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1.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 55(4): 434-444, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335456

RESUMO

Although writing about the real relationship has existed from the beginnings of the "talking cure," it is only in recent years that empirical research has focused on this phenomenon. The real relationship is the personal relationship between patient and therapist marked by the extent to which each is genuine with the other and perceives/experiences the other in ways that are realistic. The strength of the real relationship is determined by both the extent to which it exists and the degree to which it is positive or favorable. In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on the association between the strength of the real relationship and the outcome of psychotherapy. Summed across 16 studies, this meta-analysis revealed a moderate association with outcome (r = .38, 95% confidence interval [.30, .44], p < .001, d = 0.80, N = 1.502). This real relationship-outcome association was independent of the type of outcome studied (treatment outcome, treatment progress, and session outcome) and of the source of the measure (whether the client or the therapist rated the real relationship and/or treatment outcome). We also present commonly used measures of the real relationship, limitations of the research, and patient contributions. The article concludes with diversity considerations and practice recommendations for developing and strengthening the real relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 55(4): 496-507, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335461

RESUMO

In this article, we review the history and definition of countertransference, as well as empirical research on countertransference, its management, and the relation of both with psychotherapy outcome. Three meta-analyses are presented, as well as studies that illustrate findings from the meta-analyses. The first meta-analysis indicated that countertransference reactions are related inversely and modestly to psychotherapy outcomes (r = -.16, p = .02, 95% CI [-.30, -.03], d = -0.33, k = 14 studies, N = 973). A second meta-analysis supported the notion that countertransference management factors attenuate countertransference reactions (r = -.27, p = .001, 95% CI [-.43, -.10], d = -0.55, k = 13 studies, N = 1,065). The final meta-analysis revealed that successful countertransference management is related to better therapy outcomes (r = .39, p < .001, 95% CI [.17, .60], d = 0.84, k = 9 studies, N = 392 participants). In all meta-analyses, there was significant heterogeneity across studies. We conclude by summarizing the limitations of the research base and highlighting the therapeutic practices predicated on research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
J Couns Psychol ; 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091622

RESUMO

Recent research on attachment in therapy indicates that therapist attachment style is related to therapists' agreement with their clients on the quality of their working alliance (WA; Kivlighan & Marmarosh, 2016). This study builds on these findings by examining how both the therapist's and the client's attachment style may be related to their agreement on the WA. The authors expected that less anxious and less avoidant clients working with less anxious and less avoidant therapists would have higher WA agreement. Using hierarchical linear modeling, they analyzed archival session data from 158 clients and 27 therapists at a community clinic. In terms of overall level agreement (averaged across sessions), therapists and clients significantly disagreed on their WA ratings, with therapists rating the WA lower than did their clients; but there was more therapist-client level-agreement when therapists had relatively less attachment avoidance. In terms of (linear) WA agreement from session to session, the authors found no main effects for either therapist or client attachment style alone, but several significant interactions between therapist and client attachment styles. Session-to-session agreement on the WA was higher when clients and therapist had "matching" (both higher or both lower in attachment anxiety or attachment avoidance) or "complementary" (one higher in attachment avoidance, the other lower in attachment anxiety, or one higher in attachment anxiety, the other lower in attachment avoidance) attachment styles than when styles were noncomplementary. The authors discuss these findings in terms of the attachment-related communication, signaling, and behavior that may be occurring in therapy dyads. (PsycINFO Database Record

4.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 55(1): 9-19, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565618

RESUMO

Using data from 3,263 sessions nested within 144 clients, nested within 19 therapists, we examined client- and therapist-rated working alliance (WA) and real relationship (RR) at Session 3 and growth in WA and RR across the course of open-ended psychodynamic psychotherapy for clients who identified as racial/ethnic minority (REM) or as White. To be included in the analyses, therapists had to work with at least 2 REM and 2 White clients. There were no significant therapist effects for the interaction between client- or therapist-rated WA and client REM status at Session 3, or for client- or therapist-rated RR and client REM status at Session 3. There were, however, significant therapist effects due to client REM status on the interaction between client-rated linear growth in WA and RR, showing that some therapists had stronger WA and RR growth with REM than that with White clients, whereas other therapists had stronger alliance growth with White than that with REM clients. There were significant therapist effects on therapist-rated linear growth in both WA and RR, which indicated that some therapists reported stronger WA and RR growth with all of their clients, whereas other therapists reported weaker WA and RR growth for all of their clients, although this differential WA and RR growth was not related to clients' REM status. Implications for practice and research are discussed in this paper. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Competência Cultural/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Cooperativo , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 54(3): 307-319, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922009

