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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3927, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477735

RESUMO

The duration of pregnancy is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors. Here we report a fetal genome-wide association meta-analysis of gestational duration, and early preterm, preterm, and postterm birth in 84,689 infants. One locus on chromosome 2q13 is associated with gestational duration; the association is replicated in 9,291 additional infants (combined P = 3.96 × 10-14). Analysis of 15,588 mother-child pairs shows that the association is driven by fetal rather than maternal genotype. Functional experiments show that the lead SNP, rs7594852, alters the binding of the HIC1 transcriptional repressor. Genes at the locus include several interleukin 1 family members with roles in pro-inflammatory pathways that are central to the process of parturition. Further understanding of the underlying mechanisms will be of great public health importance, since giving birth either before or after the window of term gestation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

2.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 804-814, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043758

RESUMO

Birth weight variation is influenced by fetal and maternal genetic and non-genetic factors, and has been reproducibly associated with future cardio-metabolic health outcomes. In expanded genome-wide association analyses of own birth weight (n = 321,223) and offspring birth weight (n = 230,069 mothers), we identified 190 independent association signals (129 of which are novel). We used structural equation modeling to decompose the contributions of direct fetal and indirect maternal genetic effects, then applied Mendelian randomization to illuminate causal pathways. For example, both indirect maternal and direct fetal genetic effects drive the observational relationship between lower birth weight and higher later blood pressure: maternal blood pressure-raising alleles reduce offspring birth weight, but only direct fetal effects of these alleles, once inherited, increase later offspring blood pressure. Using maternal birth weight-lowering genotypes to proxy for an adverse intrauterine environment provided no evidence that it causally raises offspring blood pressure, indicating that the inverse birth weight-blood pressure association is attributable to genetic effects, and not to intrauterine programming.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Troca Materno-Fetal/genética , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
3.
Pediatr Res ; 85(7): 955-960, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) and congenital heart defects (CHDs) may share some genetic risk factors, but little is known about the co-occurrence of the two conditions in patients. METHODS: Our study cohort included 2,212,756 persons born in Denmark 1977-2013. We identified patients with IHPS and CHD in the National Patient Register. Using log-linear Poisson regression, we estimated the (incidence) rate ratios (RRs) comparing the rate of IHPS among children with a CHD diagnosis (exposed) and the rate among those without such a diagnosis. RESULTS: Twenty-seven thousand three hundred and fifty-seven children in the cohort were diagnosed with CHD out of whom 85 developed IHPS (RR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.09-3.22]). The results were similar for those with and without other congenital malformations, for preterm and term deliveries, and for both sexes. There was, however, a significant effect of calendar period (P = .003). In the period 1977-1996, the RR of IHPS given a CHD diagnosis was 1.96 (95% CI 1.41-2.64); in the period 1997-2014, the RR was 3.75 (95% CI 2.74-4.99). CONCLUSION: CHD was associated with an increased risk of IHPS. Further research is needed to delineate molecular-level mechanisms that may affect both conditions.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281099

RESUMO

Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a disorder of young infants with a population incidence of ~2/1000 live births, caused by hypertrophy of the pyloric sphincter smooth muscle. Reported genetic loci associated with IHPS explain only a minor proportion of IHPS risk. To identify new risk loci, we carried out a genome-wide meta-analysis on 1395 surgery-confirmed cases and 4438 controls, with replication in a set of 2427 cases and 2524 controls. We identified and replicated six independent genomic loci associated with IHPS risk at genome wide significance (P<5x10-8), including novel associations with two SNPs. One of these SNPs, rs6736913 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; P = 3.0x10-15), is a low frequency missense variant in EML4 at 2p21. The second SNP, rs1933683 (OR = 1.34; P = 3.1×10-9) is 1 kb downstream of BARX1 at 9q22.32, an essential gene for stomach formation in embryogenesis. Using the genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) method, we estimated the IHPS SNP heritability to be 30%, and using the LD score regression method, we found support for a previously reported genetic correlation of IHPS with lipid metabolism. By combining the largest collection of IHPS cases to date (3822 cases), with results generalized across populations of different ancestry, we elucidate novel mechanistic avenues of IHPS disease architecture.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(17): 3113-3127, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931343

