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1.
Blood ; 134(18): 1510-1516, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501153

RESUMO

Dysregulated immune responses are essential underlying causes of a plethora of pathologies including cancer, autoimmunity, and immunodeficiency. We here investigated 4 patients from unrelated families presenting with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and malignancy. We identified 4 distinct homozygous mutations in TNFRSF9 encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member CD137/4-1BB, leading to reduced, or loss of, protein expression. Lymphocytic responses crucial for immune surveillance, including activation, proliferation, and differentiation, were impaired. Genetic reconstitution of CD137 reversed these defects. CD137 deficiency is a novel inborn error of human immunity characterized by lymphocytic defects with early-onset Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. Our findings elucidate a functional role and relevance of CD137 in human immune homeostasis and antitumor responses.

2.
Scand J Immunol ; : e12737, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506560

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections resulting from the inadequacy of phagocytic leukocytes to produce reactive oxygen radicals. CGD is a genetically heterogeneous disease with an X-linked recessive (XR-CGD) form caused by mutations in the CYBB (OMIM #300481) gene encoding the gp91(phox) protein, and an autosomal recessive (AR-CGD) form caused by mutations in the CYBA (OMIM #608508), NCF1 (OMIM #608512), NCF2 (OMIM #608515) and NCF4 (OMIM #601488) genes encoding p22(phox), p47(phox), p67(phox), and p40(phox), respectively. The genetic mutation of one of the cytosolic p47phox/p67phox proteins and membrane-bound gp91phox/p22phox proteins, which constitutes the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex, causes the disease. In this study, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory and genetic findings and the prognostic effects of molecular inheritance of our 24 CGD cases (14 XR, 10 autosomal recessive-AR). Consanguinity (3 XR and all AR cases) showed statistically significant relationship with the type of hereditary inheritance (p< .001). 83% patients had an infection since early infancy. The mean age of initiation of symptoms was earlier in XR cases and 78% patients had respiratory tract infections. Bone marrow transplantation was performed in 5 XR cases (2 ex) and 4 AR (1 ex) cases. 3 of 9 XR and 2 of 6 AR cases deceased on medical follow-up. In countries especially with high consanguinity rates, the early diagnosis for appropriate prophylactic treatment of CGD is quitely important to avoid from recurrent severe infections, early death and fatal complications of late transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Iran J Immunol ; 15(4): 309-320, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary complement deficiencies are rare diseases. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical and laboratory findings and complications of patients to increase awareness of pediatricians about complement deficiencies, which are rarely encountered. METHODS: In this study, the clinical and immunological characteristics of 21 patients who consulted the Immunology Department of our hospital between 2003 and 2017 and were diagnosed with classical or alternative pathway complement deficiency were obtained from the file records. RESULTS: Ten patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency, four patients with factor I deficiency, three patients with properdin deficiency, two patients with C8 deficiency, one patient with C1q deficiency, and one patient with C4B deficiency were assessed. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 11.4±4.7 years, the age of onset of symptoms was 7.9±3.9 years, and the follow-up period was 6.7±3.9 years. Fourteen cases had a similar medical history in the family. All patients with C1q, factor I, properdin, C8, and C4B deficiencies presented with an infection, and vasculitic rash was present in two patients with factor I deficiency. In addition, immune complex glomerulonephritis was present in one patient with factor I deficiency. Meningococcal, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and pneumococcal vaccines were administered and prophylactic antibiotic treatment was initiated in all patients except patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis of complement deficiencies can facilitate prevention of life-threatening complications such as severe bacterial infections by considering prophylactic antibiotics and vaccines. In patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency, achieving an acurate early diagnosis will assist in the management and timely treatment of life-threatening attacks such as upper airway obstruction and improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Via Alternativa do Complemento/genética , Via Clássica do Complemento/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Adolescente , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Criança , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/genética , Complemento C1q/genética , Complemento C8/genética , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Fibrinogênio/genética , Seguimentos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Masculino , Properdina/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(34): E8007-E8016, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072435

