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1.
PLoS Genet ; 16(11): e1009189, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216750

RESUMO

Although DNA methylation is the best characterized epigenetic mark, the mechanism by which it is targeted to specific regions in the genome remains unclear. Recent studies have revealed that local DNA methylation profiles might be dictated by cis-regulatory DNA sequences that mainly operate via DNA-binding factors. Consistent with this finding, we have recently shown that disruption of CTCF-binding sites by rare single nucleotide variants (SNVs) can underlie cis-linked DNA methylation changes in patients with congenital anomalies. These data raise the hypothesis that rare genetic variation at transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) might contribute to local DNA methylation patterning. In this work, by combining blood genome-wide DNA methylation profiles, whole genome sequencing-derived SNVs from 247 unrelated individuals along with 133 predicted TFBS motifs derived from ENCODE ChIP-Seq data, we observed an association between the disruption of binding sites for multiple TFs by rare SNVs and extreme DNA methylation values at both local and, to a lesser extent, distant CpGs. While the majority of these changes affected only single CpGs, 24% were associated with multiple outlier CpGs within ±1kb of the disrupted TFBS. Interestingly, disruption of functionally constrained sites within TF motifs lead to larger DNA methylation changes at nearby CpG sites. Altogether, these findings suggest that rare SNVs at TFBS negatively influence TF-DNA binding, which can lead to an altered local DNA methylation profile. Furthermore, subsequent integration of DNA methylation and RNA-Seq profiles from cardiac tissues enabled us to observe an association between rare SNV-directed DNA methylation and outlier expression of nearby genes. In conclusion, our findings not only provide insights into the effect of rare genetic variation at TFBS on shaping local DNA methylation and its consequences on genome regulation, but also provide a rationale to incorporate DNA methylation data to interpret the functional role of rare variants.

2.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084842

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), the most common birth defect, have increased risks for cancer. Identification of the variables that contribute to cancer risk is essential for recognizing patients with CHD who warrant longitudinal surveillance and early interventions. Objective: To compare the frequency of damaging variants in cancer risk genes among patients with CHD and control participants and identify associated clinical variables in patients with CHD who have cancer risk variants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter case-control study included participants with CHD who had previously been recruited to the Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium based on presence of structural cardiac anomaly without genetic diagnosis at the time of enrollment. Permission to use published sequencing data from unaffected adult participants was obtained from 2 parent studies. Data were collected for this study from December 2010 to April 2019. Exposures: Presence of rare (allele frequency, <1 × 10-5) loss-of-function (LoF) variants in cancer risk genes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Frequency of LoF variants in cancer risk genes (defined in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer-Cancer Gene Consensus database), were statistically assessed by binomial tests in patients with CHD and control participants. Results: A total of 4443 individuals with CHD (mean [range] age, 13.0 [0-84] years; 2225 of 3771 with reported sex [59.0%] male) and 9808 control participants (mean [range] age, 52.1 [1-92] years; 4967 of 9808 [50.6%] male) were included. The frequency of LoF variants in regulatory cancer risk genes was significantly higher in patients with CHD than control participants (143 of 4443 [3.2%] vs 166 of 9808 [1.7%]; odds ratio [OR], 1.93 [95% CI, 1.54-2.42]; P = 1.38 × 10-12), and among CHD genes previously associated with cancer risk (58 of 4443 [1.3%] vs 18 of 9808 [0.18%]; OR, 7.2 [95% CI, 4.2-12.2]; P < 2.2 × 10-16). The LoF variants were also nominally increased in 14 constrained cancer risk genes with high expression in the developing heart. Seven of these genes (ARHGEF12, CTNNB1, LPP, MLLT4, PTEN, TCF12, and TFRC) harbored LoF variants in multiple patients with unexplained CHD. The highest rates for LoF variants in cancer risk genes occurred in patients with CHD and extracardiac anomalies (248 of 1482 individuals [16.7%]; control: 1099 of 9808 individuals [11.2%]; OR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.37-1.85]; P = 1.3 × 10-10) and/or neurodevelopmental delay (209 of 1393 individuals [15.0%]; control: 1099 of 9808 individuals [11.2%]; OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.19-1.64]; P = 9.6 × 10-6). Conclusions and Relevance: Genotypes of CHD may account for increased cancer risks. In this cohort, damaging variants were prominent in the 216 genes that predominantly encode regulatory proteins. Consistent with their fundamental developmental functions, patients with CHD and damaging variants in these genes often had extracardiac manifestations. These data may also implicate cancer risk genes that are repeatedly varied in patients with unexplained CHD as CHD genes.

