that some cases of ND-CA are caused by aberrant DNA methylation leading to dysregulated genome function. Comparing DNA methylation profiles from 489 individuals with ND-CAs against 1534 controls, we identify epivariations as a frequent occurrence in the human genome. De novo epivariations are significantly enriched in cases, while RNAseq analysis shows that epivariations often have an impact on gene expression comparable to loss-of-function mutations. Additionally, we detect and replicate an enrichment of rare sequence mutations overlapping CTCF binding sites close to epivariations, providing a rationale for interpreting non-coding variation. We propose that epivariations contribute to the pathogenesis of some patients with unexplained ND-CAs, and as such likely have diagnostic relevance.

18.
Genet Med ; 20(11): 1334-1345, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493581

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Standardized and accurate variant assessment is essential for effective medical care. To that end, Clinical Genome (ClinGen) Resource clinical domain working groups (CDWGs) are systematically reviewing disease-associated genes for sufficient evidence to support disease causality and creating disease-specific specifications of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines for consistent and accurate variant classification. METHODS: The ClinGen RASopathy CDWG established an expert panel to curate gene information and generate gene- and disease-specific specifications to ACMG-AMP variant classification framework. These specifications were tested by classifying 37 exemplar pathogenic variants plus an additional 66 variants in ClinVar distributed across nine RASopathy genes. RESULTS: RASopathy-related specifications were applied to 16 ACMG-AMP criteria, with 5 also having adjustable strength with availability of additional evidence. Another 5 criteria were deemed not applicable. Key adjustments to minor allele frequency thresholds, multiple de novo occurrence events and/or segregation, and strength adjustments impacted 60% of variant classifications. Unpublished case-level data from participating laboratories impacted 45% of classifications supporting the need for data sharing. CONCLUSION: RAS-specific ACMG-AMP specifications optimized the utility of available clinical evidence and Ras/MAPK pathway-specific characteristics to consistently classify RASopathy-associated variants. These specifications highlight how grouping genes by shared features promotes rapid multigenic variant assessment without sacrificing specificity and accuracy.

19.
Heart Fail Clin ; 14(2): 225-235, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525650

RESUMO

RASopathies are a heterogeneous group of genetic syndromes characterized by mutations in genes that regulate cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, migration, and metabolism. Excluding congenital heart defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most frequent cardiovascular defect in patients affected by RASopathies. A worse outcome (in terms of surgical risk and/or mortality) has been described in a specific subset of Rasopathy patients with early onset, severe hypertrophic cardiomyopathy presenting with heart failure. New short-term therapy with a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor has recently been used to prevent heart failure in these patients with a severe form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação , Proteínas ras/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/metabolismo , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(6): 870-881, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29527824

RESUMO

Multiple tools have been developed to identify copy number variants (CNVs) from whole exome (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) data. Current tools such as XHMM for WES and CNVnator for WGS identify CNVs based on changes in read depth. For WGS, other methods to identify CNVs include utilizing discordant read pairs and split reads and genome-wide local assembly with tools such as Lumpy and SvABA, respectively. Here, we introduce a new method to identify deletion CNVs from WES and WGS trio data based on the clustering of Mendelian errors (MEs). Using our Mendelian Error Method (MEM), we identified 127 deletions (inherited and de novo) in 2,601 WES trios from the Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium, with a validation rate of 88% by digital droplet PCR. MEM identified additional de novo deletions compared with XHMM, and a significant enrichment of 15q11.2 deletions compared with controls. In addition, MEM identified eight cases of uniparental disomy, sample switches, and DNA contamination. We applied MEM to WGS data from the Genome In A Bottle Ashkenazi trio and identified deletions with 97% specificity. MEM provides a robust, computationally inexpensive method for identifying deletions, and an orthogonal approach for verifying deletions called by other tools.

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