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1.
Chem Mater ; 35(4): 1818-1826, 2023 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36873626

RESUMO

A new one-dimensional hybrid iodoplumbate, namely, 4,4'-(anthracene-9,10-diylbis(ethyne-2,1-diyl))bis(1-methyl-1-pyridinium) lead iodide C30H22N2Pb2I6 (AEPyPbI), is reported here for the first time with its complete characterization. The material exhibits remarkable thermal stability (up to 300 °C), and it is unreactive under ambient conditions toward water and atmospheric oxygen, due to the quaternary nature of the nitrogen atoms present in the organic cation. The cation exhibits strong visible fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and when its iodide is combined with PbI2, it forms AEPyPb2I6, an efficient light-emitting material, with a photoluminescence emission intensity comparable to that of high-quality InP epilayers. The structure determination was obtained using three-dimensional electron diffraction, and the material was extensively studied by using a wide range of techniques, such as X-ray powder diffraction, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, elemental analysis, Raman and infrared spectroscopies, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The emissive properties of the material were correlated with its electronic structure by using state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The complex, highly conjugated electronic structure of the cation interacts strongly with that of the Pb-I network, giving rise to the peculiar optoelectronic properties of AEPyPb2I6. The material, considering its relatively easy synthesis and stability, shows promise for light-emitting and photovoltaic devices. The use of highly conjugated quaternary ammonium cations may be useful for the development of new hybrid iodoplumbates and perovskites with optoelectronic properties tailored for specific applications.

2.
IUCrJ ; 10(Pt 1): 131-142, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36598508

RESUMO

The true molecular conformation and the crystal structure of benzo[e]dinaphtho[2,3-a;1',2',3',4'-ghi]fluoranthene, 7,14-diphenylnaphtho[1,2,3,4-cde]bisanthene and 7,16-diphenylnaphtho[1,2,3,4-cde]helianthrene were determined ab initio by 3D electron diffraction. All three molecules are remarkable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The molecular conformation of two of these compounds could not be determined via classical spectroscopic methods due to the large size of the molecule and the occurrence of multiple and reciprocally connected aromatic rings. The molecular structure of the third molecule was previously considered provisional. These compounds were isolated as by-products in the synthesis of similar products and were at the same time nanocrystalline and available only in very limited amounts. 3D electron diffraction data, taken from submicrometric single crystals, allowed for direct ab initio structure solution and the unbiased determination of the internal molecular conformation. Detailed synthetic routes and spectroscopic analyses are also discussed. Based on many-body perturbation theory simulations, benzo[e]dinaphtho[2,3-a;1',2',3',4'-ghi]fluoranthene may be a promising candidate for triplet-triplet annihilation and 7,14-diphenylnaphtho[1,2,3,4-cde]bisanthene may be a promising candidate for intermolecular singlet fission in the solid state.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Conformação Molecular
3.
RSC Adv ; 12(54): 35358-35366, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36540247

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has further confirmed to the community that direct contact with contaminated surfaces and objects represents an important source of pathogen spreading among humans. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to design effective germicidal paints to ensure a rapid and potent disinfectant action of surfaces. In this work, we design novel germicide polymeric coatings by inserting quaternary ammonium and sugar groups on the macromolecular backbone, thus respectively endowing the polymer with germicide features and hydrophilicity to interact with the surfaces. An aliphatic polyketone was selected as a starting polymer matrix that was functionalized with primary amine derivatives via the Paal-Knorr reaction. The resulting polymers were deposited on cellulose filter papers and checkboard charts with excellent coating yield and substrate coverage as determined by scanning electron microscopy for cellulose. Remarkably, the substrates coated by the functional polymers bearing quaternary ammonium compounds showed excellent bactericide properties with antibacterial rate of 99% and logarithmic reduction of >3. Notably, the polymers with higher hydrophobicity showed better retention on the substrate after being treated with water at neutral pH.

4.
Chemistry ; : e202202977, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36161363

RESUMO

The dynamic behavior of supramolecular organic frameworks (SOFs) based on the rigid tetra-4-(4-pyridyl)phenylmethane (TPPM) organic tecton has been elucidated through 3D electron diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The SOF undergoes a reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation when exposed to vapours of selected organic solvents, moving from a closed structure with isolated small voids to an expanded structure with solvated channels along the b axis. The observed selectivity is dictated by the fitting of the guest in the expanded SOF, following the degree of packing coefficient. The effect of solvent uptake on TPPM solid-state fluorescence was investigated, evidencing a significant variation in the emission profile only in the presence of chloroform.

