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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2961-2974, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052964

RESUMO

Climate mitigation scenarios limiting global temperature increases to 1.5 °C rely on decarbonizing vehicle transport with bioenergy production plus carbon capture and storage (BECCS), but climate impacts for producing different bioenergy feedstocks have not been directly compared experimentally or for ethanol vs electric light-duty vehicles. A field experiment at two Midwest U.S. sites on contrasting soils revealed that feedstock yields of seven potential bioenergy cropping systems varied substantially within sites but little between. Bioenergy produced per hectare reflected yields: miscanthus > poplar > switchgrass > native grasses ≈ maize stover (residue) > restored prairie ≈ early successional. Greenhouse gas emission intensities for ethanol vehicles ranged from 20 to -179 g CO2e MJ-1: maize stover ≫ miscanthus ≈ switchgrass ≈ native grasses ≈ poplar > early successional ≥ restored prairie; direct climate benefits ranged from ∼80% (stover) to 290% (restored prairie) reductions in CO2e compared to petroleum and were similar for electric vehicles. With carbon capture and storage (CCS), reductions in emission intensities ranged from 204% (stover) to 416% (restored prairie) for ethanol vehicles and from 329 to 558% for electric vehicles, declining 27 and 15%, respectively, once soil carbon equilibrates within several decades of establishment. Extrapolation based on expected U.S. transportation energy use suggests that, once CCS potential is maximized with CO2 pipeline infrastructure, negative emissions from bioenergy with CCS for light-duty electric vehicles could capture >900 Tg CO2e year-1 in the U.S. In the future, as other renewable electricity sources become more important, electricity production from biomass would offset less fossil fuel electricity, and the advantage of electric over ethanol vehicles would decrease proportionately.


Assuntos
Clima , Panicum , Biomassa , Carbono , Combustíveis Fósseis
2.
Ecol Appl ; 28(5): 1362-1369, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856901

RESUMO

Land use conversions into and out of agriculture may influence soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas fluxes for many years. We tested the legacy effects of land use on cumulative soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes for 5 yr following conversion of 22-yr-old Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands and conventionally tilled agricultural fields (AGR) to continuous no-till corn, switchgrass, and restored prairie. An unconverted CRP field served as a reference. We assessed the labile soil C pool of the upper 10 cm in 2009 (the conversion year) and in 2014 using short-term soil incubations. We also measured in situ soil N2 O fluxes biweekly from 2009 through 2014 using static chambers except when soils were frozen. The labile C pool was approximately twofold higher in soils previously in CRP than in those formerly in tilled cropland. Five-year cumulative soil N2 O emissions were approximately threefold higher in the corn system on former CRP than on former cropland despite similar fertilization rates (~184 kg N·ha-1 ·yr-1 ). The lower cumulative emissions from corn on former cropland were similar to emissions from switchgrass that was fertilized less (~57 kg N·ha-1 ·yr-1 ), regardless of former land use, and lowest emissions were observed from the unfertilized restored prairie and reference systems. Findings support the hypothesis that soil labile carbon levels modulate the response of soil N2 O emissions to nitrogen inputs, with soils higher in labile carbon but otherwise similar, in this case reflecting land use history, responding more strongly to added nitrogen.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Pradaria , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes/análise , Michigan , Nitrogênio/análise
3.
Glob Chang Biol ; 22(11): 3594-3607, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27510313

RESUMO

Differences in soil nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes among ecosystems are often difficult to evaluate and predict due to high spatial and temporal variabilities and few direct experimental comparisons. For 20 years, we measured N2 O fluxes in 11 ecosystems in southwest Michigan USA: four annual grain crops (corn-soybean-wheat rotations) managed with conventional, no-till, reduced input, or biologically based/organic inputs; three perennial crops (alfalfa, poplar, and conifers); and four unmanaged ecosystems of different successional age including mature forest. Average N2 O emissions were higher from annual grain and N-fixing cropping systems than from nonleguminous perennial cropping systems and were low across unmanaged ecosystems. Among annual cropping systems full-rotation fluxes were indistinguishable from one another but rotation phase mattered. For example, those systems with cover crops and reduced fertilizer N emitted more N2 O during the corn and soybean phases, but during the wheat phase fluxes were ~40% lower. Likewise, no-till did not differ from conventional tillage over the entire rotation but reduced emissions ~20% in the wheat phase and increased emissions 30-80% in the corn and soybean phases. Greenhouse gas intensity for the annual crops (flux per unit yield) was lowest for soybeans produced under conventional management, while for the 11 other crop × management combinations intensities were similar to one another. Among the fertilized systems, emissions ranged from 0.30 to 1.33 kg N2 O-N ha-1  yr-1 and were best predicted by IPCC Tier 1 and ΔEF emission factor approaches. Annual cumulative fluxes from perennial systems were best explained by soil NO3- pools (r2  = 0.72) but not so for annual crops, where management differences overrode simple correlations. Daily soil N2 O emissions were poorly predicted by any measured variables. Overall, long-term measurements reveal lower fluxes in nonlegume perennial vegetation and, for conservatively fertilized annual crops, the overriding influence of rotation phase on annual fluxes.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Óxido Nitroso , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Michigan , Solo
4.
Nature ; 493(7433): 514-7, 2013 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23334409