RESUMO

Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is the only known human developmental defect exclusively affecting a lymphoid organ. In 2013, we showed that private deleterious mutations in the protein-coding region of RPSA, encoding ribosomal protein SA, caused ICA by haploinsufficiency with complete penetrance. We reported seven heterozygous protein-coding mutations in 8 of the 23 kindreds studied, including 6 of the 8 multiplex kindreds. We have since enrolled 33 new kindreds, 5 of which are multiplex. We describe here 11 new heterozygous ICA-causing RPSA protein-coding mutations, and the first two mutations in the 5'-UTR of this gene, which disrupt mRNA splicing. Overall, 40 of the 73 ICA patients (55%) and 23 of the 56 kindreds (41%) carry mutations located in translated or untranslated exons of RPSA. Eleven of the 43 kindreds affected by sporadic disease (26%) carry RPSA mutations, whereas 12 of the 13 multiplex kindreds (92%) carry RPSA mutations. We also report that 6 of 18 (33%) protein-coding mutations and the two (100%) 5'-UTR mutations display incomplete penetrance. Three mutations were identified in two independent kindreds, due to a hotspot or a founder effect. Finally, RPSA ICA-causing mutations were demonstrated to be de novo in 7 of the 23 probands. Mutations in RPSA exons can affect the translated or untranslated regions and can underlie ICA with complete or incomplete penetrance.


Assuntos
Éxons , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Penetrância , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Receptores de Laminina/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Baço/anormalidades , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Feminino , Efeito Fundador , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptores de Laminina/biossíntese , Proteínas Ribossômicas/biossíntese , Baço/metabolismo
5.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 32: 2058738418779458, 2018 Jan-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978731

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) are the most prevalent primary immunodeficiency disorders. High rates of familial inheritance have been described in CVID and IgAD, but it is unknown in different ethnic populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of familial cases and whether they showed more severe clinical characteristics than sporadic ones in Turkish patients. A total of 40 CVID and 70 IgAD patients and their 251 first-degree relatives (FDRs) were evaluated. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were reviewed. A familial case was defined as a patient with at least one affected FDR (A-FDR). The rate of parental consanguinity was 19.1%. There were 37 familial cases (37/110) (33.6%) with at least one A-FDR. There were 48 A-FDRs who had immunoglobulins lower than age-related normals (48/251) (19.1%). Pulmonary infections were significantly higher in familial cases. To our knowledge, this study includes the highest number of CVID/IgAD patients and their FDRs in literature. Familial cases are at least 30% of the IgAD and CVID patients, and they have more frequent lower respiratory tract infections than sporadic ones, so these patients have to be evaluated depending on their being familial or sporadic for better management. The risk of carrying any immunologic alterations in relatives of patients with IgAD and CVID is approximately 20%. Although most A-FDRs are asymptomatic, considering the risk of progression to CVID by age, we highly recommend routine screening for FDRs.