5.
Biomater Sci ; 10(18): 5265-5283, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913209

RESUMO

Despite the significant progress in bioprinting for skeletal muscle tissue engineering, new stimuli-responsive bioinks to boost the myogenesis process are highly desirable. In this work, we developed a printable alginate/Pluronic-based bioink including piezoelectric barium titanate nanoparticles (nominal diameter: ∼60 nm) for the 3D bioprinting of muscle cell-laden hydrogels. The aim was to investigate the effects of the combination of piezoelectric nanoparticles with ultrasound stimulation on early myogenic differentiation of the printed structures. After the characterization of nanoparticles and bioinks, viability tests were carried out to investigate three nanoparticle concentrations (100, 250, and 500 µg mL-1) within the printed structures. An excellent cytocompatibility was confirmed for nanoparticle concentrations up to 250 µg mL-1. TEM imaging demonstrated the internalization of BTNPs in intracellular vesicles. The combination of piezoelectric nanoparticles and ultrasound stimulation upregulated the expression of MYOD1, MYOG, and MYH2 and enhanced cell aggregation, which is a crucial step for myoblast fusion, and the presence of MYOG in the nuclei. These results suggest that the direct piezoelectric effect induced by ultrasound on the internalized piezoelectric nanoparticles boosts myogenesis in its early phases.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Nanocompostos , Bioimpressão/métodos , Hidrogéis/química , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Impressão Tridimensional , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3976, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803933

RESUMO

Colloidal chemistry grants access to a wealth of materials through simple and mild reactions. However, even few elements can combine in a variety of stoichiometries and structures, potentially resulting in impurities or even wrong products. Similar issues have been long addressed in organic chemistry by using reaction-directing groups, that are added to a substrate to promote a specific product and are later removed. Inspired by such approach, we demonstrate the use of CsPbCl3 perovskite nanocrystals to drive the phase-selective synthesis of two yet unexplored lead sulfochlorides: Pb3S2Cl2 and Pb4S3Cl2. When homogeneously nucleated in solution, lead sulfochlorides form Pb3S2Cl2 nanocrystals. Conversely, the presence of CsPbCl3 triggers the formation of Pb4S3Cl2/CsPbCl3 epitaxial heterostructures. The phase selectivity is guaranteed by the continuity of the cationic subnetwork across the interface, a condition not met in a hypothetical Pb3S2Cl2/CsPbCl3 heterostructure. The perovskite domain is then etched, delivering phase-pure Pb4S3Cl2 nanocrystals that could not be synthesized directly.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595285

RESUMO

Nanomedicine is among the most fascinating areas of research. Most of the newly discovered pharmaceutical polymorphs, as well as many new synthesized or isolated natural products, appear only in form of nanocrystals. The development of techniques that allow investigating the atomic structure of nanocrystalline materials is therefore one of the most important frontiers of crystallography. Some unique features of electrons, like their non-neutral charge and their strong interaction with matter, make this radiation suitable for imaging and detecting individual atoms, molecules, or nanoscale objects down to sub-angstrom resolution. In the recent years the development of three-dimensional (3D) electron diffraction (3D ED) has shown that electron diffraction can be successfully used to solve the crystal structure of nanocrystals and most of its limiting factors like dynamical scattering or limited completeness can be easily overcome. This article is a review of the state of the art of this method with a specific focus on how it can be applied to beam sensitive samples like small-molecule organic nanocrystals. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Nanopartículas , Indústria Farmacêutica , Nanopartículas/química
8.
Liver Transpl ; 28(7): 1173-1185, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35100468