RESUMO

Countertransference is an important aspect of the therapeutic relationship that exists in therapies of all theoretical orientations, and depending on how it is managed, it can either help or hinder treatment. Management of countertransference has been measured almost exclusively with the Countertransference Factors Inventory (Van Wagoner, Gelso, Hayes, & Diemer, 1991) and its variations, all of which focus on 5 therapist qualities theorized to facilitate management: self-insight, conceptualizing ability, empathy, self-integration, and anxiety management. Existing versions of the Countertransference Factors Inventory, however, possess certain psychometric limitations that appear to constrain how well they assess actual management of countertransference during a therapy session. We thus sought to develop a new measure that addressed these limitations and that captured the 5 therapist qualities as constituents (rather than correlates) of countertransference management that manifest in the treatment hour. The development and initial validation of the resulting 22-item Countertransference Management Scale (CMS) is described here. Exploratory factor analysis of ratings of 286 therapy supervisors of current supervisees indicated that the 5 constituents of countertransference management could be grouped into 2 correlated factors: "Understanding Self and Client" and "Self-Integration and Regulation." Evidence of convergent and criterion-related validity was supported by CMS total and subscale scores correlating as expected with measures of theoretically relevant constructs, namely, therapist countertransference behavior, theoretical framework, self-esteem, observing ego, empathic understanding, and tolerance of anxiety. Results also supported the internal consistency of the CMS and its subscales. Research, clinical, and training implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Contratransferência (Psicologia) , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Psicoterapia/métodos
6.
J Couns Psychol ; 64(4): 394-409, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28383942

RESUMO

We examined how congruence and discrepancy in clients' and therapists' ratings of the working alliance (WA) and real relationship (RR) were related to client-rated session quality (SES; Session Evaluation Scale). Ratings for 2517 sessions of 144 clients and 23 therapists were partitioned into therapist-level, client-level, and session-level components and then analyzed using multilevel, polynomial regression and response surface analysis. For both clients and therapists, at all levels of analysis (except the therapist level for therapist ratings), SES was highest when combined WA and RR ratings were high, and lowest when combined ratings were low. For client ratings, discrepancy between WA and RR, at the client and session levels, was associated with greater session quality. Some clients perceived greater session quality when, across all sessions, WA was stronger than RR and other clients perceived greater session quality when RR was stronger than WA. Within clients, session quality was highest when some sessions had a stronger WA than RR whereas other sessions had a stronger RR than WA. These findings are compatible with a responsiveness framework, therapists varied the balance of WA and RR to suit situational demands or needs of different clients. When therapists rated WA and RR the opposite pattern of results emerged; clients perceived greater session quality when therapists' WA and RR ratings, for a session were high and consistent (i.e., no discrepancy between WA and RR). In addition, across all sessions, clients perceived greater session quality when WA and RR ratings were high and consistent. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 54(1): 76-87, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263654