3.
Elife ; 92020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054971

RESUMO

Damaging GATA6 variants cause cardiac outflow tract defects, sometimes with pancreatic and diaphragmic malformations. To define molecular mechanisms for these diverse developmental defects, we studied transcriptional and epigenetic responses to GATA6 loss of function (LoF) and missense variants during cardiomyocyte differentiation of isogenic human induced pluripotent stem cells. We show that GATA6 is a pioneer factor in cardiac development, regulating SMYD1 that activates HAND2, and KDR that with HAND2 orchestrates outflow tract formation. LoF variants perturbed cardiac genes and also endoderm lineage genes that direct PDX1 expression and pancreatic development. Remarkably, an exon 4 GATA6 missense variant, highly associated with extra-cardiac malformations, caused ectopic pioneer activities, profoundly diminishing GATA4, FOXA1/2, and PDX1 expression and increasing normal retinoic acid signaling that promotes diaphragm development. These aberrant epigenetic and transcriptional signatures illuminate the molecular mechanisms for cardiovascular malformations, pancreas and diaphragm dysgenesis that arise in patients with distinct GATA6 variants.

4.
Cell ; 183(4): 982-995.e14, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991843

RESUMO

Initially, children were thought to be spared from disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, a month into the epidemic, a novel multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged. Herein, we report on the immune profiles of nine MIS-C cases. All MIS-C patients had evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, mounting an antibody response with intact neutralization capability. Cytokine profiling identified elevated signatures of inflammation (IL-18 and IL-6), lymphocytic and myeloid chemotaxis and activation (CCL3, CCL4, and CDCP1), and mucosal immune dysregulation (IL-17A, CCL20, and CCL28). Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood revealed reductions of non-classical monocytes, and subsets of NK and T lymphocytes, suggesting extravasation to affected tissues. Finally, profiling the autoantigen reactivity of MIS-C plasma revealed both known disease-associated autoantibodies (anti-La) and novel candidates that recognize endothelial, gastrointestinal, and immune-cell antigens. All patients were treated with anti-IL-6R antibody and/or IVIG, which led to rapid disease resolution.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1498-1500, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883560
6.
Genet Med ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to use a genotype-first approach to explore highly penetrant, autosomal dominant cardiovascular diseases with external features, the RASopathies and Marfan syndrome (MFS), using biobank data. METHODS: This study uses exome sequencing and corresponding phenotypic data from Mount Sinai's BioMe (n = 32,344) and the United Kingdom Biobank (UKBB; n = 49,960). Variant curation identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in RASopathy genes and FBN1. RESULTS: Twenty-one subjects harbored P/LP RASopathy variants; three (14%) were diagnosed, and another 46% had ≥1 classic Noonan syndrome (NS) feature. Major NS features (short stature [9.5% p = 7e-5] and heart anomalies [19%, p < 1e-5]) were less frequent than expected. Prevalence of hypothyroidism/autoimmune disorders was enriched compared with biobank populations (p = 0.007). For subjects with FBN1 P/LP variants, 14/41 (34%) had a MFS diagnosis or highly suggestive features. Five of 15 participants (33%) with echocardiographic data had aortic dilation, fewer than expected (p = 8e-6). Ectopia lentis affected only 15% (p < 1e-5). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial fractions of individuals harboring P/LP variants with partial or full phenotypic matches to a RASopathy or MFS remain undiagnosed, some not meeting diagnostic criteria. Routine population genotyping would enable multidisciplinary care and avoid life-threatening events.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(12): 2902-2908, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940405