Assuntos
Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/epidemiologia , Consanguinidade , Deficiência de IgA/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Adulto , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Feminino , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Deficiência de IgA/genética , Deficiência de IgA/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Turquia
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1589-1604.e11, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The actin-interacting protein WD repeat-containing protein 1 (WDR1) promotes cofilin-dependent actin filament turnover. Biallelic WDR1 mutations have been identified recently in an immunodeficiency/autoinflammatory syndrome with aberrant morphology and function of myeloid cells. OBJECTIVE: Given the pleiotropic expression of WDR1, here we investigated to what extent it might control the lymphoid arm of the immune system in human subjects. METHODS: Histologic and detailed immunologic analyses were performed to elucidate the role of WDR1 in the development and function of B and T lymphocytes. RESULTS: Here we identified novel homozygous and compound heterozygous WDR1 missense mutations in 6 patients belonging to 3 kindreds who presented with respiratory tract infections, skin ulceration, and stomatitis. In addition to defective adhesion and motility of neutrophils and monocytes, WDR1 deficiency was associated with aberrant T-cell activation and B-cell development. T lymphocytes appeared to develop normally in the patients, except for the follicular helper T-cell subset. However, peripheral T cells from the patients accumulated atypical actin structures at the immunologic synapse and displayed reduced calcium flux and mildly impaired proliferation on T-cell receptor stimulation. WDR1 deficiency was associated with even more severe abnormalities of the B-cell compartment, including peripheral B-cell lymphopenia, paucity of B-cell progenitors in the bone marrow, lack of switched memory B cells, reduced clonal diversity, abnormal B-cell spreading, and increased apoptosis on B-cell receptor/Toll-like receptor stimulation. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies a novel role for WDR1 in adaptive immunity, highlighting WDR1 as a central regulator of actin turnover during formation of the B-cell and T-cell immunologic synapses.

7.
Iran J Immunol ; 15(1): 1-13, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29549228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with unclassified hypogammaglobulinemia (UCH) constitute a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma, because information concerning the clinical and immunological characteristics of these patients is insufficient. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate B-cell subsets in cases with UCH and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and their association with treatment requirement in UCH patients. METHODS: The study included 41 UCH, 25 CVID, and 36 healthy individuals between the ages of 4-18 years. RESULTS: The absolute count of total memory and switched memory B-cells were lower in the CVID cases in comparison to the control group. Additionally, the absolute count of marginal zone-like B cells in the 4-10 year age group, and the absolute count of switched plasmablasts in the 10-18 year age group were lower in CVID cases when compared to both the control and UCH groups. The UCH group was categorized based on IVIG replacement therapy. Therefore, the percentage of switched memory B cells was significantly lower in the IVIG-receiving group (10.6% ± 3.10%) compared to the control group (14.0% ± 5.60%). However, there was no significant difference between the IVIG-receiving group and the CVID group. Regarding the comparison of the non-IVIG replacement group and the CVID group, the absolute count of total memory B cells, marginal zone-like B cells, and switched memory B cells were significantly higher in the UCH group. CONCLUSION: B-lymphocyte subsets in UCH cases that did not require IVIG replacement were similar to the control group. On the other hand, the percentage of switched memory B-cells in the UCH cases that required IVIG replacement was not different from that of the CVID cases.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Adolescente , Agamaglobulinemia/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/terapia , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Memória Imunológica , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino
8.
Minerva Pediatr ; 70(4): 365-370, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26041003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to perform a neurodevelopmental evaluation of the children with cyanotic congenital heart disease and to determine the factors that affect the neurodevelopmental status. METHODS: The study was performed in the Pediatric Cardiology Department of Behcet Uz Children's Hospital between February and August 2013. Children between the age of six to forty-two months were included in the study and were evaluated in three groups (two patient groups and the control group). In group A, patients with isolated cyanotic congenital heart disease were enrolled. Group B consisted of the patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease with other concomitant diseases. Group C included the healthy control group. For the neurodevelopmental evaluation Bayley Scale of Infant Development- II (BSID-II) was used. Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychmotor Developmental Index (PDI) scores were calculated. Factors possibly effective on neurodevelopment were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty eight patients (32 in group A and 6 in group B) and 33 healthy subjects in group C were included in the study. Mean age of the patient group was 22.5±11.2 months. In group A mean MDI Score (82.5±14.7) was significantly lower than group C (92.3±6.9) (P=0.001). Similarly mean PDI Score in group A (82.0±18.2) was found significantly lower than group C (92.5±7.4) (P=0.003). When group A and B were compared, mean MDI and PDI scores were lower in group B, but the difference was not statistically significant. For group A, according to the psychomotor development index, 41.6% of the patients were found to be mildly to severely retarded. In terms of the mental development index, 34.4% of the patients had moderate or mild retardation. The sex, socioeconomic status, gestational age, birth weight, comorbidities, history of surgery and reoperation, length of stay in intensive care unit were not found influential on the MDI and PDI scores of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Mental-motor retardation is frequently encountered in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease. These patients may benefit from motor, language, speech, developmental and educational therapies. For this reason, these children have to be under regular follow up for neurodevelopmental status.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cianose/congênito , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Cianose/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Turquia
9.
Tuberk Toraks ; 65(1): 56-59, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621249