RESUMO

The termination phase of treatment is recognized as a significant aspect of the therapy process and yet remains vastly understudied in psychotherapy literature. In the present study, therapists' perspectives were used to examine how 3 elements of the therapy relationship (working alliance, real relationship, and transference) during the termination phase relate to perceived client sensitivity to loss, termination phase evaluation, and overall treatment outcome. Self-report data were gathered from 233 therapists, recruited from 2 Divisions of the American Psychological Association. Therapists completed measures for their work with a client with whom they could identify a termination phase of treatment. Results revealed that the working alliance and real relationship during the termination phase related positively to termination phase evaluation and overall treatment outcome, whereas negative transference during the termination phase related negatively to overall treatment outcome. Therapists' perceptions of client sensitivity to loss related positively to both negative and positive transference during the termination phase. Post hoc analyses revealed only the working alliance during the termination phase uniquely predicted overall treatment outcome in a model with the 3 therapy relationship elements examined together. On the other hand, all 3 therapy relationship variables during the termination phase uniquely predicted termination phase evaluation, when examined together. Limitations and implications of these findings are discussed, and recommendations for future study are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
8.
Psychother Res ; 27(6): 737-748, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27092970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal analysis examined the relationship between amount of therapist immediacy in sessions and client post-session ratings of working alliance (WAI), real relationship (RRI), and session quality (SES). METHOD: Using hierarchal linear modeling (HLM), we disaggregated the variables into within-client (differences between sessions in immediacy) and between-clients (differences between clients in immediacy) components, in order to test associations over time in treatment. Three hundred and sixty four sessions were nested within 16 clients and 9 therapists. RESULTS: When therapists used more immediacy in a session, clients gave higher SES ratings for that session, compared to their sessions with less immediacy (within-client effect). For WAI, it appeared to matter when immediacy was used in treatment. The interaction effect between time in treatment and within-client immediacy revealed that early in treatment, more immediacy in a session was related to lower WAI for that session, whereas later in treatment, more immediacy in a session was related to higher WAI for that session. Another interaction effect was found between time in treatment and between-clients immediacy. Clients with less immediacy in treatment, gave higher SES scores for early sessions, than clients with more immediacy in treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Immediacy has an overall positive effect on session quality, but the time in which it is used in treatment and client characteristics should be taken into account both in practice and research.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Couns Psychol ; 63(2): 149-61, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26689627

RESUMO

We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) to examine the dyadic associations of 74 clients and 23 therapists in their evaluations of working alliance, real relationship, session quality, and client improvement over time in ongoing psychodynamic or interpersonal psychotherapy. There were significant actor effects for both therapists and clients, with the participant's own ratings of working alliance and real relationship independently predicting their own evaluations of session quality. There were significant client partner effects, with clients' working alliance and real relationship independently predicting their therapists' evaluations of session quality. The client partner real relationship effect was stronger in later sessions than in earlier sessions. Therapists' real relationship ratings (partner effect) were a stronger predictor of clients' session quality ratings in later sessions than in earlier sessions. Therapists' working alliance ratings (partner effect) were a stronger predictor of clients' session quality ratings when clients made greater improvement than when clients made lesser improvement. For clients' session outcome ratings, there were complex three-way interactions, such that both Client real relationship and working alliance interacted with client improvement and time in treatment to predict clients' session quality. These findings strongly suggest both individual and partner effects when clients and therapists evaluate psychotherapy process and outcome. Implications for research and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Couns Psychol ; 62(2): 184-201, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602603

RESUMO

We investigated changes over 12 to 42 months in 23 predoctoral trainees during their externship training in a psychodynamic/interpersonal psychotherapy clinic. Over time, trainees increased in client-rated working alliance and real relationship, therapist-rated working alliance, client-rated interpersonal functioning, ability to use helping skills (e.g., challenges, immediacy), higher-order functioning (e.g., conceptualization ability, countertransference management), feelings about themselves as therapists (e.g., more authentic, more self-aware), and understanding about being a therapist (e.g., theoretical orientation, curiosity about client dynamics). In contrast, trainees did not change in engaging clients (return after intake or for at least 8 sessions), judge-rated psychodynamic techniques in third and ninth sessions across clients (although trainees used more cognitive-behavioral techniques over time in third but not ninth sessions), or changes in client-rated symptomatology. Trainees primarily attributed changes to graduate training, individual and group supervision, research participation, and working with clients. Implications for training and research are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/educação , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Adulto , Aconselhamento/educação , Aconselhamento/métodos , Currículo , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Psicanalítica , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica/métodos
11.
J Couns Psychol ; 62(2): 314-20, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24660688

