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1.
Clin Trials ; : 17407745211049829, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Safe and effective therapies for COVID-19 are urgently needed. In order to meet this need, the Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines public-private partnership initiated the Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19. Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19 is a multi-arm, multi-stage platform master protocol, which facilitates the rapid evaluation of the safety and efficacy of novel candidate antiviral therapeutic agents for adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Five agents have so far entered the protocol, with rapid answers already provided for three of these. Other agents are expected to enter the protocol throughout 2021. This protocol contains a number of key design and implementation features that, along with challenges faced by the protocol team, are presented and discussed. METHODS: Three clinical trial networks, encompassing a global network of clinical sites, participated in the protocol development and implementation. Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19 utilizes a multi-arm, multi-stage design with an agile and robust approach to futility and safety evaluation at 300 patients enrolled, with subsequent expansion to full sample size and an expanded target population if the agent shows an acceptable safety profile and evidence of efficacy. Rapid recruitment to multiple agents is enabled through the sharing of placebo, the confining of agent-specific information to protocol appendices, and modular consent forms. In collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration, a thorough safety data collection and Data and Safety Monitoring Board schedule was developed for the study of potential therapeutic agents with limited in-human data in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: As of 8 August 2021, five agents have entered the Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19 master protocol and a total of 1909 participants have been randomized to one of these agents or matching placebo. There were a number of challenges faced by the study team that needed to be overcome in order to successfully implement Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19 across a global network of sites. These included ensuring drug supply and reliable recruitment allowing for changing infection rates across the global network of sites, the need to balance the collection of data and samples without overburdening clinical staff and obtaining regulatory approvals across a global network of sites. CONCLUSION: Through a robust multi-network partnership, the Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19 protocol has been successfully used across a global network of sites for rapid generation of efficacy data on multiple novel antiviral agents. The protocol design and implementation features used in this protocol, and the approaches to address challenges, will have broader applicability. Mechanisms to facilitate improved communication and harmonization among country-specific regulatory bodies are required to achieve the full potential of this approach in dealing with a global outbreak.