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetically heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency that is characterized by recurrent and life-threatening infections resulting from defects in phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system and granuloma formation due to increased inflammatory response. The most commonly involved organs are the lungs, skin, lymph nodes, and liver due to infection. It may present with recurrent pneumonia, hilar lymphadenopathy, empyema, abscess, reticulonodular patterns, and granulomas due to lung involvement. In recent years, mycobacterial disease susceptibility has been reported in CGD cases. This article presents two male cases, one of whom is aged 18 months and the other is aged 5 years, who were diagnosed with CGD and tuberculosis during examination due to extended pneumonia. This report is presented because CGD should be considered not only in the presence of skin abscesses and Aspergillus infections, but also in the differential diagnosis for cases with BCG-itis and/or tuberculosis. It should be kept in mind that mycobacterial infections can occur during the course of the disease.


Assuntos
Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/complicações , Tuberculose/complicações , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças Linfáticas/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
10.
Indian Pediatr ; 54(5): 381-384, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28368265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the factors affecting a neurodevelopmental status of children with congenital hypothyroidism, diagnosed on national screening program. METHODS: The study was performed in the Pediatric Endocrinology Department of Dr. Behcet Uz Children's Hospital between May 2012 and May 2013. Children with congenital hypothyroidism, aged between 24 and 36 months, diagnosed by national screening program were included in the study group. Healthy subjects at the same age group consisted of the control group. For the neurodevelopmental evaluation, Bayley Scale of Infant Development- II (BSID-II) was used. Factors possibly effective on neurodevelopment were evaluated. RESULTS: 42 patients and 40 healthy children (mean (SD) age, 29.4 (3.7) and 29.2 (3.5), respectively were included in the study. The mean MDI score [92.6 (7.07) vs 97.1 (9.69), P=0.14)] and the mean PDI score [97.8 (15.68) vs 99.1 (10.57), P=0.66)] in the study group and control group were not significantly different. Among the patient, 4.6% and 4.7% children were moderately retarded as per the MDI scores and PPI scores, respectively. The sex, socioeconomic status, birth weight, screening levels of TSH, severity of the congenital hypothyroidism, initiation time and the dosage of thyroid hormone replacement, length of the normalization period of TSH, and adherence to treatment were not found to affect the MDI and PDI scores of the patients. CONCLUSION: Some children with congenital hypothyrodism may have mild to moderate neurodevelopmental retardation, despite the early diagnosis and treatment, and thus need to be under regular follow-up for neurodevelopmental status.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito , Triagem Neonatal , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/complicações , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
11.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 92(6): 581-587, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-829128

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study is to define the predictors of chronic carditis in patients with acute rheumatic carditis (ARC). Methods: Patients diagnosed with ARC between May 2010 and May 2011 were included in the study. Echocardiography, electrocardiography, lymphocyte subset analysis, acute phase reactants, plasma albumin levels, and antistreptolysin-O (ASO) tests were performed at initial presentation. The echocardiographic assessments were repeated at the sixth month of follow-up. The patients were divided into two groups according to persistence of valvular pathology at 6th month as Group 1 and Group 2, and all clinical and laboratory parameters at admission were compared between two groups of valvular involvement. Results: During the one-year study period, 22 patients had valvular disease. Seventeen (77.2%) patients showed regression in valvular pathology. An initial mild regurgitation disappeared in eight patients (36.3%). Among seven (31.8%) patients with moderate regurgitation initially, the regurgitation disappeared in three, and four patients improved to mild regurgitation. Two patients with a severe regurgitation initially improved to moderate regurgitation (9.1%). In five (22.8%) patients, the grade of regurgitation [moderate regurgitation in one (4.6%), and severe regurgitation in 4 (18.2%)] remained unchanged. The albumin level was significantly lower at diagnosis in Group 2 (2.6 ± 0.48 g/dL). Lymphocyte subset analysis showed a significant decrease in the CD8 percentage and a significant increase in CD19 percentage at diagnosis in Group 2 compared to Group 1. Conclusion: The blood albumin level and the percentage of CD8 and CD19 (+) lymphocytes at diagnosis may help to predict chronic valvular disease risk in patients with acute rheumatic carditis.


