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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retention in HIV care is dynamic with patients frequently transitioning in and out of care. Analytical approaches (e.g., survival analyses) commonly used to assess HIV care cascade outcomes fail to capture such transitions and therefore incompletely represent care outcomes over time. METHODS: We analyzed ART-eligible adults newly linking to care at 64 clinics in Zambia between April 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015. We used electronic medical record data and supplemented this with updated care outcomes ascertained by tracing a multistage random sample of patients lost to follow-up (LTFU, >90 days late for last appointment). We performed multi-state analyses, incorporating weights from sampling, to estimate the prevalence of nine care states over time since linkage with respect to ART initiation, retention in care, transfers, and mortality. RESULTS: 23,227 patients (58% female; median age 34y [IQR 28-41]) were ART-eligible at enrollment. At one year, 75.2% had initiated ART and were in care: 61.8% were continuously retained, 6.1% had reengaged after LTFU, and 7.3% had transferred. 10.1% were LTFU within seven days of enrollment and 15.2% were LTFU at one year (6.7% prior to ART). One year after LTFU, 51.6% of those LTFU prior to ART remained out of care compared to 30.2% of those LTFU after initiating ART. Overall, 6.9% of patients had died by one year with 3.0% dying prior to ART. CONCLUSION: Multi-state analyses provide more complete assessments of longitudinal HIV cascade outcomes and reveal treatment gaps at distinct timepoints in care that will still need to be addressed even with universal treatment.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228370, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid scale-up of HIV therapy across Africa has failed to adequately engage adolescents living with HIV (ALWHIV). Retention and viral suppression for this group (ALWHIV) is 50% lower than for adults. Indeed, on the African continent, HIV remains the single leading cause of mortality among adolescents. Strategies tailored to the unqiue developmental and social vulnerabilities of this group are urgently needed to enhance successful treatment. METHODS: We carried out a five-year longitudinal cluster randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01790373) with adolescents living with HIV (ALWHIV) ages 10 to 16 years clustered at health care clinics to test the effect of a family economic empowerment (EE) intervention on viral suppression in five districuts in Uganda. In total, 39 accredited health care clinics from study districts with existing procedures tailored to adolescent adherence were eligible to participate in the trial. We used data from 288 youth with detectable HIV viral loads (VL) at baseline (158 -intervention group from 20 clinics, 130 -non-intervention group from 19 clinics). The primary end point was undetectable plasma HIV RNA levels, defined as < 40 copies/ml. We used Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis and Cox proportional hazard models to estimate intervention effects. FINDINGS: The Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis indicated that an incidence of undetectable VL (0.254) was significantly higher in the intervention condition compared to 0.173 (in non-intervention arm) translated into incidence rate ratio of 1.468 (CI: 1.064-2.038), p = 0.008. Cox regression results showed that along with the family-based EE intervention (adj. HR = 1.446, CI: 1.073-1.949, p = 0.015), higher number of medications per day had significant positive effects on the viral suppression (adj.HR = 1.852, CI: 1.275-2.690, p = 0.001). INTERPRETATION: A family economic empowerment intervention improved treatment success for ALWHIV in Uganda. Analyses of cost effectiveness and scalability are needed to advance incorporation of this intervention into routine practice in low and middle-income countries.

3.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059838

RESUMO

Despite its potential to improve metabolic health outcomes, longitudinal physical activity (PA) patterns and their association with cardiometabolic disease among people living with HIV (PLWH) have not been well characterized. We investigated this relationship among PLWH in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems with at least one PA self-report between 2008 and 2015. The 4-item Lipid Research Clinics PA instrument was used to categorize habitual PA levels as: Very Low, Low, Moderate, or High. We analyzed demographic differences in PA patterns. Multivariable generalized estimating equation regression models were fit to assess longitudinal associations of PA with blood pressure, lipid, and glucose levels. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess the odds of being diagnosed with obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, or multimorbidity. A total of 40,462 unique PA assessments were provided by 11,719 participants. Only 13% of PLWH reported High PA, while 68% reported Very Low/Low PA at baseline and did not increase PA levels during the study period. Compared to those reporting High PA, participants with Very Low PA had almost 2-fold increased risk for CVD. Very Low PA was also associated with several risk factors associated with CVD, most notably elevated triglycerides (odds ratio 25.4), obesity (odds ratio 1.9), hypertension (odds ratio 1.4), and diabetes (odds ratio 2.3; all p < 0.01). Low levels of PA over time among PLWH are associated with increased cardiometabolic disease risk.