3.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(1): 1-9, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter edge-to-edge (TEER) mitral repair may be complicated by residual or recurrent mitral regurgitation. An increasing need for surgical reintervention has been reported, but operative outcomes are ill defined. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated national outcomes of mitral surgery after TEER. METHODS: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was used to identify 524 adults who underwent mitral surgery after TEER between July 2014 and June 2020. Emergencies (5.0%; n = 26), previous mitral surgery (5.3%; n = 28), or open implantation of transcatheter prostheses (1.5%; n = 8) were excluded. The primary outcome was 30-day or in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In the study cohort of 463 patients, the median age was 76 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67 to 81 years), median left ventricular ejection fraction was 57% (IQR: 48% to 62%), and 177 (38.2%) patients had degenerative disease. Major concomitant cardiac surgery was performed in 137 (29.4%) patients: in patients undergoing isolated mitral surgery, the median STS-predicted mortality was 6.5% (IQR: 3.9% to 10.5%), the observed mortality was 10.2% (n = 23 of 225), and the ratio of observed to expected mortality was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8 to 1.9). Predictors of mortality included urgent surgery (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.6), nondegenerative/unknown etiology (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.5), creatinine of >2.0 mg/dl (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.9 to 7.9) and age of >80 years (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 4.4). In a volume outcomes analysis in an expanded cohort of 591 patients at 227 hospitals, operative mortality was 2.6% (n = 2 of 76) in 4 centers that performed >10 cases versus 12.4% (n = 64 of 515) in centers performing fewer (p = 0.01). The surgical repair rate after failed TEER was 4.8% (n = 22) and was 6.8% (n = 12) in degenerative disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that mitral repair is infrequently achieved after failed TEER, which may have implications for treatment choice in lower-risk and younger patients with degenerative disease. These findings should inform patient consent for TEER, clinical trial design, and clinical performance measures.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Valva Mitral , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Reoperação , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/patologia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/métodos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/métodos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly 40% of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing mitral valve surgery do not receive concomitant ablation despite societal guidelines. We assessed barriers to implementation of this evidence-based practice through a survey of cardiac surgeons in 2 statewide quality collaboratives. METHODS: Adult cardiac surgeons across 2 statewide collaboratives were surveyed on their knowledge and practice regarding AF ablation. Questions concerning experience, clinical practice, case scenarios, and barriers to implementation were included. RESULTS: Among 66 respondents (66 of 135; 48.9%), the majority reported "very comfortable/frequently use" cryoablation (53 of 66; 80.3%) and radiofrequency (55 of 66; 83.3%). Only 12.1% (8/66) were not aware of the recommendations. Approximately one-half of the respondents reported learning AF ablation in fellowship (50.0%; 33 of 66) or attending courses (47.0%; 31 of 66). Responses to clinical scenarios demonstrated wide variability in practice patterns. One-half of the respondents reported no barriers; others cited increased cross-clamp time, excessive patient risk, and arrhythmia incidence as obstacles. Desired interventions included cardiology/electrophysiology support, protocols, pacemaker rate information, and education in the form of site visits, videos and proctors. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of evidence-based recommendations and practice patterns vary widely. These data identify several barriers to implementation of concomitant AF ablation and suggest specific interventions (mentorship/support, protocols, research, and education) to overcome these barriers.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(6): 713-724, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether to repair nonsevere tricuspid regurgitation (TR) during surgery for ischemic mitral valve regurgitation (IMR) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence, predictors, and clinical significance of TR progression and presence of ≥moderate TR after IMR surgery. METHODS: Patients (n = 492) with untreated nonsevere TR within 2 prospectively randomized IMR trials were included. Key outcomes were TR progression (either progression by ≥2 grades, surgery for TR, or severe TR at 2 years) and presence of ≥moderate TR at 2 years. RESULTS: Patients' mean age was 66 ± 10 years (67% male), and TR distribution was 60% ≤trace, 31% mild, and 9% moderate. Among 2-year survivors, TR progression occurred in 20 (6%) of 325 patients. Baseline tricuspid annular diameter (TAD) was not predictive of TR progression. At 2 years, 37 (11%) of 323 patients had ≥moderate TR. Baseline TR grade, indexed TAD, and surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation were independent predictors of ≥moderate TR. However, TAD alone had poor discrimination (area under the curve, ≤0.65). Presence of ≥moderate TR at 2 years was higher in patients with MR recurrence (20% vs. 9%; p = 0.02) and a permanent pacemaker/defibrillator (19% vs. 9%; p = 0.01). Clinical event rates (composite of ≥1 New York Heart Association functional class increase, heart failure hospitalization, mitral valve surgery, and stroke) were higher in patients with TR progression (55% vs. 23%; p = 0.003) and ≥moderate TR at 2 years (38% vs. 22%; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: After IMR surgery, progression of unrepaired nonsevere TR is uncommon. Baseline TAD is not predictive of TR progression and is poorly discriminative of ≥moderate TR at 2 years. TR progression and presence of ≥moderate TR are associated with clinical events. (Comparing the Effectiveness of a Mitral Valve Repair Procedure in Combination With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting [CABG] Versus CABG Alone in People With Moderate Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation, NCT00806988; Comparing the Effectiveness of Repairing Versus Replacing the Heart's Mitral Valve in People With Severe Chronic Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation, NCT00807040).


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/epidemiologia , Idoso , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Marca-Passo Artificial , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem
6.
Health Care Manag Sci ; 24(1): 234-243, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161511

RESUMO

Medical knowledge is increasing at an exponential rate. At the same time, unexplained variations in practice and patient outcomes and unacceptable rates of medical errors and inefficiencies in health care delivery have emerged. Our Institute for Health Care Delivery Science (I-HDS) began in 2014 as a novel platform to conduct multidisciplinary healthcare delivery research. We followed ten strategies to develop a successful institute with excellence in methodology and strong understanding of the value of team science. Our work was organized around five hubs: 1) Quality/Process Improvement and Systematic Review, 2) Comparative Effectiveness Research, Pragmatic Clinical Trials, and Predictive Analytics, 3) Health Economics and Decision Modeling, 4) Qualitative, Survey, and Mixed Methods, and 5) Training and Mentoring. In the first 5 years of the I-HDS, we have identified opportunities for change in clinical practice through research using our health system's electronic health record (EHR) data, and designed programs to educate clinicians in the value of research to improve patient care and recognize efficiencies in processes. Testing the value of several model interventions has guided prioritization of evidence-based quality improvements. Some of the changes in practice have already been embedded in the EHR workflow successfully. Development and sustainability of the I-HDS has been fostered by a mix of internal and external funding, including philanthropic foundations. Challenges remain due to the highly competitive funding environment and changes needed to adapt the EHR to healthcare delivery research. Further stakeholder engagement and culture change working with hospital leadership and I-HDS core and affiliate members continues.