RESUMO

Prior studies suggest dental caries traits in children and adolescents are partially heritable, but there has been no large-scale consortium genome-wide association study (GWAS) to date. We therefore performed GWAS for caries in participants aged 2.5-18.0 years from nine contributing centres. Phenotype definitions were created for the presence or absence of treated or untreated caries, stratified by primary and permanent dentition. All studies tested for association between caries and genotype dosage and the results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Analysis included up to 19 003 individuals (7530 affected) for primary teeth and 13 353 individuals (5875 affected) for permanent teeth. Evidence for association with caries status was observed at rs1594318-C for primary teeth [intronic within ALLC, odds ratio (OR) 0.85, effect allele frequency (EAF) 0.60, P 4.13e-8] and rs7738851-A (intronic within NEDD9, OR 1.28, EAF 0.85, P 1.63e-8) for permanent teeth. Consortium-wide estimated heritability of caries was low [h2 of 1% (95% CI: 0%: 7%) and 6% (95% CI 0%: 13%) for primary and permanent dentitions, respectively] compared with corresponding within-study estimates [h2 of 28% (95% CI: 9%: 48%) and 17% (95% CI: 2%: 31%)] or previously published estimates. This study was designed to identify common genetic variants with modest effects which are consistent across different populations. We found few single variants associated with caries status under these assumptions. Phenotypic heterogeneity between cohorts and limited statistical power will have contributed; these findings could also reflect complexity not captured by our study design, such as genetic effects which are conditional on environmental exposure.

6.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(4): 561-569, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29379196

RESUMO

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder with a population incidence of ~1/5000 live births, defined by an absence of enteric ganglia along variable lengths of the colon. HSCR genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found common associated variants at RET, SEMA3, and NRG1, but they still fail to explain all of its heritability. To enhance gene discovery, we performed a GWAS of 170 cases identified from the Danish nationwide pathology registry with 4717 controls, based on 6.2 million variants imputed from the haplotype reference consortium panel. We found a novel low-frequency variant (rs144432435), which, when conditioning on the lead RET single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was of genome-wide significance in the discovery analysis. This conditional association signal was replicated in a Swedish HSCR cohort with discovery plus replication meta-analysis conditional odds ratio of 6.6 (P = 7.7 × 10-10; 322 cases and 4893 controls). The conditional signal was, however, not replicated in two HSCR cohorts from USA and Finland, leading to the hypothesis that rs144432435 tags a rare haplotype present in Denmark and Sweden. Using the genome-wide complex trait analysis method, we estimated the SNP heritability of HSCR to be 88%, close to estimates based on classical family studies. Moreover, by using Lasso (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression we were able to construct a genetic HSCR predictor with a area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 76% in an independent validation set. In conclusion, we combined the largest collection of sporadic Hirschsprung cases to date (586 cases) to further elucidate HSCR's genetic architecture.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(4): 742-756, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29309628