RESUMO

The relationship between treatment progress (as rated by both clients and therapists) and real relationship (also rated by both clients and therapists) was decomposed into between-therapist and within-therapist (between-client) effects and analyzed using the actor-partner interdependence model. We reanalyzed a subset of the data, 12 therapists and 32 clients, from Gelso et al.'s (2012) study of brief, theoretically diverse outpatient treatment. Consistent with and extending previous research, clients whose therapists provided higher average levels of client-perceived real relationship across the clients treated by a given therapist had better progress ratings from both themselves and their therapists. Within each therapist's caseload, differences between clients in client- or therapist-rated real relationship were unrelated to either client- or therapist-rated outcome. Clients whose therapists provided higher average levels of therapist-perceived real relationship, across the clients treated by the therapist, had worse progress ratings from the therapists. The results provide additional evidence for the importance of between-therapist differences in therapeutic relationship qualities, both client and therapist rated.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Percepção , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 51(3): 413-23, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24773091

RESUMO

This study used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kenny & Cook, 1999) to examine the associations of client- and therapist-rated real relationship (RR) and session quality over time. Eighty-seven clients and their therapists (n = 25) completed RR and session quality measures after every session of brief therapy. Therapists' current session quality ratings were significantly related to all of the following: session number (b = .04), their session quality rating of the previous session (b = .24), their RR in the previous session (b = 1.091), their client's RR in the previous session (b = .17), and interactions between their own and their clients' RR and session number (b = -.16 and ß = -.04, respectively). Clients' ratings of current session quality were significantly related to only their own RR in the previous session (b = .47). Implications for future research and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Contratransferência (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudantes/psicologia , Transferência (Psicologia)
13.
Psychother Res ; 24(3): 299-315, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23848833

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use and perceived effects of immediacy in 16 cases of open-ended psychodynamic psychotherapy. Of 234 immediacy events, most were initiated by therapists and involved exploration of unexpressed or covert feelings. Immediacy occurred during approximately 5% of time in therapy. Clients indicated in post-therapy interviews that they remembered and profited from immediacy, with the most typical observed consequences being clients expressing feelings about the therapist/therapy and opening up/gaining insight. Amount of immediacy was associated with therapists' but not clients' ratings of session process and outcome. Therapists focused more on feelings and less on ruptures, and initiated immediacy more often with fearfully than with securely attached clients. Implications for practice, training, and research are offered.


Assuntos
Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apego ao Objeto , Testes Psicológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Clin Psychol ; 70(2): 123-34, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24375217

RESUMO

We examine sexual and loving feelings, on the part of both the therapist and patient, as they relate to their real relationship, patient transference, and therapist countertransference. Loving feelings (agape) often are part of a strong real relationship and they tend to have a positive effect. Sexual feelings, too, may be part of the real relationship, but they are also often more conflict-based, residing in the transference and countertransference experience. It is deeply important for the therapist to seek understanding of his or her own and the patient's loving and sexual feelings, and to tease apart, as much as possible, the extent to which they are real relationship versus transference-countertransference-based. The patient's loving and sexual feelings toward the therapist need to be explored and understood just as other feelings. Although it is crucial that the therapist seek understanding of his or her own loving and sexual feelings toward the patient, we express serious reservations about the therapeutic value of sharing these with the patient.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Amor , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/normas , Sexualidade/psicologia , Transferência (Psicologia) , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Psychol ; 69(11): 1160-71, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24003000

RESUMO

Recent decades have witnessed an extraordinary amount of conceptual and empirical work on attachment theory in psychology and psychotherapy. Attachment theory is discussed in the present article as a way of understanding and fostering therapeutic work with 2 other key relationship constructs that have been theorized to be elements of all psychotherapies: client transference and the real relationship existing between the therapist and patient. Fundamental features of attachment, transference, and the real relationship are summarized. Particular emphasis is given to the role of the therapist as a secure base and a safe haven within the real relationship, and to the patient's internal working model as it relates to transference. A case of long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy conducted by the first author is presented to illuminate the 3 main constructs. The case demonstrates both the usefulness of attachment theory and the fact that any single theory cannot explain all of the complex features of a given treatment.