RESUMO

Headache and neck pain (cervicalgia) are frequently reported among patients with joint hypermobility but the prevalence and scope of these symptoms has not been studied in the era of contemporary Ehlers-Danlos and hypermobility disorder nosology. We performed a single-center retrospective study on the incidence of head and neck symptoms in 140 patients with hypermobility disorders over a 2-year period. Overall, 93 patients (66%) reported either headache or neck pain with 49 of those (53%) reporting both. Migraine (83%) was the most common headache type among those with headache disorders and cervical spondylosis (61%) the most common pathology among those with neck symptoms. Fifty-nine percent of spondylosis patients who underwent cervical facet procedures reported significant improvement in neck and head symptoms. Of patients with both head and neck complaints, 82% had both migraine and spondylosis, which, when combined with the high response rate to injections raises the possibility of cervicogenic headache. In this large multidisciplinary retrospective study of patients with hypermobility disorders, head and neck symptoms were highly prevalent, with migraine and cervical spondylosis common, often coexisting, and frequently responsive to targeted therapy for the cervical spine suggesting that degenerative spinal pathology may cause or contribute to headache symptoms in some patients with hypermobility disorders.

8.
Brain ; 143(8): 2437-2453, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761064

RESUMO

In pleiotropic diseases, multiple organ systems are affected causing a variety of clinical manifestations. Here, we report a pleiotropic disorder with a unique constellation of neurological, endocrine, exocrine, and haematological findings that is caused by biallelic MADD variants. MADD, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activating death domain protein, regulates various cellular functions, such as vesicle trafficking, activity of the Rab3 and Rab27 small GTPases, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced signalling and prevention of cell death. Through national collaboration and GeneMatcher, we collected 23 patients with 21 different pathogenic MADD variants identified by next-generation sequencing. We clinically evaluated the series of patients and categorized the phenotypes in two groups. Group 1 consists of 14 patients with severe developmental delay, endo- and exocrine dysfunction, impairment of the sensory and autonomic nervous system, and haematological anomalies. The clinical course during the first years of life can be potentially fatal. The nine patients in Group 2 have a predominant neurological phenotype comprising mild-to-severe developmental delay, hypotonia, speech impairment, and seizures. Analysis of mRNA revealed multiple aberrant MADD transcripts in two patient-derived fibroblast cell lines. Relative quantification of MADD mRNA and protein in fibroblasts of five affected individuals showed a drastic reduction or loss of MADD. We conducted functional tests to determine the impact of the variants on different pathways. Treatment of patient-derived fibroblasts with TNF-α resulted in reduced phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, enhanced activation of the pro-apoptotic enzymes caspase-3 and -7 and increased apoptosis compared to control cells. We analysed internalization of epidermal growth factor in patient cells and identified a defect in endocytosis of epidermal growth factor. We conclude that MADD deficiency underlies multiple cellular defects that can be attributed to alterations of TNF-α-dependent signalling pathways and defects in vesicular trafficking. Our data highlight the multifaceted role of MADD as a signalling molecule in different organs and reveal its physiological role in regulating the function of the sensory and autonomic nervous system and endo- and exocrine glands.