RESUMO

The combined approach of ex situ normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) and nanotechnology represents a strategy to mitigate ischemia/reperfusion injury in liver transplantation (LT). We evaluated the uptake, distribution, and efficacy of antioxidant cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) during normothermic perfusion of discarded human livers. A total of 9 discarded human liver grafts were randomized in 2 groups and underwent 4 h of NMP: 5 grafts were treated with nanoceria conjugated with albumin (Alb-NC; 50 µg/ml) and compared with 4 untreated grafts. The intracellular uptake of nanoceria was analyzed by electron microscopy (EM) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The antioxidant activity of Alb-NC was assayed in liver biopsies by glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) assay, telomere length, and 4977-bp common mitochondrial DNA deletion (mtDNA4977 deletion). The cytokine profile was evaluated in perfusate samples. EM and ICP-MS confirmed Alb-NC internalization, rescue of mitochondrial phenotype, decrease of lipid droplet peroxidation, and lipofuscin granules in the treated grafts. Alb-NC exerted an antioxidant activity by increasing GSH levels (percentage change: +94% ± 25%; p = 0.01), SOD (+17% ± 4%; p = 0.02), and CAT activity (51% ± 23%; p = 0.03), reducing the occurrence of mtDNA4977 deletion (-67.2% ± 11%; p = 0.03), but did not affect cytokine release. Alb-NC during ex situ perfusion decreased oxidative stress, upregulating graft antioxidant defense. They could be a tool to improve quality grafts during NMP and represent an antioxidant strategy aimed at protecting the graft against reperfusion injury during LT.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Nanopartículas , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Antioxidantes , Cério , Isquemia Fria/métodos , Citocinas , DNA Mitocondrial , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Perfusão/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Superóxido Dismutase
9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833352

RESUMO

The toughening mechanisms of poly(lactic acid; PLA) blended with two different elastomers, namely poly (butylene adipate-co-terephtalate; PBAT) and polyolefin elastomers with grafted glycidyl methacrylate (POE-g-GMA), at 10 and 20 wt.%, were investigated. Tensile and Charpy impact tests showed a general improvement in the performance of the PLA. The morphology of the dispersed phases showed that PBAT is in the form of spheres while POE-g-GMA has a dual sphere/fibre morphology. To correlate the micromechanical deformation mechanism with the macroscopical mechanical behaviour, the analysis of the subcritical crack tip damaged zone of double-notched specimens subjected to a four-point bending test (according to the single-edge double-notch four-point bend (SEDN-4PB) technique) was carried out using several microscopic techniques (SEM, polarized TOM and TEM). The damage was mainly generated by shear yielding deformation although voids associated with dilatational bands were observed.

10.
Chemphyschem ; 22(15): 1631-1637, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117821

RESUMO

Herein we demonstrate the prowess of the 3D electron diffraction approach by unveiling the structure of terrylene, the third member in the series of peri-condensed naphthalene analogues, which has eluded structure determination for 65 years. The structure was determined by direct methods using electron diffraction data and corroborated by dispersion-inclusive density functional theory optimizations. Terrylene crystalizes in the monoclinic space group P21 /a, arranging in a sandwich-herringbone packing motif, similar to analogous compounds. Having solved the crystal structure, we use many-body perturbation theory to evaluate the excited-state properties of terrylene in the solid-state. We find that terrylene is a promising candidate for intermolecular singlet fission, comparable to tetracene and rubrene.

11.
Int J Pharm ; 608: 121067, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481012

RESUMO

The structure solution of the δ-polymorph of indomethacin was obtained using three-dimensional electron diffraction. This form shows a significantly enhanced dissolution rate compared with the more common and better studied α- and γ-polymorphs, indicating better biopharmaceutical properties for medicinal applications. The structure was solved in non-centrosymmetric space group P21 and comprises two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Packing and molecule conformation closely resemble indomethacin methyl ester and indomethacin methanol solvate. Knowledge of the structure allowed the rational interpretation of spectroscopic IR and Raman data for δ-polymorph and a tentative interpretation for still unsolved indomethacin polymorphs. Finally, we observed a solid-solid transition from δ-polymorph to α-polymorph that can be driven by similarities in molecular conformation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Indometacina , Conformação Molecular , Solubilidade , Difração de Raios X
12.
Nanoscale Adv ; 3(20): 5841-5852, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36132665

RESUMO

Organic functionalization of graphene is successfully performed via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylide in the liquid phase. The comparison between 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N,N-dimethylformamide as dispersant solvents, and between sonication and homogenization as dispersion techniques, proves N,N-dimethylformamide and homogenization as the most effective choice. The functionalization of graphene nanosheets and reduced graphene oxide is confirmed using different techniques. Among them, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy allows to map the pyrrolidine ring of the azomethine ylide on the surface of functionalized graphene, while micro-Raman spectroscopy detects new features arising from the functionalization, which are described in agreement with the power spectrum obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. Moreover, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of functionalized graphene allows the quantitative elemental analysis and the estimation of the surface coverage, showing a higher degree of functionalization for reduced graphene oxide. This more reactive behavior originates from the localization of partial charges on its surface due to the presence of oxygen defects, as shown by the simulation of the electrostatic features. Functionalization of graphene using 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition is shown to be a significant step towards the controlled synthesis of graphene-based complex structures and devices at the nanoscale.