5.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(2): e25431, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064766

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accurate costing is key for programme planning and policy implementation. Since 2011, there have been major changes in eligibility criteria and treatment regimens with price reductions in ART drugs, programmatic changes resulting in clinical task-shifting and decentralization of ART delivery to peripheral health centres making existing evidence on ART care costs in Zambia out-of-date. As decision makers consider further changes in ART service delivery, it is important to understand the current drivers of costs for ART care. This study provides updates on costs of ART services for HIV-positive patients in Zambia. METHODS: We evaluated costs, assessed from the health systems perspective and expressed in 2016 USD, based on an activity-based costing framework using both top-down and bottom-up methods with an assessment of process and capacity. We collected primary site-level costs and resource utilization data from government documents, patient chart reviews and time-and-motion studies conducted in 10 purposively selected ART clinics. RESULTS: The cost of providing ART varied considerably among the ten clinics. The average per-patient annual cost of ART service was $116.69 (range: $59.38 to $145.62) using a bottom-up method and $130.32 (range: $94.02 to $162.64) using a top-down method. ART drug costs were the main cost driver (67% to 7% of all costs) and are highly sensitive to the types of patient included in the analysis (long-term vs. all ART patients, including those recently initiated) and the data sources used (facility vs. patient level). Missing capacity costs made up 57% of the total difference between the top-down and bottom-up estimates. Variability in cost across the ten clinics was associated with operational characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Real-world costs of current routine ART services in Zambia are considerably lower than previously reported estimates and sensitive to operational factors and methods used. We recommend collection and monitoring of resource use and capacity data to periodically update cost estimates.

6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 83(3): 235-239, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving efforts toward elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV requires timely early infant diagnosis (EID) among all HIV-exposed infants, but the occurrence of timely EID and infant survival may be underascertained in routine, facility-bound program data. METHODS: From March 2015 to May 2015, we traced a random sample of HIV-positive mother and HIV-exposed infant pairs lost to follow-up for EID in facility registers in Zimbabwe. We incorporated updated information into weighted survival analyses to estimate incidence of EID and death. Reasons for no EID were surveyed from caregivers. RESULTS: Among 2651 HIV-positive women attending antenatal care, 1823 (68.8%) infants had no documented EID by 3 months of age. Among a random sample of 643 (35.3%) HIV-exposed infants lost to follow-up for EID, vital status was ascertained among 371 (57.7%) and updated care status obtained from 256 (39.8%) mothers traced. Among all HIV-infected mother-HIV-exposed infant pairs, weighted estimates found cumulative incidence of infant death by 90 days of 3.9% (95% confidence interval: 3.4% to 4.4%). Cumulative incidence of timely EID with death as a competing risk was 60%. The most frequently cited reasons for failure to uptake EID were "my child died" and "I didn't know I should have my child tested." CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate uptake of timely EID among HIV-exposed infants is underestimated in routine health information systems. High, early mortality among HIV-exposed infants underscores the need to more effectively identify HIV-positive mother-HIV exposed infant pairs at high risk of adverse outcomes and loss to follow-up for enhanced interventions.

7.
AIDS Behav ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673912

RESUMO

Prognosis among those who are HIV infected has improved but long-term retention is challenging. Health systems may benefit from routinely measuring patient satisfaction which is a potential driver of engagement in HIV care, but it is not often measured in Africa, and Zambia in particular. This study aims to internally validate a patient satisfaction tool, assess satisfaction among patients previously lost-to-follow up (LTFU) from HIV care in Lusaka province and to measure association between patient satisfaction with their original clinic and re-engagement in HIV care. A cross-sectional assessment of satisfaction was conducted by tracing sampled patients drawn from public health facilities. Our findings suggest that satisfaction tool, previously validated in USA, exhibits high internal consistency for measuring patient satisfaction in the Zambian health system. Patient satisfaction with healthcare providers is associated with re-engagement in HIV care. Future interventions on patient-centred care are likely to optimize and support retention in care.