7.
N Engl J Med ; 384(10): 905-914, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LY-CoV555, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, has been associated with a decrease in viral load and the frequency of hospitalizations or emergency department visits among outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Data are needed on the effect of this antibody in patients who are hospitalized with Covid-19. METHODS: In this platform trial of therapeutic agents, we randomly assigned hospitalized patients who had Covid-19 without end-organ failure in a 1:1 ratio to receive either LY-CoV555 or matching placebo. In addition, all the patients received high-quality supportive care as background therapy, including the antiviral drug remdesivir and, when indicated, supplemental oxygen and glucocorticoids. LY-CoV555 (at a dose of 7000 mg) or placebo was administered as a single intravenous infusion over a 1-hour period. The primary outcome was a sustained recovery during a 90-day period, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis. An interim futility assessment was performed on the basis of a seven-category ordinal scale for pulmonary function on day 5. RESULTS: On October 26, 2020, the data and safety monitoring board recommended stopping enrollment for futility after 314 patients (163 in the LY-CoV555 group and 151 in the placebo group) had undergone randomization and infusion. The median interval since the onset of symptoms was 7 days (interquartile range, 5 to 9). At day 5, a total of 81 patients (50%) in the LY-CoV555 group and 81 (54%) in the placebo group were in one of the two most favorable categories of the pulmonary outcome. Across the seven categories, the odds ratio of being in a more favorable category in the LY-CoV555 group than in the placebo group was 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 1.29; P = 0.45). The percentage of patients with the primary safety outcome (a composite of death, serious adverse events, or clinical grade 3 or 4 adverse events through day 5) was similar in the LY-CoV555 group and the placebo group (19% and 14%, respectively; odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.78 to 3.10; P = 0.20). The rate ratio for a sustained recovery was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.47). CONCLUSIONS: Monoclonal antibody LY-CoV555, when coadministered with remdesivir, did not demonstrate efficacy among hospitalized patients who had Covid-19 without end-organ failure. (Funded by Operation Warp Speed and others; TICO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04501978.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Tratamento
8.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215168