Resumo Objetivo: Definir os preditores da cardite crônica em pacientes com cardite reumática aguda (CRA). Métodos: Os pacientes diagnosticados com CRA entre maio de 2010 e maio de 2011 foram incluídos no estudo. Foram feitos os testes de ecocardiografia, eletrocardiograma, uma análise do subgrupo de linfócitos, provas de fase aguda, níveis de albumina plasmática, antiestreptolisina-O (ASO) na manifestação inicial. As avaliações ecocardiográficas foram repetidas no 6º mês de acompanhamento. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com a persistência da patologia valvular no 6º mês como Grupo 1 e Grupo 2 e todos os parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais na internação foram comparados entre dois grupos de comprometimento valvular. Resultados: Durante o período do estudo de um ano, 22 pacientes apresentaram doença valvular; 17 (77,2%) apresentaram regressão da patologia valvular. Houve desaparecimento de regurgitação moderada inicial em oito pacientes (36,3%). Entre sete (31,8%) pacientes com regurgitação moderada inicialmente, a regurgitação desapareceu em três e quatro apresentaram melhoria para regurgitação leve. Dois pacientes com regurgitação grave inicialmente apresentaram melhoria para regurgitação moderada (9,1%). Em cinco (22,8%) pacientes o grau de regurgitação (regurgitação moderada em um [4,6%] e regurgitação grave em quatro [18,2]) continuou inalterado. O nível de albumina foi significativamente menor no diagnóstico no Grupo 2 (2,6 ± 0,48 gr/dL). A análise do subgrupo de linfócitos mostrou uma redução significativa no percentual de CD8 e um aumento significativo no percentual de CD19 no Grupo 2 em comparação com o Grupo 1. Conclusão: O nível de albumina no sangue e o percentual de linfócitos CD8 e CD19 (+) no diagnóstico podem ajudar a prever risco de doença valvular crônica em pacientes com cardite reumática aguda.

12.
Case Reports Immunol ; 2016: 5459029, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27699073

RESUMO

Alterations of immune homeostasis in the gut may result in development of inflammatory bowel disease. A five-month-old girl was referred for recurrent respiratory and genitourinary tract infections, sepsis in neonatal period, chronic diarrhea, perianal abscess, rectovaginal fistula, and hyperemic skin lesions. She was born to second-degree consanguineous, healthy parents. Her elder siblings were lost at 4 months of age due to sepsis and 1 year of age due to inflammatory bowel disease, respectively. Absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, immunoglobulin levels, and lymphocyte subsets were normal ruling out severe congenital neutropenia and classic severe combined immunodeficiencies. Quantitative determination of oxidative burst was normal, excluding chronic granulomatous disease. Colonoscopy revealed granulation, ulceration, and pseudopolyps, compatible with colitis. Very early-onset colitis and perianal disease leading to fistula formation suggested probability of inherited deficiencies of IL-10 or IL-10 receptor. A mutation at position c.G477A in exon of the IL10RB gene, resulting in a stop codon at position p.W159X, was identified. The patient underwent myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from full matched father at 11 months of age. Perianal lesions, chronic diarrhea, and recurrent infections resolved after transplantation. IL-10/IL-10R deficiencies must be considered in patients with early-onset enterocolitis.