9.
Immunity ; 53(3): 672-684.e11, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750333

RESUMO

Autoinflammatory disease can result from monogenic errors of immunity. We describe a patient with early-onset multi-organ immune dysregulation resulting from a mosaic, gain-of-function mutation (S703I) in JAK1, encoding a kinase essential for signaling downstream of >25 cytokines. By custom single-cell RNA sequencing, we examine mosaicism with single-cell resolution. We find that JAK1 transcription was predominantly restricted to a single allele across different cells, introducing the concept of a mutational "transcriptotype" that differs from the genotype. Functionally, the mutation increases JAK1 activity and transactivates partnering JAKs, independent of its catalytic domain. S703I JAK1 is not only hypermorphic for cytokine signaling but also neomorphic, as it enables signaling cascades not canonically mediated by JAK1. Given these results, the patient was treated with tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor, leading to the rapid resolution of clinical disease. These findings offer a platform for personalized medicine with the concurrent discovery of fundamental biological principles.

11.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002836, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo genic and copy number variants are enriched in patients with congenital heart disease, particularly those with extra-cardiac anomalies. The impact of de novo damaging variants on outcomes following cardiac repair is unknown. METHODS: We studied 2517 patients with congenital heart disease who had undergone whole-exome sequencing as part of the CHD GENES study (Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network). RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-four patients (11.7%) had clinically significant de novo variants. Patients with de novo damaging variants were 2.4 times more likely to have extra-cardiac anomalies (P=5.63×10-12). In 1268 patients (50.4%) who had surgical data available and underwent open-heart surgery exclusive of heart transplantation as their first operation, we analyzed transplant-free survival following the first operation. Median follow-up was 2.65 years. De novo variants were associated with worse transplant-free survival (hazard ratio, 3.51; P=5.33×10-04) and longer times to final extubation (hazard ratio, 0.74; P=0.005). As de novo variants had a significant interaction with extra-cardiac anomalies for transplant-free survival (P=0.003), de novo variants conveyed no additional risk for transplant-free survival for patients with these anomalies (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.96; P=0.06). By contrast, de novo variants in patients without extra-cardiac anomalies were associated with worse transplant-free survival during follow-up (hazard ratio, 11.21; P=1.61×10-05) than that of patients with no de novo variants. Using agnostic machine-learning algorithms, we identified de novo copy number variants at 15q25.2 and 15q11.2 as being associated with worse transplant-free survival and 15q25.2, 22q11.21, and 3p25.2 as being associated with prolonged time to final extubation. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with congenital heart disease undergoing open-heart surgery, de novo variants were associated with worse transplant-free survival and longer times on the ventilator. De novo variants were most strongly associated with adverse outcomes among patients without extra-cardiac anomalies, suggesting a benefit for preoperative genetic testing even when genetic abnormalities are not suspected during routine clinical practice. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01196182.

13.
Nat Genet ; 52(8): 769-777, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601476

RESUMO

A genetic etiology is identified for one-third of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), with 8% of cases attributable to coding de novo variants (DNVs). To assess the contribution of noncoding DNVs to CHD, we compared genome sequences from 749 CHD probands and their parents with those from 1,611 unaffected trios. Neural network prediction of noncoding DNV transcriptional impact identified a burden of DNVs in individuals with CHD (n = 2,238 DNVs) compared to controls (n = 4,177; P = 8.7 × 10-4). Independent analyses of enhancers showed an excess of DNVs in associated genes (27 genes versus 3.7 expected, P = 1 × 10-5). We observed significant overlap between these transcription-based approaches (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-5.0, P = 5.4 × 10-3). CHD DNVs altered transcription levels in 5 of 31 enhancers assayed. Finally, we observed a DNV burden in RNA-binding-protein regulatory sites (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.1-1.2, P = 8.8 × 10-5). Our findings demonstrate an enrichment of potentially disruptive regulatory noncoding DNVs in a fraction of CHD at least as high as that observed for damaging coding DNVs.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genômica , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
15.
J Pediatr ; 222: 213-220.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test whether variants in ADRB1 and CYP2C9 genes identify subgroups of individuals with differential response to treatment for Marfan syndrome through analysis of data from a large, randomized trial. STUDY DESIGN: In a subset of 250 white, non-Hispanic participants with Marfan syndrome in a prior randomized trial of atenolol vs losartan, the common variants rs1801252 and rs1801253 in ADRB1 and rs1799853 and rs1057910 in CYP2C9 were analyzed. The primary outcome was baseline-adjusted annual rate of change in the maximum aortic root diameter z-score over 3 years, assessed using mixed effects models. RESULTS: Among 122 atenolol-assigned participants, the 70 with rs1801253 CC genotype had greater rate of improvement in aortic root z-score compared with 52 participants with CG or GG genotypes (Time × Genotype interaction P = .005, mean annual z-score change ± SE -0.20 ± 0.03 vs -0.09 ± 0.03). Among participants with the CC genotype in both treatment arms, those assigned to atenolol had greater rate of improvement compared with the 71 of the 121 assigned to losartan (interaction P = .002; -0.20 ± 0.02 vs -0.07 ± 0.02; P < .001). There were no differences in atenolol response by rs1801252 genotype or in losartan response by CYP2C9 metabolizer status. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, ADRB1-rs1801253 was associated with atenolol response in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome. If these findings are confirmed in future studies, ADRB1 genotyping has the potential to guide therapy by identifying those who are likely to have greater therapeutic response to atenolol than losartan.