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of birth weight have focused on fetal genetics, whereas relatively little is known about the role of maternal genetic variation. We aimed to identify maternal genetic variants associated with birth weight that could highlight potentially relevant maternal determinants of fetal growth. We meta-analysed data on up to 8.7 million SNPs in up to 86 577 women of European descent from the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium and the UK Biobank. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and analyses of mother-child pairs to quantify the separate maternal and fetal genetic effects. Maternal SNPs at 10 loci (MTNR1B, HMGA2, SH2B3, KCNAB1, L3MBTL3, GCK, EBF1, TCF7L2, ACTL9, CYP3A7) were associated with offspring birth weight at P < 5 × 10-8. In SEM analyses, at least 7 of the 10 associations were consistent with effects of the maternal genotype acting via the intrauterine environment, rather than via effects of shared alleles with the fetus. Variants, or correlated proxies, at many of the loci had been previously associated with adult traits, including fasting glucose (MTNR1B, GCK and TCF7L2) and sex hormone levels (CYP3A7), and one (EBF1) with gestational duration. The identified associations indicate that genetic effects on maternal glucose, cytochrome P450 activity and gestational duration, and potentially on maternal blood pressure and immune function, are relevant for fetal growth. Further characterization of these associations in mechanistic and causal analyses will enhance understanding of the potentially modifiable maternal determinants of fetal growth, with the goal of reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with low and high birth weights.

8.
Nat Genet ; 50(1): 42-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29273806

RESUMO

We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.

9.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 744, 2017 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28963451

RESUMO

There are few examples of robust associations between rare copy number variants (CNVs) and complex continuous human traits. Here we present a large-scale CNV association meta-analysis on anthropometric traits in up to 191,161 adult samples from 26 cohorts. The study reveals five CNV associations at 1q21.1, 3q29, 7q11.23, 11p14.2, and 18q21.32 and confirms two known loci at 16p11.2 and 22q11.21, implicating at least one anthropometric trait. The discovered CNVs are recurrent and rare (0.01-0.2%), with large effects on height (>2.4 cm), weight (>5 kg), and body mass index (BMI) (>3.5 kg/m2). Burden analysis shows a 0.41 cm decrease in height, a 0.003 increase in waist-to-hip ratio and increase in BMI by 0.14 kg/m2 for each Mb of total deletion burden (P = 2.5 × 10-10, 6.0 × 10-5, and 2.9 × 10-3). Our study provides evidence that the same genes (e.g., MC4R, FIBIN, and FMO5) harbor both common and rare variants affecting body size and that anthropometric traits share genetic loci with developmental and psychiatric disorders.Individual SNPs have small effects on anthropometric traits, yet the impact of CNVs has remained largely unknown. Here, Kutalik and co-workers perform a large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of structural variation and find rare CNVs associated with height, weight and BMI with large effect sizes.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 3/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Relação Cintura-Quadril
10.
N Engl J Med ; 377(12): 1156-1167, 2017 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that genetic factors contribute to the duration of gestation and the risk of preterm birth, robust associations with genetic variants have not been identified. We used large data sets that included the gestational duration to determine possible genetic associations. METHODS: We performed a genomewide association study in a discovery set of samples obtained from 43,568 women of European ancestry using gestational duration as a continuous trait and term or preterm (<37 weeks) birth as a dichotomous outcome. We used samples from three Nordic data sets (involving a total of 8643 women) to test for replication of genomic loci that had significant genomewide association (P<5.0×10-8) or an association with suggestive significance (P<1.0×10-6) in the discovery set. RESULTS: In the discovery and replication data sets, four loci (EBF1, EEFSEC, AGTR2, and WNT4) were significantly associated with gestational duration. Functional analysis showed that an implicated variant in WNT4 alters the binding of the estrogen receptor. The association between variants in ADCY5 and RAP2C and gestational duration had suggestive significance in the discovery set and significant evidence of association in the replication sets; these variants also showed genomewide significance in a joint analysis. Common variants in EBF1, EEFSEC, and AGTR2 showed association with preterm birth with genomewide significance. An analysis of mother-infant dyads suggested that these variants act at the level of the maternal genome. CONCLUSIONS: In this genomewide association study, we found that variants at the EBF1, EEFSEC, AGTR2, WNT4, ADCY5, and RAP2C loci were associated with gestational duration and variants at the EBF1, EEFSEC, and AGTR2 loci with preterm birth. Previously established roles of these genes in uterine development, maternal nutrition, and vascular control support their mechanistic involvement. (Funded by the March of Dimes and others.).