14.
Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater ; 76(Pt 6): 1036-1044, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289715

RESUMO

A previously unknown cocrystal of olanzapine and phenol was identified from a volatile deep eutectic solvent as the intermediate species in the crystallization of olanzapine. This new nanocrystalline phase was investigated by electron diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The structure was determined by simulated annealing using 3D electron diffraction data and confirmed using DFT-D optimizations. Olanzapine and phenol cocrystallize in the triclinic space group P1, supporting the hypothesis of a dimeric growth unit, where a centrosymmetric dimer is stabilized by multiple weak C-H...π interactions and forms double N-H...N hydrogen bonding with adjacent dimers.

15.
IUCrJ ; 7(Pt 6): 1070-1083, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209318

RESUMO

Kaliophilite is a feldspathoid mineral found in two Italian magmatic provinces and represents one of the 12 known phases with composition close to KAlSiO4. Despite its apparently simple formula, the structure of this mineral revealed extremely complex and resisted structure solution for more than a century. Samples from the Vesuvius-Monte Somma and Alban Hills volcanic areas were analyzed through a multi-technique approach, and finally the crystal structure of kaliophilite was solved using 3D electron diffraction and refined against X-ray diffraction data of a twinned crystal. Results were also ascertained by the Rietveld method using synchrotron powder intensities. It was found that kaliophilite crystallizes in space group P3 with unit-cell parameters a = 27.0597 (16), c = 8.5587 (6) Å, V = 5427.3 (7) Å3 and Z = 54. The kaliophilite framework is a variant of the tridymite topology, with alternating SiO4 and AlO4 tetrahedra forming sheets of six-membered rings (63 nets), which are connected along [001] by sharing the apical oxygen atoms. Considering the up (U) and down (D) orientations of the linking vertex, kaliophilite is the first framework that contains three different ring topologies: nine (1-3-5) (UDUDUD) rings, six (1-2-3) (UUUDDD) rings and twelve (1-2-4) (UUDUDD) rings. This results in a relatively open (19.9 tetrahedra nm-3) channel system with multiple connections between the double six-ring cavities. Such a framework requires a surprisingly large unit cell, 27 times larger than the cell of kalsilite, the simplest phase with the same composition. The occurrence of some Na for K substitution (3-10%) may be related to the characteristic structural features of kaliophilite. Micro-twinning, pseudo-symmetries and anisotropic hkl-dependent peak broadening were also detected, and they may account for the elusive character of the kaliophilite crystal structure.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20498, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235327

RESUMO

Longitudinal analysis of disease models enables the molecular changes due to disease progression or therapeutic intervention to be better resolved. Approximately 75 µl of serum can be drawn from a mouse every 14 days. To date no methods have been reported that are able to analyze the proteome of small extracellular vesicles (sEV's) from such low serum volumes. Here we report a method for the proteomics analysis of sEV's from 50 µl of serum. Two sEV isolation procedures were first compared; precipitation based purification (PPT) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The methodological comparison confirmed that SEC led to purer sEV's both in terms of size and identified proteins. The procedure was then scaled down and the proteolytic digestion further optimized. The method was then applied to a longitudinal study of serum-sEV proteome changes in a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) mouse model. Serum was collected at multiple time points, sEV's isolated and their proteins analyzed. The protocol enabled 274 protein groups to be identified and quantified. The longitudinal analysis revealed 25 deregulated proteins in GBM serum sEV's including proteins previously shown to be associated with GBM progression and metastasis (Myh9, Tln-1, Angpt1, Thbs1).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/sangue , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/sangue , Proteômica , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Cromatografia em Gel , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Glioblastoma/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteólise
17.
ACS Cent Sci ; 6(9): 1578-1586, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999933

RESUMO

Cowlesite, ideally Ca6Al12Si18O60·36H2O, is to date the only natural zeolite whose structure could not be determined by X-ray methods. In this paper, we present the ab initio structure determination of this mineral obtained by three-dimensional (3D) electron diffraction data collected from single-crystal domains of a few hundreds of nanometers. The structure of cowlesite consists of an alternation of rigid zeolitic layers and low-density interlayers supported by water and cations. This makes cowlesite the only two-dimensional (2D) zeolite known in nature. When cowlesite gets in contact with a transmission electron microscope vacuum, a phase transition to a conventional 3D zeolite framework occurs in few seconds. The original cowlesite structure could be preserved only by adopting a cryo-plunging sample preparation protocol usually employed for macromolecular samples. Such a protocol allows the investigation by 3D electron diffraction of very hydrated and very beam-sensitive inorganic materials, which were previously considered intractable by transmission electron microscopy crystallographic methods.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11540, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665608