RESUMO

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a public health emergency. Safe and effective therapies are urgently needed. Methods: Therapeutics for Inpatients with COVID-19 (TICO), is a global multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS) platform master protocol, which facilitates the rapid evaluation of the safety and efficacy of candidate anti-viral therapeutic agents for adults hospitalized with COVID-19. The protocol design allows multiple therapeutic agents to be evaluated in an efficient and scientifically rigorous manner, with efficiencies delivered by the MAMS design, and began by studying neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. TICO employs an agile and robust approach to futility and safety evaluation at 300 patients enrolled (Stage 1), with subsequent expansion to full sample size and an expanded target population (Stage 2) if the agent shows an acceptable safety profile and evidence of efficacy. Two ordinal outcomes applied early (Day 5) determine the efficacy signals of the investigational agents(s) and progression to Stage 2. These ordinal outcomes assess both respiratory and other organ failure events, recognizing the broad range of COVID-19 morbidity. In Stage 2, overall efficacy is assessed using the primary outcome of 'time to sustained recovery' assessed over 90 days. This approach to early futility assessment using an early intermediate outcome and a primary endpoint out to 90 days allows the study team to make rapid decisions on safety and potential efficacy of novel agents while ultimately focusing on patient-centered, longer-term outcomes. The implementation of TICO across a global network allows for continued enrollment despite variations in geographic epidemiology. Study Status: The TICO master protocol moved from conception to first patient enrolled in approximately 9 weeks, a testament to the expedited regulatory and ethics review, coupled with flexible and responsive study operations. The first agent to be tested using this protocol, LY-CoV-555, enrolled N=326 participants before undergoing Stage 1 futility and safety assessment. Two additional agents will enter the study in November 2020, with other agents planned. Conclusion: The TICO MAMS platform trial has been implemented efficiently across a global network of sites and several trial networks. It will generate results rapidly for multiple novel neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and other therapeutics agents.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Two trials (Cardiovascular Outcomes Assessment of the MitraClip Percutaneous Therapy for Heart Failure Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation Trial and Percutaneous Repair with the MitraClip Device for Severe Functional/Secondary Mitral Regurgitation Trial) were published in 2018 evaluating the effectiveness and safety of transcatheter repair for patients with heart failure with significant functional mitral regurgitation, which yielded different results. This article reviews the strength of the evidence, differences in trial designs, ethical and implementation implications, and delineates future research needs to help guide the appropriate dissemination of transcatheter repair for functional patients with mitral regurgitation. METHODS: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop of interdisciplinary experts to address these objectives. RESULTS: Transcatheter repair of functional mitral regurgitation can provide significant benefits in terms of heart failure hospitalizations, survival, and quality of life when appropriate heart failure candidates with moderate to severe or severe mitral regurgitation while on optimal guideline-directed medical therapy can be identified. Key ingredients for success are preoperative evaluation and management and postoperative care by an interdisciplinary heart team. CONCLUSIONS: Given the discordance observed between trials, ongoing innovation in patient management, and potential expansion of indications for use, the evidence base must be expanded to optimize appropriate implementation of this complex therapy. This will require more complete capture of outcome data in real-world settings for all eligible candidates whether or not they receive this therapy. Inevitably, the indications for use of this therapy will expand, as will the devices and therapeutic approaches for this population, necessitating the study of comparative effectiveness through randomized trials or observational studies. Moreover, given the substantial variations in care delivery, conducting implementation research to delineate characteristics of the optimal care model would be of benefit.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and risk factors for non-home discharge (NHD) and its association with clinical outcomes and quality of life (QOL) at 1 year following cardiac surgery in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). METHODS: Discharge disposition was evaluated in 552 patients enrolled in trials of severe or moderate IMR. Patient and in-hospital factors associated with NHD were identified using logistic regression. Subsequently, association of NHD with 1-year mortality, serious adverse events (SAEs), and QOL was assessed. RESULTS: NHD was observed in 30% (154/522) with 25% (n = 71/289) in moderate and 36% (n = 83/233) in patients with severe IMR (unadjusted P = .006), a difference not significant after including age (5-year change: adjusted odds ratio [adjOR], 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-1.72; P < .001), diabetes (adjOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.27-2.94; P = .002), and previous heart failure (adjOR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.06-2.52; P = .03). Odds of NHD were increased for patients with postoperative SAEs (adjOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.19-2.86; P = .01) but not based on type of cardiac surgery. Greater rates of death and SAEs were observed in NHD patients at 1 year: adjusted hazard ratio, 4.29 (95% CI, 2.14-8.59; P < .001) and adjusted rate ratio, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.03-2.02; P = .03), respectively. QOL did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: NHD is common following surgery for IMR, influenced by older age, diabetes, previous heart failure, and postoperative SAEs. These patients may be at greater risk of death and subsequent SAEs after discharge. Discussion of NHD with patients may have important implications for decision-making and guiding expectations following cardiac surgery.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(13): 1593-1604, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241376

RESUMO

Compared with randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in medical specialties, RCTs in cardiac surgery face specific issues. Individual and collective equipoise, rapid evolution of the surgical techniques, as well as difficulties in obtaining funding, and limited education in clinical epidemiology in the surgical community are among the most important challenges in the design phase of the trial. Use of complex interventions and learning curve effect, differences in individual operators' expertise, difficulties in blinding, and slow recruitment make the successful completion of cardiac surgery RCTs particularly challenging. In fact, over the course of the last 20 years, the number of cardiac surgery RCTs has declined significantly. In this review, a team of surgeons, trialists, and epidemiologists discusses the most important challenges faced by RCTs in cardiac surgery and provides a list of suggestions for the successful design and completion of cardiac surgery RCTs.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(6): 652-659, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293643