13.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 92(6): 581-587, 2016 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27553592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to define the predictors of chronic carditis in patients with acute rheumatic carditis (ARC). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with ARC between May 2010 and May 2011 were included in the study. Echocardiography, electrocardiography, lymphocyte subset analysis, acute phase reactants, plasma albumin levels, and antistreptolysin-O (ASO) tests were performed at initial presentation. The echocardiographic assessments were repeated at the sixth month of follow-up. The patients were divided into two groups according to persistence of valvular pathology at 6th month as Group 1 and Group 2, and all clinical and laboratory parameters at admission were compared between two groups of valvular involvement. RESULTS: During the one-year study period, 22 patients had valvular disease. Seventeen (77.2%) patients showed regression in valvular pathology. An initial mild regurgitation disappeared in eight patients (36.3%). Among seven (31.8%) patients with moderate regurgitation initially, the regurgitation disappeared in three, and four patients improved to mild regurgitation. Two patients with a severe regurgitation initially improved to moderate regurgitation (9.1%). In five (22.8%) patients, the grade of regurgitation [moderate regurgitation in one (4.6%), and severe regurgitation in 4 (18.2%)] remained unchanged. The albumin level was significantly lower at diagnosis in Group 2 (2.6±0.48g/dL). Lymphocyte subset analysis showed a significant decrease in the CD8 percentage and a significant increase in CD19 percentage at diagnosis in Group 2 compared to Group 1. CONCLUSION: The blood albumin level and the percentage of CD8 and CD19 (+) lymphocytes at diagnosis may help to predict chronic valvular disease risk in patients with acute rheumatic carditis.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico , Albumina Sérica/análise , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Antiestreptolisina/sangue , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/classificação , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Criança , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/classificação , Miocardite/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/sangue
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 138(5): 1384-1394.e2, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27350570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) caused by dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency shares clinical features with autosomal dominant HIES because of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations, including recurrent infections and mucocutaneous candidiasis, which are suggestive of TH17 cell dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying this phenotypic overlap are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate common mechanisms operating in the different forms of HIES. METHODS: We analyzed the differentiation of CD4+ TH cell subsets in control and DOCK8-deficient subjects. We also examined the role of DOCK8 in regulating STAT3 activation in T cells. TH cell differentiation was analyzed by ELISA, flow cytometry, and real-time PCR measurements of cytokines and TH cell transcription factors. The interaction of DOCK8 and STAT3 signaling pathways was examined by using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, coimmunoprecipitation, and gene expression analysis. RESULTS: There was a profound block in the differentiation of DOCK8-deficient naive CD4+ T cells into TH17 cells. A missense mutation that disrupts DOCK8 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity while sparing protein expression also impaired TH17 cell differentiation. DOCK8 constitutively associated with STAT3 independent of GEF activity, whereas it regulated STAT3 phosphorylation in a GEF activity-dependent manner. DOCK8 also promoted STAT3 translocation to the nucleus and induction of STAT3-dependent gene expression. CONCLUSION: DOCK8 interacts with STAT3 and regulates its activation and the outcome of STAT3-dependent TH17 differentiation. These findings might explain the phenotypic overlap between DOCK8 deficiency and autosomal dominant HIES.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Lactente , Células Jurkat , Masculino , Mutação , Fosforilação , Transporte Proteico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
15.
Cent Eur J Immunol ; 40(2): 266-9, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26557043