RESUMO

Legislation on biofuels production in the USA and Europe is directing food crops towards the production of grain-based ethanol, which can have detrimental consequences for soil carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions, nitrate pollution, biodiversity and human health. An alternative is to grow lignocellulosic (cellulosic) crops on 'marginal' lands. Cellulosic feedstocks can have positive environmental outcomes and could make up a substantial proportion of future energy portfolios. However, the availability of marginal lands for cellulosic feedstock production, and the resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, remains uncertain. Here we evaluate the potential for marginal lands in ten Midwestern US states to produce sizeable amounts of biomass and concurrently mitigate GHG emissions. In a comparative assessment of six alternative cropping systems over 20 years, we found that successional herbaceous vegetation, once well established, has a direct GHG emissions mitigation capacity that rivals that of purpose-grown crops (-851 ± 46 grams of CO(2) equivalent emissions per square metre per year (gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1))). If fertilized, these communities have the capacity to produce about 63 ± 5 gigajoules of ethanol energy per hectare per year. By contrast, an adjacent, no-till corn-soybean-wheat rotation produces on average 41 ± 1 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year and has a net direct mitigation capacity of -397 ± 32 gCO(2)e m(-2) yr(-1); a continuous corn rotation would probably produce about 62 ± 7 gigajoules of biofuel energy per hectare per year, with 13% less mitigation. We also perform quantitative modelling of successional vegetation on marginal lands in the region at a resolution of 0.4 hectares, constrained by the requirement that each modelled location be within 80 kilometres of a potential biorefinery. Our results suggest that such vegetation could produce about 21 gigalitres of ethanol per year from around 11 million hectares, or approximately 25 per cent of the 2022 target for cellulosic biofuel mandated by the US Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, with no initial carbon debt nor the indirect land-use costs associated with food-based biofuels. Other regional-scale aspects of biofuel sustainability, such as water quality and biodiversity, await future study.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biocombustíveis/provisão & distribução , Energia Renovável/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Biocombustíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomassa , Pegada de Carbono/estatística & dados numéricos , Celulose/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Política Ambiental , Etanol/metabolismo , Etanol/provisão & distribução , Combustíveis Fósseis/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Efeito Estufa/estatística & dados numéricos , Michigan , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 108(33): 13864-9, 2011 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21825117

RESUMO

Over 13 million ha of former cropland are enrolled in the US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing well-recognized biodiversity, water quality, and carbon (C) sequestration benefits that could be lost on conversion back to agricultural production. Here we provide measurements of the greenhouse gas consequences of converting CRP land to continuous corn, corn-soybean, or perennial grass for biofuel production. No-till soybeans preceded the annual crops and created an initial carbon debt of 10.6 Mg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)e)·ha(-1) that included agronomic inputs, changes in C stocks, altered N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes, and foregone C sequestration less a fossil fuel offset credit. Total debt, which includes future debt created by additional changes in soil C stocks and the loss of substantial future soil C sequestration, can be constrained to 68 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) if subsequent crops are under permanent no-till management. If tilled, however, total debt triples to 222 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) on account of further soil C loss. Projected C debt repayment periods under no-till management range from 29 to 40 y for corn-soybean and continuous corn, respectively. Under conventional tillage repayment periods are three times longer, from 89 to 123 y, respectively. Alternatively, the direct use of existing CRP grasslands for cellulosic feedstock production would avoid C debt entirely and provide modest climate change mitigation immediately. Incentives for permanent no till and especially permission to harvest CRP biomass for cellulosic biofuel would help to blunt the climate impact of future CRP conversion.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carbono/metabolismo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Efeito Estufa/prevenção & controle , Biocombustíveis , Celulose , Produtos Agrícolas , Programas Governamentais , Estados Unidos
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 44(10): 4006-11, 2010 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20402534