RESUMO

Importance: Given the shortage of donor hearts and improvement in outcomes with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy, a relevant but, to date, unanswered question is whether select patients with advanced heart failure should receive LVAD destination therapy as an alternative to heart transplant. Objective: To determine whether a strategy of LVAD destination therapy is associated with similar survival benefit as wait-listing for heart transplant with or without LVAD therapy among patients with advanced heart failure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective propensity-matched cohort analysis used data on heart transplants from the United Network for Organ Sharing registry and LVAD implants from the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014. The matched LVAD destination therapy cohort included 3411 patients. Data analysis for this study was conducted from December 22, 2017, to May 24, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Survival at 5 years was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: In total, 8281 patients had albumin level, creatinine level, and BMI data recorded and were included in the analysis. Despite propensity score matching, the 3411 patients receiving LVAD destination therapy still tended to be slightly older than the 3411 patients wait-listed for heart transplant (64.0 years [interquartile range, 55.0-70.0 years] vs 60.0 [interquartile range, 54.0-65.0 years]; P < .001), but there was no significant difference in sex (2701 men [79.2%] vs 2648 men [77.6%]; P = .13). After propensity score matching for age, sex, body mass index, renal function, and albumin level, 3411 patients were wait-listed for heart transplant. This included 1607 patients with bridge to transplant LVAD therapy and 1804 patients without LVAD. The strategy of wait-listing for heart transplant was associated with better 5-year survival than LVAD destination therapy (risk ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.38-0.46) after matching and adjusting for key clinical factors. This survival advantage was associated with heart transplant (adjusted risk ratio for time-dependent transplant status, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.24-0.32). Conclusions and Relevance: The present analysis suggests that heart transplant with or without bridge to transplant LVAD therapy was associated with superior 5-year survival compared with LVAD destination therapy among patients matched on several relevant clinical factors. Continued improvement in LVAD technology, along with prospective comparative research, appears to be needed to amend this strategy.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Coração Auxiliar , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sistema de Registros , Listas de Espera/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Doadores de Tecidos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The dissemination of mitral valve repair as the first-line treatment and the introduction of MitraClip for patients who have a prohibitive risk for surgery have changed the landscape of mitral valve intervention. The aim of this study is to provide current and generalizable data regarding the trend of mitral valve interventions and outcomes from 2000 to 2016. METHODS: Patients ≥18 years of age who underwent mitral-valve interventions were identified using the National Inpatient Sample database. National estimates were generated by means of discharge weights; comorbid conditions were identified using Elixhauser methods. All trends were analyzed with JoinPoint software. RESULTS: A total of 656,030 mitral valve interventions (298,102 mitral valve replacement, 349,053 mitral valve repair, and 8875 MitraClip) were assessed. No changes in rate of procedures (per 100,000 people in the United States) were observed over this period (annual percent change, -0.4; 95% confidence limit, -1.1 to 0.3; P = .3). From 2000 to 2010, the number of replacements decreased by 5.6% per year (P < .001), whereas repair increased by 8.4% per year from 2000 to 2006 (P < .001). MitraClip procedures increased by 84.4% annually from 2013 to 2016 (P < .001). The burden of comorbidities increased throughout the study for all groups, with the greatest score for MitraClip recipients. Overall, length of stay has decreased for all interventions, most significantly for MitraClip. In-hospital mortality decreased from 8.5% to 3.7% for all interventions, with MitraClip having the most substantial decrease from 3.6% to 1.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 17-year period, mitral-valve interventions were associated with improved outcomes despite being applied to an increasingly sicker population.