9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82 Suppl 3: S199-S205, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation science focuses on evaluating strategies for delivering evidence-based interventions to improve HIV prevention and treatment. The effectiveness of these implementation strategies is often context-dependent and reconciling the desire to produce generalizable knowledge in the face of these contextual interventions is a central challenge for implementation science researchers. METHODS: We provide an overview of the causal transportability theory and conceptualize context under this framework. We review how causal graphs can be used to illustrate the assumptions necessary to apply the results of a study to a new context, and we illustrate this approach using an example of a community adherence group intervention that aims to improve retention in HIV care. Finally, we discuss several key insights highlighted by the transportability theory that are relevant to implementation science researchers. RESULTS: By adopting causal transportability to consider how context may affect the success of an implementation strategy, researchers can formally diagnose when the results of a study are likely to generalize to a given setting. Moreover, selection diagrams can highlight what additional measurements would be needed in a target population to estimate the effect of an implementation strategy in that target population without having to repeat the initial study. CONCLUSIONS: Transportability translates intuition about context-dependent interventions and external validity into actionable and testable insight.

10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82 Suppl 3: S230-S243, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based HIV interventions often fail to reach anticipated impact due to insufficient utilization in real-world health systems. Human-centered design (HCD) represents a novel approach in tailoring innovations to fit end-users, narrowing the gap between efficacious interventions and impact at scale. METHODS: We combined a narrative literature review of HCD in HIV programs with our experience using HCD to redesign an intervention promoting patient-centered care (PCC) practices among health care workers (HCW) in Zambia. We summarize the use and results of HCD in the global HIV response and share case study insights to advance conceptualization of HCD applications. RESULTS: The literature review identified 13 articles (representing 7 studies) on the use of HCD in HIV. All studies featured HCD hallmarks including empathy development, user-driven inquiry, ideation, and iterative refinement. HCD was applied to mHealth design, a management intervention and pre-exposure prophylaxis delivery. Our HCD application addressed a behavioral service delivery target: changing HCW patient-centered beliefs, attitudes, and practices. Through in-depth developer-user interaction, our HCD approach revealed specific HCW support for and resistance to PCC, suggesting intervention revisions to improve feasibility and acceptability and PCC considerations that could inform implementation in transferable settings. CONCLUSIONS: As both a research and implementation tool, HCD has potential to improve effective implementation of the HIV response, particularly for product development; new intervention introduction; and complex system interventions. Further research on HCD application strengths and limitations is needed. Those promoting PCC may improve implementation success by seeking out resonance and anticipating the challenges our HCD process identified.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retention in care (RIC) leads to reduced HIV transmission and mortality. Few studies have investigated the availability of clinic services and RIC among people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States (US). We conducted a multi-site retrospective cohort study to identify clinic services associated with RIC from 2010-2016 in the US. METHODS: PLWH with ≥1 attended HIV primary care visit from 2010-2016 at seven sites in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) were included. Clinic-level factors evaluated via site survey included patients per provider/trainee, peer navigation, RIC posters/brochures, laboratory test timing, flexible scheduling, appointment reminder methods, and stigma support services. RIC was defined as ≥2 encounters per year, ≥90 days apart, observed until death, administrative censoring (December 31, 2016), or loss to follow-up (censoring at first 12-month interval without a visit if there were no future visits). Poisson regression with robust error variance, clustered by site and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and HIV transmission risk factor, estimated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RIC. RESULTS: Among 21,046 PLWH contributing 103,348 person-years, 67% of person-years were retained. Availability of text appointment reminders (RR:1.13; 95% CI:1.03-1.24) and stigma support services (RR:1.11; 95% CI:1.04-1.19) were associated with better RIC. Disparities persisted with respect to age, sex, and race after accounting for clinic-level factors. CONCLUSION: Availability of text appointment reminders and stigma support services was associated with higher rates of RIC indicating that these may be feasible and effective approaches for improving RIC.