RESUMO

The absence of a spleen is a well-known risk factor for severe bacterial infections, especially due to encapsulated bacteria. Congenital asplenia can be part of multiple congenital abnormalities as in heterotaxy including Ivemark syndrome with congenital anomalies of the heart or great vessels, or it can be isolated, which is extremely rare. In these cases, asplenia is an important factor effecting mortality. In this report, the clinical courses of five children with asplenia and concomitant minor or complex cardiac anomalies are presented. The ages of the children ranged between 1.5 and 17 months at the time of diagnosis. All of the cases had had a history of hospitalisation for infectious diseases before the diagnosis. The patient who was diagnosed at 17 months old had a history pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and bacterial meningitis beginning at five months old. Three children had complex cardiac anomalies, one child had ventricular septal defect, and one child had atrial septal defect. Howell-Jolly bodies were determined in peripheral blood smear in all of the patients. The diagnoses of asplenia were confirmed with spleen scintigraphy. One of the patients with complex cardiac anomalies died a short time after diagnosis, because of cardiac failure. The rest of the four patients were vaccinated for encapsulated bacteria and were taken under antibiotic prophylaxis. These children did not need hospitalisation for infectious diseases during the follow-up period (5-40 months). In asplenic children, early diagnosis, antibiotic prophylaxis, and immunisation for encapsulated bacteria can decrease the risk of morbidity and mortality.

16.
Cent Eur J Immunol ; 40(1): 115-6, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26155193

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a very rare and potentially life-threatening genetic disease characterised by episodes of edema in various parts of the body, including the extremities, face, and airway. The disease is usually associated with attacks of abdominal pain. On the other hand, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited condition characterised by recurrent episodes of painful inflammation in the abdomen, chest, or joints. In this report, we present a child with FMF and undiagnosed HAE, which made him a partial responder to colchicine treatment. Consequently, HAE must be considered in differential diagnosis of cases in which a partial response is obtained from FMF treatment, particularly in countries where FMF is frequently encountered, because early diagnosis of HAE can facilitate prevention of life-threatening complications, such as upper airway obstruction. To our knowledge, our patient is the first patient reported in the literature with the diagnosis of HAE and FMF together.

17.
J Autoimmun ; 62: 39-44, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26119135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Globally approximately 60 cases of C1q deficiency have been described with a high prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). So far treatment has been guided by the clinical presentation rather than the underlying C1q deficiency. Recently, it was shown that C1q production can be restored by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Current literature lacks information on disease progression and quality of life of C1q deficient persons which is of major importance to guide clinicians taking care of patients with this rare disease. METHODS: We performed an international survey, of clinicians treating C1q deficient patients. A high response rate of >70% of the contacted clinicians yielded information on 45 patients with C1q deficiency of which 25 are published. RESULTS: Follow-up data of 45 patients from 31 families was obtained for a median of 11 years after diagnosis. Of these patients 36 (80%) suffer from SLE, of which 16 suffer from SLE and infections, 5 (11%) suffer from infections only and 4 (9%) have no symptoms. In total 9 (20%) of the C1q deficient individuals had died. All except for one died before the age of 20 years. Estimated survival times suggest 20% case-fatality before the age of 20, and at least 50% of patients are expected to reach their middle ages. CONCLUSION: Here we report the largest phenotypic data set on C1q deficiency to date, revealing high variance; with high mortality but also a subset of patients with an excellent prognosis. Management of C1q deficiency requires a personalized approach.