RESUMO

The prospect of biofuel production on a large scale has focused attention on energy efficiencies associated with different agricultural systems and production goals. We used 17 years of detailed data on agricultural practices and yields to calculate an energy balance for different cropping systems under both food and fuel scenarios. We compared four grain and one forage systems in the U.S. Midwest: corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) rotations managed with (1) conventional tillage, (2) no till, (3) low chemical input, and (4) biologically based (organic) practices, and (5) continuous alfalfa (Medicago sativa). We compared energy balances under two scenarios: all harvestable biomass used for food versus all harvestable biomass used for biofuel production. Among the annual grain crops, average energy costs of farming for the different systems ranged from 4.8 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the organic system to 7.1 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) for the conventional; the no-till system was also low at 4.9 GJ ha(-1) y(-1) and the low-chemical input system intermediate (5.2 GJ ha(-1) y(-1)). For each system, the average energy output for food was always greater than that for fuel. Overall energy efficiencies ranged from output:input ratios of 10 to 16 for conventional and no-till food production and from 7 to 11 for conventional and no-till fuel production, respectively. Alfalfa for fuel production had an efficiency similar to that of no-till grain production for fuel. Our analysis points to a more energetically efficient use of cropland for food than for fuel production and large differences in efficiencies attributable to management, which suggests multiple opportunities for improvement.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Alimentos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 39(6): 1802-10, 2005 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15819240

RESUMO

In the present work we describe a comprehensive analysis of sulfide oxidation in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) from an environmentally sustainable, zero-discharge mariculture system. The FBR received oxygen-depleted effluent from a digestion basin (DB) that is responsible for gasification of organic matter and nitrogen. The FBR is a crucial component in this recirculating system because it safeguards the fish from the toxic sulfide produced in the DB. Microscale sulfide oxidation potential and bacterial community composition within FBR biofilms were correlated to biofilter performance by integrating bulk chemical, microsensor (O2, pH, and H2S), and molecular microbial community analyses. The FBR consistently oxidized sulfide during two years of continuous operation, with an estimated average sulfide removal rate of 1.3 g of sulfide-S L(FBR)(-1) d(-1). Maximum sulfide oxidation rates within the FBR biofilms were 0.36 and 0.21 mg of sulfide-S cm(-3) h(-1) in the oxic and anoxic layers, respectively, indicating that both oxygen and nitrate serve as electron acceptors for sulfide oxidation. The estimated anoxic sulfide removal rate, as extrapolated from bench scale, autotrophic, nitrate-amended experiments, was 0.7 g of sulfide-S L(FBR)(-1) d(-1), which is approximately 50% of the total estimated sulfide removal in the FBR. Community composition analyses using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments from FBR samples taken at six-month intervals revealed several sequences that were closely affiliated with sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. These included the denitrifying, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria Thiomicrospira denitrificans, members of the filamentous Thiothrix genus, and sulfide-oxidizing symbionts from the Gammaproteobacteria. In addition, marine Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes species were present in all of the DGGE profiles examined. DGGE analyses showed significant shifts in the bacterial community composition between profiles over two years of sampling, indicating the presence of a diverse and dynamic microbial community within the functionally stable FBR. The FBR's combined capacity for both oxic and anoxic sulfide oxidation, as indicated by bulk chemical, microsensor, and molecular microbial analyses, gives it significant functional elasticity, which is crucial for proper performance in the dynamic environment of this mariculture system.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Reatores Biológicos , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oxidantes Fotoquímicos/análise , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Ozônio/análise
8.
Environ Microbiol ; 5(1): 55-63, 2003 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12542713

RESUMO

Bacterial community structure and physiochemical parameters were examined in a sedimentation basin of a zero-discharge mariculture system. The system consisted of an intensively stocked fish basin from which water was recirculated through two separate treatment loops. Surface water from the basin was pumped over a trickling filter in one loop while bottom-water was recirculated through a sedimentation basin followed by a fluidized bed reactor in the other. Ammonia oxidation to nitrate in the trickling filter and organic matter digestion together with nitrate reduction in the sedimentation basin and fluidized bed reactor, allowed zero-discharge operation of the system. Relatively high concentrations of oxygen, nitrate, sulphate and organic matter detected simultaneously in the digestion basin suggested the potential for a wide range of microbially-mediated transformation processes. In this study, physiochemical parameters were correlated to bacterial diversity and distribution in horizontal and vertical profiles within this basin in an effort to obtain a basic understanding of the chemical and microbial processes in this system. Chemical activity and microbial diversity, the latter measured by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 16S rDNA fragments, were higher in the sludge layer than in the overlying aqueous layer of the basin. Chemical parameters in sludge samples close to the basin inlet suggested enhanced microbial activity relative to other sampling areas with evidence of both nitrate and sulphate reduction. Four of the nine DGGE bands identified in this zone were affiliated with the Bacteroidetes phylum. Detected sequences closely related to sequences of organisms involved in the sulphur cycle included Desulfovibrio, Dethiosulfovibrio and apparent sulphur oxidizers from the gamma-proteobacteria. In addition, a number of sequences from the beta and alpha-proteobacteria were identified.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/classificação , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida/métodos , Peixes , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nitratos/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Água do Mar/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sulfatos/metabolismo
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