12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712804

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). Extrahepatic manifestations of HCV, including myocardial infarction (MI), are a topic of active research. MI is classified into types, predominantly atheroembolic Type 1 MI (T1MI) and supply-demand mismatch Type 2 MI (T2MI). We examined the association between HCV and MI in the Centers for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems, a multi-center clinical cohort of PLWH. MIs were centrally adjudicated and categorized by type using the Universal MI definition. We estimated the association between chronic HCV (RNA+) and time to MI adjusting for demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, clinical characteristics and history of injecting drug use. Among 23,407 PLWH aged ≥18, there were 336 T1MI and 330 T2MI during a median of 4.7 years of follow-up during 1998 through 2016. HCV was associated with a 46% greater risk of T2MI (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.46, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.97) but not T1MI (aHR 0.87, 95% CI: 0.58, 1.29). In an exploratory cause-specific analysis of T2MI, HCV was associated with a 2-fold greater risk of T2MI attributed to sepsis (aHR 2.01, 95% CI: 1.25, 3.24). Extrahepatic manifestations of HCV in this high-risk population are an important area for continued research.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of early syphilis in US women are steadily increasing but predictors of infection in this group are not clearly defined. METHODS: This retrospective analysis focused on women enrolled in the US CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort between January 2005 and December 2016 with syphilis testing performed. The primary outcome of incident syphilis infection was defined serologically as a newly positive test with positive confirmatory testing after a negative test or a 2-dilution increase in RPR titer. Infection rates were calculated for each woman-year in care with testing. Predictors of syphilis were sought among socio-demographics, clinical information, and self-reported behaviors. Multivariable logistic regression models were created and a subgroup analysis assessed predictors in women of reproductive age. RESULTS: The annual rate of incident syphilis among 4416 women engaged in HIV care and tested during the 12-year study period was 760 per 100,000 person-years. Independent predictors of infection were injection drug use (IDU) as a risk factor for HIV acquisition (aOR 2.2, CI 1.3-3.9), hepatitis C infection (aOR 1.9, CI 1.1-3.4), black race (aOR 2.2, CI 1.3-3.7 compared to white race) and more recent entry to care (since 2005 compared to 1994-2004). Predictors were similar in women age 18-49. CONCLUSIONS: Syphilis infection is common among US women in HIV care. Syphilis screening and prevention efforts should focus on women reporting drug use and with hepatitis C co-infection. Future studies should identify specific behaviors that mediate syphilis acquisition risk in women who use drugs.

14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(10): ofz336, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660330

RESUMO

Background: We characterized the extent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) experience and postdischarge mortality among hospitalized HIV-infected adults in Zambia. Methods: At a central hospital with an opt-out HIV testing program, we enrolled HIV-infected adults (18+ years) admitted to internal medicine using a population-based sampling frame. Critically ill patients were excluded. Participants underwent a questionnaire regarding their HIV care history and CD4 count and viral load (VL) testing. We followed participants to 3 months after discharge. We analyzed prior awareness of HIV-positive status, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, and VL suppression (VS; <1000 copies/mL). Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed risk factors for mortality. Results: Among 1283 adults, HIV status was available for 1132 (88.2%), and 762 (67.3%) were HIV-positive. In the 239 who enrolled, the median age was 36 years, 59.7% were women, and the median CD4 count was 183 cells/mm3. Active tuberculosis or Cryptococcus coinfection was diagnosed in 82 (34.3%); 93.3% reported prior awareness of HIV status, and 86.2% had ever started ART. In the 64.0% with >6 months on ART, 74.4% had VS. The majority (92.5%) were discharged, and by 3 months, 48 (21.7%) had died. Risk of postdischarge mortality increased with decreasing CD4, and there was a trend toward reduced risk in those treated for active tuberculosis. Conclusions: Most HIV-related hospitalizations and deaths may now occur among ART-experienced vs -naïve individuals in Zambia. Development and evaluation of inpatient interventions are needed to mitigate the high risk of death in the postdischarge period.