RESUMO

Biological samples are mainly composed of elements with a low atomic number which show a relatively low electron scattering power. For Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis, biological samples are generally embedded in resins, which allow thin sectioning of the specimen. Embedding resins are also composed by light atoms, thus the contrast difference between the biological sample and the surrounding resin is minimal. Due to that reason in the last decades, several staining solutions and approaches, performed with heavy metal salts, have been developed with the purpose of enhancing both the intrinsic sample contrast and the differences between the sample and resin. The best staining was achieved with the uranyl acetate (UA) solution, which has been the election method for the study of morphology in biological samples. More recently several alternatives for UA have been proposed to get rid of its radiogenic issues, but to date none of these solutions has achieved efficiencies comparable to UA. In this work, we propose a different staining solution (X Solution or X SOL), characterized by lanthanide polyoxometalates (LnPOMs) as heavy atoms source, which could be used alternatively to UA in negative staining (NS), in en bloc staining, and post sectioning staining (PSS) of biological samples. Furthermore, we show an extensive chemical characterization of the LnPOM species present in the solution and the detailed work for its final formulation, which brought remarkable results, and even better performances than UA.


Assuntos
Ânions , Meios de Contraste , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/instrumentação , Compostos Organometálicos , Polieletrólitos , Animais , Soluções Tampão , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Elétrons , Humanos , Lipossomos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metais Pesados , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético , Espalhamento de Radiação , Itérbio
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 142(22): 10198-10211, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374173

RESUMO

We report the colloidal synthesis of a series of surfactant-stabilized lead chalcohalide nanocrystals. Our work is mainly focused on Pb4S3Br2, a chalcohalide phase unknown to date that does not belong to the ambient-pressure PbS-PbBr2 phase diagram. The Pb4S3Br2 nanocrystals herein feature a remarkably narrow size distribution (with a size dispersion as low as 5%), a good size tunability (from 7 to ∼30 nm), an indirect bandgap, photoconductivity (responsivity = 4 ± 1 mA/W), and stability for months in air. A crystal structure is proposed for this new material by combining the information from 3D electron diffraction and electron tomography of a single nanocrystal, X-ray powder diffraction, and density functional theory calculations. Such a structure is closely related to that of the recently discovered high-pressure chalcohalide Pb4S3I2 phase, and indeed we were able to extend our synthesis scheme to Pb4S3I2 colloidal nanocrystals, whose structure matches the one that has been published for the bulk. Finally, we could also prepare nanocrystals of Pb3S2Cl2, which proved to be a structural analogue of the recently reported bulk Pb3Se2Br2 phase. It is remarkable that one high-pressure structure (for Pb4S3I2) and two metastable structures that had not yet been reported (for Pb4S3Br2 and Pb3S2Cl2) can be prepared on the nanoscale by wet-chemical approaches. This highlights the important role of colloidal chemistry in the discovery of new materials and motivates further exploration into metal chalcohalide nanocrystals.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 59(1): 548-554, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829568

RESUMO

An effort to synthesize the Cu(I) variant of a lead-free double perovskite isostructural with Cs2AgInCl6 resulted in the formation of Cs3Cu4In2Cl13 nanocrystals with an unusual structure, as revealed by single-nanocrystal three-dimensional electron diffraction. These nanocrystals adopt a A2BX6 structure (K2PtCl6 type, termed vacancy ordered perovskite) with tetrahedrally coordinated Cu(I) ions. In the structure, 25% of the A sites are occupied by [Cu4Cl]3+ clusters (75% by Cs+), and the B sites are occupied by In3+. Such a Cs3Cu4In2Cl13 compound prepared at the nanoscale is not known in the bulk and is an example of a multinary metal halide with inorganic cluster cations residing in A sites. The stability of the compound was supported by density functional theory calculations that also revealed that its bandgap is direct but parity forbidden. The existence of the Cs3Cu4In2Cl13 structure demonstrates that small inorganic cluster cations can occupy A sites in multinary metal halides.

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