14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(2): 465-471, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epiaortic ultrasound detects and localizes ascending aortic atherosclerosis. In this analysis we investigated the association between epiaortic ultrasound-based atheroma grade during surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and perioperative adverse outcomes. METHODS: SAVR patients in a randomized trial of 2 embolic protection devices underwent a protocol-defined 5-view epiaortic ultrasound read at a core laboratory. Aortic atherosclerosis was quantified with the Katz atheroma grade, and patients were categorized as mild (grade I-II) or moderate/severe (grade III-V). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate associations between atheroma grade and adverse outcomes, including death, clinically apparent stroke, cerebral infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, delirium, and acute kidney injury (AKI) by 7 and 30 days. RESULTS: Precannulation epiaortic ultrasound data were available for 326 of 383 randomized patients (85.1%). Of these, 106 (32.5%) had moderate/severe Katz atheroma grade at any segment of the ascending aorta. Although differences in the composite of death, stroke, or cerebral infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging by 7 days were not statistically significant, moderate/severe atheroma grade was associated with a greater risk of AKI by 7 days (adjusted odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.58; P = .01). At 30 days, patients with moderate/severe atheroma grade had a greater risk of death, stroke, or AKI (adjusted odds ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.71; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate/severe aortic atherosclerosis was associated with an increased risk of adverse events after SAVR. Epiaortic ultrasound may serve as a useful adjunct for identifying patients who may benefit from strategies to reduce atheroembolic complications during SAVR.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/complicações , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Aterosclerose/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/complicações , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 159(6): 2230-2240.e15, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network reported that left ventricular reverse remodeling at 2 years did not differ between patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation randomized to coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair (n = 150) or coronary artery bypass grafting alone (n = 151). To address health resource use implications, we compared costs and quality-adjusted survival. METHODS: We used individual patient data from the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network trial on survival, hospitalizations, quality of life, and US hospitalization costs to estimate cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life years. A microsimulation model was developed to extrapolate to 10 years. Bootstrap and deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed to address uncertainty. RESULTS: In-hospital costs were $59,745 for coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair versus $51,326 for coronary artery bypass grafting alone (difference $8419; 95% uncertainty interval, 2259-18,757). Two-year costs were $81,263 versus $67,341 (difference 13,922 [2370 to 28,888]), and quality-adjusted life years were 1.35 versus 1.30 (difference 0.05; -0.04 to 0.14), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $308,343/quality-adjusted life year for coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair. At 10 years, its costs remained higher ($107,733 vs $88,583, difference 19,150 [-3866 to 56,826]) and quality-adjusted life years showed no difference (-0.92 to 0.87), with 5.08 versus 5.08. The likelihood that coronary artery bypass grafting plus mitral valve repair would be considered cost-effective at 10 years based on a cost-effectiveness threshold of $100K/quality-adjusted life year did not exceed 37%. Only when this procedure reduces the death rate by a relative 5% will the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio fall below $100K/quality-adjusted life year. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of mitral valve repair to coronary artery bypass grafting for patients with moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation is unlikely to be cost-effective. Only if late mortality benefits can be demonstrated will it meet commonly used cost-effectiveness criteria.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/economia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/economia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/economia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/economia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Idoso , Canadá , Simulação por Computador , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Modelos Econômicos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(21): 2607-2620, 2019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for post-operative conduction disturbances after cardiac valve surgery requiring a permanent pacemaker (PPM) are poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the timing and risk factors for PPM implantation after mitral or aortic valve surgery. METHODS: All patients who underwent open aortic or mitral valve surgery between January 1996 and December 2014 were reviewed using New York State's mandatory hospital discharge database. Patients with prior cardiac surgery or pre-existing PPM were excluded. The primary endpoint was PPM implantation within 1 year. RESULTS: Among 77,882 patients, 63.8% (n = 49,706) underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR), 18.9% (n = 14,686) underwent mitral valve replacement (MVR), 10.5% (n = 8,219) underwent mitral valve repair (MVr), 5.4% (n = 4,202) underwent AVR plus MVR, and 1.4% (n = 1,069) underwent AVR plus MVr. The 1-year PPM implantation rate was 4.5% after MVr, 6.6% after AVR, 9.3% after AVR plus MVr, 10.5% after MVR, and 13.3% after AVR plus MVR (p < 0.001). Across all groups, the majority of PPMs were implanted during the index hospitalization (79.9%). MVr was associated with the lowest risk for PPM and AVR plus MVR with the highest risk. Older age, history of arrhythmias, pre-operative conduction disturbances, and concomitant index procedures were associated with increased risk for PPM during the index hospitalization. Conversely, beyond 30 days, chronic comorbidities were associated with increased risk for PPM. CONCLUSIONS: Conduction disturbances requiring PPM remain a common adverse event after valve surgery. Identifying patients at risk for PPM will help facilitate perioperative planning and inform clinical decision making regarding post-operative rhythm surveillance.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/mortalidade , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Marca-Passo Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(6): 481-490, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated sex-based differences in outcomes after mitral valve (MV) surgery for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation (SIMR). BACKGROUND: Whether differences in outcomes exist between men and women after surgery for SIMR remains unknown. METHODS: Patients enrolled in a randomized trial comparing MV replacement versus MV repair for SIMR were included and followed for 2 years. Endpoints for this analysis included all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (defined as the composite of death, stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, worsening New York Heart Association functional class or MV re-operation), quality of life (QOL), functional status, and percentage of change in left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) from baseline through 2 years. RESULTS: Of 251 patients enrolled in the trial, 96 (38.2%) were women. Compared with men, women had smaller LV volumes and effective regurgitant orifice areas (EROA) but greater EROA/left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume ratios. At 2 years, women had higher rates of all-cause mortality (27.1% vs. 17.4%, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio [adjHR]: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 3.26; p = 0.03) and of MACCE (49.0% vs. 38.1%, respectively; adjHR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.37; p = 0.02). Women also reported worse QOL and functional status at 2 years. There were no significant differences in the percentage of change over 2 years in LVESVI between women and men (adjß: -10.4; 95% CI: -23.4 to 2.6; p = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Women with SIMR displayed different echocardiographic features and experienced higher mortality and worse QOL after MV surgery than men. There were no significant differences in the degree of reverse LV remodeling between sexes. (Comparing the Effectiveness of Repairing Versus Replacing the Heart's Mitral Valve in People With Severe Chronic Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation [Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation]; NCT00807040).