15.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002959, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retention in HIV treatment must be improved to advance the HIV response, but research to characterize gaps in retention has focused on estimates from single time points and population-level averages. These approaches do not assess the engagement patterns of individual patients over time and fail to account for both their dynamic nature and the heterogeneity between patients. We apply group-based trajectory analysis-a special application of latent class analysis to longitudinal data-among new antiretroviral therapy (ART) starters in Zambia to identify groups defined by engagement patterns over time and to assess their association with mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed a cohort of HIV-infected adults who newly started ART between August 1, 2013, and February 1, 2015, across 64 clinics in Zambia. We performed group-based multi-trajectory analysis to identify subgroups with distinct trajectories in medication possession ratio (MPR, a validated adherence metric based on pharmacy refill data) over the past 3 months and loss to follow-up (LTFU, >90 days late for last visit) among patients with at least 180 days of observation time. We used multinomial logistic regression to identify baseline factors associated with belonging to particular trajectory groups. We obtained Kaplan-Meier estimates with bootstrapped confidence intervals of the cumulative incidence of mortality stratified by trajectory group and performed adjusted Poisson regression to estimate adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) for mortality by trajectory group. Inverse probability weights were applied to all analyses to account for updated outcomes ascertained from tracing a random subset of patients lost to follow-up as of July 31, 2015. Overall, 38,879 patients (63.3% female, median age 35 years [IQR 29-41], median enrollment CD4 count 280 cells/µl [IQR 146-431]) were included in our cohort. Analyses revealed 6 trajectory groups among the new ART starters: (1) 28.5% of patients demonstrated consistently high adherence and retention; (2) 22.2% showed early nonadherence but consistent retention; (3) 21.6% showed gradually decreasing adherence and retention; (4) 8.6% showed early LTFU with later reengagement; (5) 8.7% had early LTFU without reengagement; and (6) 10.4% had late LTFU without reengagement. Identified groups exhibited large differences in survival: after adjustment, the "early LTFU with reengagement" group (aIRR 3.4 [95% CI 1.2-9.7], p = 0.019), the "early LTFU" group (aIRR 6.4 [95% CI 2.5-16.3], p < 0.001), and the "late LTFU" group (aIRR 4.7 [95% CI 2.0-11.3], p = 0.001) had higher rates of mortality as compared to the group with consistently high adherence/retention. Limitations of this study include using data observed after baseline to identify trajectory groups and to classify patients into these groups, excluding patients who died or transferred within the first 180 days, and the uncertain generalizability of the data to current care standards. CONCLUSIONS: Among new ART starters in Zambia, we observed 6 patient subgroups that demonstrated distinctive engagement trajectories over time and that were associated with marked differences in the subsequent risk of mortality. Further efforts to develop tailored intervention strategies for different types of engagement behaviors, monitor early engagement to identify higher-risk patients, and better understand the determinants of these heterogeneous behaviors can help improve care delivery and survival in this population.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Adesão à Medicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Assistência à Saúde , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
16.
Lancet HIV ; 6(11): e800-e806, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570273

RESUMO

Various ongoing trials seek to evaluate long-acting pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agents by showing that they are non-inferior to daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine. Trials comparing oral PrEP to new methods examine effectiveness in a setting where only one or the other is provided; however, a new product will probably be delivered in a context where oral PrEP is also available. The effectiveness of a new PrEP product is best measured by its potential effect in a context that also includes oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine as an option. We offer an alternative standard for long-acting products-a measure of the effectiveness of the new product in addition to oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine as compared with oral PrEP alone. We term this measure mosaic effectiveness. We illustrate scenarios where a novel product can fail to show non-inferiority but show substantial mosaic effectiveness, thus implying the public health value of the novel product even if it is less effective than oral PrEP. Regulatory standards should consider mosaic effectiveness, not just comparative effectiveness. We assert that measurements that combine rigor with public health relevance can accelerate progress against the HIV epidemic.

17.
PLoS Med ; 16(10): e1002924, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely diagnosis of infant HIV infection is essential for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. In a randomized controlled trial, we found the Texting Improves Testing (TextIT) intervention (a theory-based text messaging system) to be efficacious for improving infant HIV testing rates and maternal retention in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs. Using an implementation science approach, we aimed to evaluate real-world effectiveness of the intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, stepped-wedge trial with 2 time periods of observation, we randomly allocated 10 clinics to begin implementing the intervention immediately and 10 clinics to begin implementing 6 months later. To approximate real-world conditions, inclusion criteria were broad. Women at clinics implementing the intervention received up to 14 text messages during pregnancy and after delivery and had the option to respond to text messages, call, or send inquiry text messages to a designated clinic phone. The primary outcomes were infant HIV testing and maternal retention in care during the first 8 weeks after delivery. We used modified Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to estimate the relative risk and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Generalized estimating equations were applied on individual-level data to account for clustering by site. Between February 2015 and December 2016, 4,681 women were assessed for study participation, and 2,515 were included. Participant characteristics at enrollment did not differ by study arm. Overall median age was 27 years (interquartile range [IQR] 23-30), median gestational age was 30 weeks (IQR 28-34), 99% were receiving ART, and 87% who enrolled during intervention phases owned a phone. Of 2,326 infants analyzed, 1,466 of 1,613 (90.9%) in the intervention group and 609 of 713 (85.4%) in the control group met the primary outcome of HIV virologic testing performed before 8 weeks after birth (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.03; 95% CI 0.97-1.10; P = 0.3). Of 2,472 women analyzed, 1,548 of 1,725 (90%) in the intervention group and 571 of 747 (76%) in the control group met the primary outcome of retention in care during the first 8 weeks after delivery (aRR 1.12; 95% CI 0.97-1.30; P = 0.1). This study had two main limitations. Staff at all facilities were aware of ongoing observation, which may have contributed to increased rates of infant HIV testing and maternal retention in care at both intervention and control facilities, and programmatic initiatives to improve maternal and infant retention in care were ongoing at all facilities at the time of this study, which likely limited the ability to demonstrate effectiveness of the trial intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a larger proportion of infants in the intervention group received HIV testing compared with the control group, but the difference was small and not statistically significant. There was also a nonsignificant increase in maternal postpartum retention in the intervention periods. Despite the lack of a significant effect of the intervention, key lessons emerged, both for strengthening PMTCT and for implementation research in general. Perhaps most important, improving the implementation of usual care may have been sufficient to substantially improve infant HIV testing rates. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Trial Number NCT02350140.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação , Mensagem de Texto , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Distribuição de Poisson , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Sistemas de Alerta , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608379