16.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 172: 107233, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360730

RESUMO

Intellectual disability is a common feature in genetic disorders with enhanced RAS-ERK1/2 signaling, including neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and Noonan syndrome (NS). Additional training trials and additional spacing between trials, respectively, restores memory deficits in animal models of NF1 and NS. However, the relationship between the underlying mechanisms in these strategies remain obscure. Here, we developed an approach to examine the effect of adding training trials or spacing to a weak training protocol and used genetic and behavioral manipulations in Drosophila to explore such question. We found that repetition and spacing effects are highly related, being equally effective to improve memory in control flies and sharing mechanistic bases, including the requirement of RAS activity in mushroom body neurons and protein synthesis dependence. After spacing or repeating learning trials, memory improvement depends on the formation of long-term memory (LTM). Moreover, a disease-related gain-of-function RasV152G allele impaired LTM. Using minimal training protocols, we established that both learning strategies were also equally effective for memory rescue in the RasV152G mutant and showed non-additive interaction of the spacing and repetition effects. Memory improvement was never detected after Ras inhibition. We conclude that memory improvement by spacing or repeating training trials are two ways of using the same molecular resources, including RAS-ERK1/2-dependent signaling. This evidence supports the concept that learning problems in RAS-related disorders depend on the impaired ability to exploit the repetition and the spacing effect required for long-term memory induction.

17.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 42, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contribution of somatic mosaicism, or genetic mutations arising after oocyte fertilization, to congenital heart disease (CHD) is not well understood. Further, the relationship between mosaicism in blood and cardiovascular tissue has not been determined. METHODS: We developed a new computational method, EM-mosaic (Expectation-Maximization-based detection of mosaicism), to analyze mosaicism in exome sequences derived primarily from blood DNA of 2530 CHD proband-parent trios. To optimize this method, we measured mosaic detection power as a function of sequencing depth. In parallel, we analyzed our cohort using MosaicHunter, a Bayesian genotyping algorithm-based mosaic detection tool, and compared the two methods. The accuracy of these mosaic variant detection algorithms was assessed using an independent resequencing method. We then applied both methods to detect mosaicism in cardiac tissue-derived exome sequences of 66 participants for which matched blood and heart tissue was available. RESULTS: EM-mosaic detected 326 mosaic mutations in blood and/or cardiac tissue DNA. Of the 309 detected in blood DNA, 85/97 (88%) tested were independently confirmed, while 7/17 (41%) candidates of 17 detected in cardiac tissue were confirmed. MosaicHunter detected an additional 64 mosaics, of which 23/46 (50%) among 58 candidates from blood and 4/6 (67%) of 6 candidates from cardiac tissue confirmed. Twenty-five mosaic variants altered CHD-risk genes, affecting 1% of our cohort. Of these 25, 22/22 candidates tested were confirmed. Variants predicted as damaging had higher variant allele fraction than benign variants, suggesting a role in CHD. The estimated true frequency of mosaic variants above 10% mosaicism was 0.14/person in blood and 0.21/person in cardiac tissue. Analysis of 66 individuals with matched cardiac tissue available revealed both tissue-specific and shared mosaicism, with shared mosaics generally having higher allele fraction. CONCLUSIONS: We estimate that ~ 1% of CHD probands have a mosaic variant detectable in blood that could contribute to cardiac malformations, particularly those damaging variants with relatively higher allele fraction. Although blood is a readily available DNA source, cardiac tissues analyzed contributed ~ 5% of somatic mosaic variants identified, indicating the value of tissue mosaicism analyses.