Assuntos
Apego ao Objeto , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transferência (Psicologia) , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 50(2): 139-49, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23773076

RESUMO

A theory of the research training environment (RTE) proposed by Gelso (Counseling Psychologist, 8:7-35, 1979; Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24:468-476, 1993; The Counseling Psychologist, 25:307-320, 1997) is updated, and the research evidence that bears upon this theory is reviewed. Evidence accumulated over more than three decades supports the influence of the RTE on the research attitudes, research self-efficacy, and research productivity of graduate students in psychotherapy-related fields in psychology. Both the global RTE and 10 ingredients posited by RTE theory are reviewed. The ingredients that seem to have the greatest association with theorized training outcomes in students are (1) faculty modeling of scientific behavior, (2) positive reinforcement of students' scientific behavior, (3) teaching students, through the advising relationship and research teams, that science can be a partly social-interpersonal experience, and (4) teaching students that all research is flawed and limited. The training program faculty is responsible for arranging the training environment so that it will maximally impact psychotherapy graduate students' research attitudes, research self-efficacy, and productivity.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Psicoterapia/educação , Pesquisa/educação , Meio Social , Atitude , Eficiência , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos
17.
J Couns Psychol ; 59(4): 495-506, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22946982

RESUMO

This study sought to assess the association of client- and therapist-rated real relationship with each other and with the outcome of brief psychotherapy. It also aimed to determine whether changes over time in perceptions of the real relationship and increasing convergence between clients' and therapists' ratings of the real relationship were associated with outcome. Forty-two clients and their therapists (n = 19) at 2 university counseling centers completed measures assessing the strength of their real relationship after every session of brief psychotherapy. They also completed an outcome measure at the end of treatment. Clients' ratings of the real relationship after the first session, first quarter of treatment, and after all sessions combined related to outcomes. Therapists' ratings of the real relationship at these time points did not relate to outcome. However, increases over time in therapists' ratings of real relationship strength, as well as increasing convergence with clients' ratings of the real relationship, did relate to outcome. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Relações Profissional-Paciente , Processos Psicoterapêuticos , Psicoterapia Breve , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland , Modelos Psicológicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Virginia
18.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 49(3): 384-90, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22962976

RESUMO

Although the concept of transference emerged from and is embedded in psychoanalytic and psychodynamic psychotherapies, some believe it exists and is important in all psychological treatments. In the present article, we examine empirical evidence in response to the following questions: (1) Does transference exist in nonanalytic therapies? (2) If so, how does it unfold over the course of such therapies? (3) How does it relate to therapy process, patient characteristics, and outcome of these therapies? Empirical evidence supports the contention that transference occurs in nonanalytic therapies, that it unfolds in a certain manner, and that it is significantly related to treatment process and outcome, as well as patient characteristics. Sorely needed are studies that examine how transferences of different types may be effectively responded to in nonanalytic therapies.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Teoria Psicanalítica , Transferência (Psicologia) , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos
19.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 48(4): 342-8, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22141416

RESUMO

The psychotherapist's use of self-disclosure (SD) and immediacy has been a controversial topic over the decades. In this article, some ingredients are described that will help advance knowledge in the area of the therapist SD and immediacy. More than has been the case, researchers in this area should construct clear definitions of the SD/immediacy variables being investigated, and make sure that their operationalizations are consistent with these definitions. In addition, it is argued that if the field is to advance, at this point in time researchers need to examine "who, what, when, and where" questions, making use of in-principle moderation, that is, the study of which SD/immediacy responses are most effective with what patients, suffering from what problems and disorders, when offered by which therapists doing what kinds of psychotherapy? In addition, the study of mediation is suggested, as is researchers' taking into account the operation of the inverted U when studying the frequency, intensity, or duration of SD/immediacy.


Assuntos
Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia , Autorrevelação , Humanos , Teoria Psicanalítica , Tempo
20.
Psychotherapy (Chic) ; 48(4): 368-73, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21688929

RESUMO

Empirical research has recently addressed the real or personal relationship between patients and psychotherapists. The present study examined the interrelations of client attachment security, recollections of real relationship, and client attachment to therapist in a sample of 143 college students who had completed at least five sessions of previously terminated psychotherapy. As expected, client-rated real relationship was found to have positive associations with both client attachment security and security of client attachment to therapist. Additional associations were found between client attachment and avoidant attachment tendencies to therapist. The possibilities for future research expanding on these results are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Rememoração Mental , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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