RESUMO

Dissemination and implementation science seeks generalizable knowledge about closing the gap between clinical discovery and actual use in routine practice and public health. The field of infectious diseases enjoys an abundance of highly efficacious interventions (e.g., antimicrobial agents, HIV treatment) which are not adequately used in routine care, thereby missing critical opportunities to improve population health. In this article, we summarize salient features of dissemination and implementation science, reviewing definitions and methodologies for infectious diseases clinicians and researchers. We give examples of the limited use of dissemination and implementation science in infectious diseases thus far, suggest opportunities for application, and provide resources for interested readers to use and apply to their own research and practice.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223573, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622394

RESUMO

Regular plasma HIV-RNA testing for persons living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now the global standard, but as many as 60% of persons in Africa today on ART do not have access to standard laboratory HIV-RNA assays. As a result, patients in Zambia often receive treatment without any means of determining true virologic failure, which poses a risk of premature switch of ART regimens and widespread HIV drug resistance. Dry blood spots (DBS) on the other hand require unskilled personnel and less complex storage supply chain so are ideal to capture viral-load results from HIV patients outside clinic settings. We assess collection of DBS in the community using non-medically trained personnel (NMP) and documented challenges. We trained 23 NMP to collect DBS from lost to follow-up (LTFU) patients in 4 rural and urban Zambian districts. We developed a phlebotomy box to transport DBS without contamination at ambient temperature and concomitant training and standard operating procedures. We evaluated this through field observations, bi-weekly meetings, reports, and staff meetings. The laboratory assessed DBS quality for testing validity. We attempted to collect DBS from 357 participants in the community. Though individual reasons for refusal from the remaining 37% were not collected, NMPs reported privacy concerns, awkward box-size which drew attention in the community and fears of undisclosed uses of samples related to witchcraft and circulating narratives about past research. Successful DBS collection was not associated with patient gender, age, time on ART, enrolment CD4, facility. DBS viral-load collection by NMP is feasible in Zambia. Our training approach and assessments of NMP not part of the health system can be extended to patients by giving them more responsibility to manage their own differentiated care groups. Concerted efforts that compare collection of DBS by NMP to those collected by skilled-medical personnel are needed.

20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 82(2): 116-123, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of internalized HIV stigma to key care cascade metrics in the United States is not well established using large-scale, geographically diverse data. SETTING: Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) cohort study. METHODS: Beginning in February 2016, we administered a yearly, validated 4-item internalized HIV stigma scale (response scale 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree, Cronbach's alpha 0.91) at 7 CNICS sites and obtained cohort data through November 2017. We compared mean stigma levels by sociodemographic characteristics and used multivariable logistic regression, controlling for the same sociodemographic covariates, to evaluate the association between mean stigma and (1) concurrent viremia; (2) missed visits; and (3) poor visit constancy. We used inverse probability weighting (IPW) to account for differences between patients who did and did not undergo stigma assessment. RESULTS: Of 13,183 CNICS patients, 6448 (49%) underwent stigma assessment. Mean stigma was 1.99 (SD 1.07), and 28.6% agreed/strongly agreed with at least 1 stigma question. Patients younger than 50 years, racial/ethnic minorities, cis-women, and heterosexuals had higher mean stigma. Mean stigma score was associated with concurrent viremia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.25, P 0.02], missed visits (AOR 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.19, P 0.01), and poor visit constancy, although the effect on visit constancy was attenuated in the IPW model (AOR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.13, P 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Higher internalized HIV stigma had a modest but statistically significant association with concurrent viremia and poor retention in care. Further inquiry with prospective analyses is warranted.

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