18.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 184(1): 73-80, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022400

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome is a pleomorphic genetic disorder, in which a high percentage of affected individuals have cardiovascular involvement, most prevalently various forms of congenital heart disease (i.e., pulmonary valve stenosis, septal defects, left-sided lesions, and complex forms with multiple anomalies). Care includes attentiveness to several comorbidities, some directly impacting cardiac management (bleeding diatheses and lymphatic anomalies). More than 50% of patients with Noonan syndrome harbor PTPN11 pathogenic variation, which results in hyperactivation of RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Several other disease genes with similar biological effects have been uncovered for NS and phenotypically related disorders, collectively called the RASopathies. Molecular diagnosis with gene resequencing panels is now widely available, but phenotype variability and in some cases, subtlety, continues to make identification of Noonan syndrome difficult. Until genetic testing becomes universal for patients with congenital heart disease, alertness to Noonan syndrome's broad clinical presentations remains crucial. Genotype-phenotype associations for Noonan syndrome enable better prognostication for affected patients when a molecular diagnosis is established. We still lack Noonan syndrome-specific treatment; however, newly developed anticancer RAS pathway inhibitors could fill that gap if safety and efficacy can be established for indications such as pulmonary valve stenosis.

19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 182(4): 866-876, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913576

RESUMO

RASopathies caused by germline pathogenic variants in genes that encode RAS pathway proteins. These disorders include neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC), and Costello syndrome (CS), and others. RASopathies are characterized by heterogenous manifestations, including congenital heart disease, failure to thrive, and increased risk of cancers. Previous work led by the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch has altered the natural course of one of the key manifestations of the RASopathy NF1. Through the conduct of a longitudinal cohort study and early phase clinical trials, the MEK inhibitor selumetinib was identified as the first active therapy for the NF1-related peripheral nerve sheath tumors called plexiform neurofibromas (PNs). As a result, selumetinib was granted breakthrough therapy designation by the FDA for the treatment of PN. Other RASopathy manifestations may also benefit from RAS targeted therapies. The overall goal of Advancing RAS/RASopathy Therapies (ART), a new NCI initiative, is to develop effective therapies and prevention strategies for the clinical manifestations of the non-NF1 RASopathies and for tumors characterized by somatic RAS mutations. This report reflects discussions from a February 2019 initiation meeting for this project, which had broad international collaboration from basic and clinical researchers and patient advocates.

20.
Trends Biotechnol ; 38(5): 497-518, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980301

RESUMO

Individualizing patient treatment is a core objective of the medical field. Reaching this objective has been elusive owing to the complex set of factors contributing to both disease and health; many factors, from genes to proteins, remain unknown in their role in human physiology. Accurately diagnosing, monitoring, and treating disorders requires advances in biomarker discovery, the subsequent development of accurate signatures that correspond with dynamic disease states, as well as therapeutic interventions that can be continuously optimized and modulated for dose and drug selection. This work highlights key breakthroughs in the development of enabling technologies that further the goal of personalized and precision medicine, and remaining challenges that, when addressed, may forge unprecedented capabilities in realizing truly individualized patient care.

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