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Anuloplastia da Valva Mitral , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Reoperação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(19): 2427-2435, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is higher following mitral valve surgery (MVS) with ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with MVS alone. OBJECTIVES: This study identified risk factors and outcomes associated with PPM implantation in a randomized trial that evaluated ablation for AF in patients who underwent MVS. METHODS: A total of 243 patients with AF and without previous PPM placement were randomly assigned to MVS alone (n = 117) or MVS + ablation (n = 126). Patients in the ablation group were further randomized to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) (n = 62) or the biatrial maze procedure (n = 64). Using competing risk models, this study examined the association among PPM and baseline and operative risk factors, and the effect of PPM on time to discharge, readmissions, and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients received a PPM within the first year (14.4%), 29 (83%) underwent implantation during the index hospitalization. The frequency of PPM implantation was 7.7% in patients randomized to MVS alone, 16.1% in MVS + PVI, and 25% in MVS + biatrial maze. The indications for PPM were similar among patients who underwent MVS with and without ablation. Ablation, multivalve surgery, and New York Heart Association functional (NYHA) functional class III/IV were independent risk factors for PPM implantation. Length of stay post-surgery was longer in patients who received PPMs, but it was not significant when adjusted for randomization assignment (MVS vs. ablation) and age (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.61 to 1.08; p = 0.14). PPM implantation did not increase 30-day readmission rate (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 0.50 to 4.05; p = 0.50). The need for PPM was associated with a higher risk of 1-year mortality (HR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.01 to 10.17; p = 0.05) after adjustment for randomization assignment, age, and NYHA functional class. CONCLUSIONS: AF ablation, multivalve surgery, and NYHA functional class III/IV were associated with an increased risk for permanent pacing. PPM implantation following MVS was associated with a significant increase in 1-year mortality. (Surgical Ablation Versus No Surgical Ablation for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Mitral Valve Surgery; NCT00903370).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/inervação , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veias Pulmonares/inervação , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192200, 2019 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30977857