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Idade Gestacional , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/genética , Transativadores/genética , Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Análise de Regressão , Proteína Wnt4/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
11.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 10(3)2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inuit have lived for thousands of years in an extremely cold environment on a diet dominated by marine-derived fat. To investigate how this selective pressure has affected the genetic regulation of fatty acid metabolism, we assessed 233 serum metabolic phenotypes in a population-based sample of 1570 Greenlanders. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using array-based and targeted genotyping, we found that rs80356779, a p.Pro479Leu variant in CPT1A, was strongly associated with markers of n-3 fatty acid metabolism, including degree of unsaturation (P=1.16×10-34), levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, and docosahexaoenic acid relative to total fatty acid levels (P=2.35×10-15, P=4.02×10-19, and P=7.92×10-27). The derived allele (L479) occurred at a frequency of 76.2% in our sample while being absent in most other populations, and we found strong signatures of positive selection at the locus. Furthermore, we found that each copy of L479 reduced height by an average of 2.1 cm (P=1.04×10-9). In exome sequencing data from a sister population, the Nunavik Inuit, we found no other likely causal candidate variant than rs80356779. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that a common CPT1A missense mutation is strongly associated with a range of metabolic phenotypes and reduced height in Greenlanders. These findings are important from a public health perspective and highlight the usefulness of complex trait genetic studies in isolated populations.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Groenlândia , Humanos , Inuítes/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
J Med Genet ; 54(5): 358-364, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27941131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation of the tonsils is a normal response to infection, but some individuals experience recurrent, severe tonsillitis and massive hypertrophy of the tonsils in which case surgical removal of the tonsils may be considered. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants associated with tonsillectomy. METHODS: We used tonsillectomy information from Danish health registers and carried out a genome-wide association study comprising 1464 patients and 12 019 controls of Northwestern European ancestry, with replication in an independent sample set of 1575 patients and 1367 controls. RESULTS: The variant rs2412971, intronic in HORMAD2 at chromosome 22q12.2, was robustly associated with tonsillectomy (OR=1.22; p=1.48×10-9) and is highly correlated with SNPs previously found to be associated with IgA nephropathy, Crohn's disease (CD) and early onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The risk allele for tonsillectomy corresponded to increased risk of IgA nephropathy and decreased risk of CD and IBD. We further performed lookup analyses of the top SNP for outcomes related to tonsillectomy in the combined discovery and replication sample and found that rs2412971 was associated with acute tonsillitis (OR=1.19; p=7.82×10-4), chronic disease of the tonsils (OR=1.19; p=2.32×10-6) and appendectomy (OR=1.18; p=1.13×10-3). CONCLUSIONS: We identified and replicated a genetic association at 22q12.2 with tonsillectomy. Further functional investigation is required to illuminate whether the molecular mechanisms underlying the genetic association involve general lymphoid hyper-reaction throughout the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue system.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tonsilectomia , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12350, 2016 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27453397

RESUMO

We conducted a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) of endometriosis using 25.5 million sequence variants detected through whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 8,453 Icelanders and imputed into 1,840 cases and 129,016 control women, followed by testing of associated variants in Danish samples. Here we report the discovery of a new endometriosis susceptibility locus on 4q12 (rs17773813[G], OR=1.28; P=3.8 × 10(-11)), upstream of KDR encoding vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). The variant correlates with disease severity (P=0.0046) when moderate/severe endometriosis cases are tested against minimal/mild cases. We further report association of rs519664[T] in TTC39B on 9p22 with endometriosis (P=4.8 × 10(-10); OR=1.29). The involvement of KDR in endometriosis risk highlights the importance of the VEGF pathway in the pathogenesis of the disease.