Assuntos
Complemento C1q/deficiência , Complemento C1q/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Complemento C1q/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecção/diagnóstico , Infecção/epidemiologia , Infecção/etiologia , Infecção/terapia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(2): 402-12, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25724123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) cause a combined immunodeficiency (CID) also classified as autosomal recessive (AR) hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). Recognizing patients with CID/HIES is of clinical importance because of the difference in prognosis and management. OBJECTIVES: We sought to define the clinical features that distinguish DOCK8 deficiency from other forms of HIES and CIDs, study the mutational spectrum of DOCK8 deficiency, and report on the frequency of specific clinical findings. METHODS: Eighty-two patients from 60 families with CID and the phenotype of AR-HIES with (64 patients) and without (18 patients) DOCK8 mutations were studied. Support vector machines were used to compare clinical data from 35 patients with DOCK8 deficiency with those from 10 patients with AR-HIES without a DOCK8 mutation and 64 patients with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations. RESULTS: DOCK8-deficient patients had median IgE levels of 5201 IU, high eosinophil levels of usually at least 800/µL (92% of patients), and low IgM levels (62%). About 20% of patients were lymphopenic, mainly because of low CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell counts. Fewer than half of the patients tested produced normal specific antibody responses to recall antigens. Bacterial (84%), viral (78%), and fungal (70%) infections were frequently observed. Skin abscesses (60%) and allergies (73%) were common clinical problems. In contrast to STAT3 deficiency, there were few pneumatoceles, bone fractures, and teething problems. Mortality was high (34%). A combination of 5 clinical features was helpful in distinguishing patients with DOCK8 mutations from those with STAT3 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: DOCK8 deficiency is likely in patients with severe viral infections, allergies, and/or low IgM levels who have a diagnosis of HIES plus hypereosinophilia and upper respiratory tract infections in the absence of parenchymal lung abnormalities, retained primary teeth, and minimal trauma fractures.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Fenótipo , Dermatopatias/complicações , Viroses/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos de Bactérias/sangue , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Eosinófilos/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/genética , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/genética , Lactente , Síndrome de Job/genética , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/imunologia , Dermatopatias/genética , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Dermatopatias/mortalidade , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Análise de Sobrevida , Viroses/genética , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/mortalidade
19.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(2): 189-98, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627830

RESUMO

Mutations in DOCK8 result in autosomal recessive Hyper-IgE syndrome with combined immunodeficiency (CID). However, the natural course of disease, long-term prognosis, and optimal therapeutic management have not yet been clearly defined. In an international retrospective survey of patients with DOCK8 mutations, focused on clinical presentation and therapeutic measures, a total of 136 patients with a median follow-up of 11.3 years (1.3-47.7) spanning 1693 patient years, were enrolled. Eczema, recurrent respiratory tract infections, allergies, abscesses, viral infections and mucocutaneous candidiasis were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Overall survival probability in this cohort [censored for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)] was 87 % at 10, 47 % at 20, and 33 % at 30 years of age, respectively. Event free survival was 44, 18 and 4 % at the same time points if events were defined as death, life-threatening infections, malignancy or cerebral complications such as CNS vasculitis or stroke. Malignancy was diagnosed in 23/136 (17 %) patients (11 hematological and 9 epithelial cancers, 5 other malignancies) at a median age of 12 years. Eight of these patients died from cancer. Severe, life-threatening infections were observed in 79/136 (58 %); severe non-infectious cerebral events occurred in 14/136 (10 %). Therapeutic measures included antiviral and antibacterial prophylaxis, immunoglobulin replacement and HSCT. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical phenotype of DOCK8 deficiency in the largest cohort reported so far and demonstrates the severity of the disease with relatively poor prognosis. Early HSCT should be strongly considered as a potential curative measure.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/deficiência , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Incidência , Lactente , Infecção/diagnóstico , Infecção/epidemiologia , Infecção/etiologia , Síndrome de Job/complicações , Síndrome de Job/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Job/genética , Síndrome de Job/imunologia , Síndrome de Job/mortalidade , Síndrome de Job/terapia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 34(7): 541-4, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22983416

RESUMO

Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin or hair hypopigmentation, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and immunologic and central nervous system abnormalities. GS type II is caused by RAB27A mutations. We present RAB27A mutation analysis of 6 cases diagnosed as GS type II. Missense mutations (L26P and L130P) in 2 cases, deletion of 5 bases (514delCAAGC) in 2 cases, and 1 base deletion (148delA) in 2 cases were detected. This report has importance in phenotype-genotype correlation of different types of mutations including missense mutations and deletions within the RAB27A gene in GSII syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Mutação , Piebaldismo/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Masculino , Proteínas rab27 de Ligação ao GTP
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