RESUMO

Importance: In response to rapidly growing interest in population health, academic medical centers are launching department-level initiatives that focus on this evolving discipline. This trend, with its potential to extend the scope of academic medicine, has not been well characterized. Objective: To describe the emergence of departments of population health at academic medical centers in the United States, including shared areas of focus, opportunities, and challenges. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study was based on a structured in-person convening of a working group of chairs of population health-oriented departments on November 13 and 14, 2017, complemented by a survey of core characteristics of these and additional departments identified through web-based review of US academic medical centers. United States medical school departments with the word population in their name were included. Centers, institutes, and schools were not included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Departments were characterized by year of origin, areas of focus, organizational structure, faculty size, teaching programs, and service engagement. Opportunities and challenges faced by these emerging departments were grouped thematically and described. Results: Eight of 9 population health-oriented departments in the working group were launched in the last 6 years. The 9 departments had 5 to 97 full-time faculty. Despite varied organizational structures, all addressed essential areas of focus spanning the missions of research, education, and service. Departments varied significantly in their relationships with the delivery of clinical care, but all engaged in practice-based and/or community collaboration. Common attributes include core attention to population health-oriented research methods across disciplines, emphasis on applied research in frontline settings, strong commitment to partnership, interest in engaging other sectors, and focus on improving health equity. Tensions included defining boundaries with other academic units with overlapping areas of focus, identifying sources of sustainable extramural funding, and facilitating the interface between research and health system operations. Conclusions and Relevance: Departments addressing population health are emerging rapidly in academic medical centers. In supporting this new framing, academic medicine affirms and strengthens its commitment to advancing population health and health equity, to improving the quality and effectiveness of care, and to upholding the social mission of medicine.


Assuntos
Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/tendências , Saúde da População , Faculdades de Medicina/tendências , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estados Unidos
20.
JAMA ; 321(12): 1176-1186, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912838

RESUMO

Importance: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy improves myocardial function, but few patients recover sufficiently for explant, which has focused attention on stem cells to augment cardiac recovery. Objective: To assess efficacy and adverse effects of intramyocardial injections of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) during LVAD implant. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized phase 2 clinical trial involving patients with advanced heart failure, undergoing LVAD implant, at 19 North American centers (July 2015-August 2017). The 1-year follow-up ended August 2018. Interventions: Intramyocardial injections of 150 million allogeneic MPCs or cryoprotective medium as a sham treatment in a 2:1 ratio (n = 106 vs n = 53). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary efficacy end point was the proportion of successful temporary weans (of 3 planned assessments) from LVAD support within 6 months of randomization. This end point was assessed using a Bayesian analysis with a predefined threshold of a posterior probability of 80% to indicate success. The 1-year primary safety end point was the incidence of intervention-related adverse events (myocarditis, myocardial rupture, neoplasm, hypersensitivity reactions, and immune sensitization). Secondary end points included readmissions and adverse events at 6 months and 1-year survival. Results: Of 159 patients (mean age, 56 years; 11.3% women), 155 (97.5%) completed 1-year of follow-up. The posterior probability that MPCs increased the likelihood of successful weaning was 69%; below the predefined threshold for success. The mean proportion of successful temporary weaning from LVAD support over 6 months was 61% in the MPC group and 58% in the control group (rate ratio [RR], 1.08; 95% CI, 0.83-1.41; P = .55). No patient experienced a primary safety end point. Of 10 prespecified secondary end points reported, 9 did not reach statistical significance. One-year mortality was not significantly different between the MPC group and the control group (14.2% vs 15.1%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95%, CI, 0.38-2.11; P = .80). The rate of serious adverse events was not significantly different between groups (70.9 vs 78.7 per 100 patient-months; difference, -7.89; 95% CI, -39.95 to 24.17; P = .63) nor was the rate of readmissions (0.68 vs 0.75 per 100 patient-months; difference, -0.07; 95% CI, -0.41 to 0.27; P = .68). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with advanced heart failure, intramyocardial injections of mesenchymal precursor cells, compared with injections of a cryoprotective medium as sham treatment, did not improve successful temporary weaning from left ventricular assist device support at 6 months. The findings do not support the use of intramyocardial mesenchymal stem cells to promote cardiac recovery as measured by temporary weaning from device support. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02362646.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Teorema de Bayes , Remoção de Dispositivo , Epistaxe/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio , Falha de Prótese , Volume Sistólico , Falha de Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda
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