Assuntos
Endometriose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Lipoproteínas HDL/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
14.
JAMA ; 315(11): 1129-40, 2016 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26978208

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. EXPOSURES: Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. RESULTS: Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The maternal genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2-g (95% CI, 0 to 3 g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P = .008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were also associated with birth weight with effect sizes of 8 g (95% CI, 6 to 10 g) per glucose-raising allele (P = 7 × 10(-14)) and -4 g (95% CI, -6 to -2 g) per SBP-raising allele (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. A 1-SD ( ≈ 4 points) genetically higher maternal BMI was associated with a 55-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 17 to 93 g). A 1-SD ( ≈ 7.2 mg/dL) genetically higher maternal fasting glucose concentration was associated with 114-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 80 to 147 g). However, a 1-SD ( ≈ 10 mm Hg) genetically higher maternal SBP was associated with a 208-g lower offspring birth weight (95% CI, -394 to -21 g). For BMI and fasting glucose, genetic associations were consistent with the observational associations, but for systolic blood pressure, the genetic and observational associations were in opposite directions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this mendelian randomization study, genetically elevated maternal BMI and blood glucose levels were potentially causally associated with higher offspring birth weight, whereas genetically elevated maternal SBP was potentially causally related to lower birth weight. If replicated, these findings may have implications for counseling and managing pregnancies to avoid adverse weight-related birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Glicemia/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etnologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Triglicerídeos/genética
15.
Arch Toxicol ; 90(4): 883-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25794903

RESUMO

N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is a well-studied phase II xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme relevant in drug metabolism and cancerogenesis. NAT2 activity is largely determined by genetic polymorphisms in the coding region of the corresponding gene. We investigated NAT2 acetylation status in 1556 individuals from Greenland based on four different single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels and the tagging SNP rs1495741. There was good concordance between the NAT2 status inferred by the different SNP combinations. Overall, the fraction of slow acetylators was low with 17.5 % and varied depending on the degree of Inuit ancestry; in individuals with <50 % Inuit ancestry, we observed more than 25 % slow acetylators reflecting European ancestry. Greenland has a high incidence of tuberculosis, and individual dosing of isoniazid according to NAT2 status has been shown to improve treatment and reduce side effects. Our findings could be a first step in pharmacogenetics-based tuberculosis therapy in Greenland.


Assuntos
Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/genética , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Acetilação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/farmacocinética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Groenlândia , Humanos , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Isoniazida/farmacocinética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(2): 389-403, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26604143

RESUMO

A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value < 5 × 10(-8)) in the joint discovery and replication analysis, of which 12 are previously identified loci in or close to ADCY3, GNPDA2, TMEM18, SEC16B, FAIM2, FTO, TFAP2B, TNNI3K, MC4R, GPR61, LMX1B and OLFM4 associated with adult body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 20(5): 647-656, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25288136

RESUMO

Coffee, a major dietary source of caffeine, is among the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has received considerable attention regarding health risks and benefits. We conducted a genome-wide (GW) meta-analysis of predominately regular-type coffee consumption (cups per day) among up to 91,462 coffee consumers of European ancestry with top single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) followed-up in ~30 062 and 7964 coffee consumers of European and African-American ancestry, respectively. Studies from both stages were combined in a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. Confirmed loci were examined for putative functional and biological relevance. Eight loci, including six novel loci, met GW significance (log10Bayes factor (BF)>5.64) with per-allele effect sizes of 0.03-0.14 cups per day. Six are located in or near genes potentially involved in pharmacokinetics (ABCG2, AHR, POR and CYP1A2) and pharmacodynamics (BDNF and SLC6A4) of caffeine. Two map to GCKR and MLXIPL genes related to metabolic traits but lacking known roles in coffee consumption. Enhancer and promoter histone marks populate the regions of many confirmed loci and several potential regulatory SNPs are highly correlated with the lead SNP of each. SNP alleles near GCKR, MLXIPL, BDNF and CYP1A2 that were associated with higher coffee consumption have previously been associated with smoking initiation, higher adiposity and fasting insulin and glucose but lower blood pressure and favorable lipid, inflammatory and liver enzyme profiles (P<5 × 10(-8)).Our genetic findings among European and African-American adults reinforce the role of caffeine in mediating habitual coffee consumption and may point to molecular mechanisms underlying inter-individual variability in pharmacological and health effects of coffee.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo
18.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(4): 1155-68, 2015 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25281659

RESUMO

Common genetic variants have been identified for adult height, but not much is known about the genetics of skeletal growth in early life. To identify common genetic variants that influence fetal skeletal growth, we meta-analyzed 22 genome-wide association studies (Stage 1; N = 28 459). We identified seven independent top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 1 × 10(-6)) for birth length, of which three were novel and four were in or near loci known to be associated with adult height (LCORL, PTCH1, GPR126 and HMGA2). The three novel SNPs were followed-up in nine replication studies (Stage 2; N = 11 995), with rs905938 in DC-STAMP domain containing 2 (DCST2) genome-wide significantly associated with birth length in a joint analysis (Stages 1 + 2; ß = 0.046, SE = 0.008, P = 2.46 × 10(-8), explained variance = 0.05%). Rs905938 was also associated with infant length (N = 28 228; P = 5.54 × 10(-4)) and adult height (N = 127 513; P = 1.45 × 10(-5)). DCST2 is a DC-STAMP-like protein family member and DC-STAMP is an osteoclast cell-fusion regulator. Polygenic scores based on 180 SNPs previously associated with human adult stature explained 0.13% of variance in birth length. The same SNPs explained 2.95% of the variance of infant length. Of the 180 known adult height loci, 11 were genome-wide significantly associated with infant length (SF3B4, LCORL, SPAG17, C6orf173, PTCH1, GDF5, ZNFX1, HHIP, ACAN, HLA locus and HMGA2). This study highlights that common variation in DCST2 influences variation in early growth and adult height.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Estatura/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Alelos , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Nat Genet ; 46(12): 1274-82, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25344690

RESUMO

Febrile seizures represent a serious adverse event following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures, harboring the interferon-stimulated gene IFI44L (rs273259: P = 5.9 × 10(-12) versus controls, P = 1.2 × 10(-9) versus MMR-unrelated febrile seizures) and the measles virus receptor CD46 (rs1318653: P = 9.6 × 10(-11) versus controls, P = 1.6 × 10(-9) versus MMR-unrelated febrile seizures). Furthermore, four loci were associated with febrile seizures in general, implicating the sodium channel genes SCN1A (rs6432860: P = 2.2 × 10(-16)) and SCN2A (rs3769955: P = 3.1 × 10(-10)), a TMEM16 family gene (ANO3; rs114444506: P = 3.7 × 10(-20)) and a region associated with magnesium levels (12q21.33; rs11105468: P = 3.4 × 10(-11)). Finally, we show the functional relevance of ANO3 (TMEM16C) with electrophysiological experiments in wild-type and knockout rats.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Convulsões Febris/etiologia , Convulsões Febris/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anoctaminas , Antígenos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Magnésio/sangue , Masculino , Proteína Cofatora de Membrana/genética , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Transgênicos , Temperatura Ambiente , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Genet ; 46(9): 957-63, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25108383

RESUMO

Hypospadias is a common congenital condition in boys in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis. We performed a genome-wide association study on 1,006 surgery-confirmed hypospadias cases and 5,486 controls from Denmark. After replication genotyping of an additional 1,972 cases and 1,812 controls from Denmark, the Netherlands and Sweden, 18 genomic regions showed independent association with P < 5 × 10(-8). Together, these loci explain 9% of the liability to developing this condition. Several of the identified regions harbor genes with key roles in embryonic development (including HOXA4, IRX5, IRX6 and EYA1). Subsequent pathway analysis with GRAIL and DEPICT provided additional insight into possible genetic mechanisms causing hypospadias.


Assuntos
Genes Controladores do Desenvolvimento , Hipospadia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Suécia
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