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1.
Food Chem ; 374: 131828, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915371

RESUMO

A quantitative comparison of the proteomes during different periods of the formation of egg yolk, from yellow follicles (YF), small hierarchical follicles (9-12 mm, SF), and the largest hierarchical follicle (LF), was performed. The abundance of major egg yolk proteins (apolipoprotein B and vitellogenins) changed significantly during the yolk formation, and several protein hydrolases and isomerases, which may be related to the processing of egg yolk proteins, also varied significantly. The binding proteins for three vitamins (retinol, riboflavin, and vitamin D) and cholesterol were all most abundant in the LF period, suggesting that these nutrients were transported mainly at the final period of the egg yolk formation. Immunoglobulins decreased and complement proteins increased as formation progressed, indicating the dynamic nature of the egg yolk immune system. These results are helpful for understanding the nutrient composition, the formation of assembly structure, the preservation and processing properties of egg yolk.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo , Proteômica , Animais , Galinhas , Proteínas do Ovo , Proteoma
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130596, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293545

RESUMO

Clarification of the mechanism of heat-induced gel formation by proteins under natural food systems could provide important references for the regulation of food texture. In the present study, the proteins involved in the early stage (heating at 72 °C for 8 min) of egg-white thermal gel (EWG) formation were studied quantitatively through comparative proteomic analysis. We discovered that the abundance of ovalbumin and ovomucoid increased significantly (p < 0.01), whereas that of ovotransferrin, lysozyme, ovomucin (mucin 5B and mucin 6) decreased significantly (p < 0.01), in the supernatant of EWG. If the initial interaction of egg white proteins was altered by ultrasonic pretreatment, the abundance of ovomucin and lysozyme in the supernatant of EWG increased, and was accompanied by the change from a solid gel to a fluid gel. Based on these results, we hypothesize that ovomucin has a key role in the formation and regulation of EWG properties.


Assuntos
Ovomucina , Proteômica , Animais , Galinhas , Conalbumina , Proteínas do Ovo , Ovalbumina
3.
Food Chem ; 368: 130772, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399182

RESUMO

Macrolepiota albuminosa (Berk.) Pegler is abundant in active polysaccharides, but little is known about their structures and solution properties. In this study, water-extracted polysaccharides from M. albuminosa (MAWP) were purified into three fractions with structural heterogeneity, which was attributed to the diversity in molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and linkage patterns, further affecting their solution properties. Methylation and NMR analysis revealed MAWP-60p and MAWP-70 were a 3-O-methylated glucomannogalactan and a previously unreported glucomannogalactan, whereas MAWP-80 was elucidated as a branched galactoglucan. Besides, three fractions exhibited random coil conformation in aqueous solution, while MAWP-60p had the highest viscosity due to its highest molecular weight, mean square radius of gyration (Rg) and O-methyl group attached to the backbone. The molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkages might be the major contributors to the flexibility, molecular size and stereochemistry of mushroom polysaccharide chains.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Polissacarídeos , Carboidratos da Dieta , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos , Viscosidade
4.
Food Chem ; 368: 130802, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411866

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the influences of microwave (MV) exposure to flaxseed on the physicochemical stability of oil bodies (OBs) focused on the interface remodeling. The results showed that the intracellular OBs subjected to absolute rupture and then partial dispersion by protein bodies visualized by TEM following MV exposure (1-5 min; 700 W). After aqueous extraction, native flax OBs manifested excellent spherical particles with completely intact surface and wide particle size distribution (0.5-3.0 µm) examined by cryo-SEM. Upon 1-5 min of MV exposure, the defective interface integrity and beaded morphology were successively observed for flax OBs, accompanied by the impaired physical stability and rheological behavior due to the newly assembled phospholipid/protein interface. Notably, the profitable migration of phenolic compounds effectively suppressed the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation in flax OBs. Thus, MV exposure (1-5 min; 700 W) was unfavorable for improving the physical stability of flax OBs.


Assuntos
Linho , Óleo de Semente do Linho , Gotículas Lipídicas , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis , Fosfolipídeos
5.
Food Chem ; 370: 131069, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536780

RESUMO

Wholegrains have been promoted for human consumption due to their various health benefits. However, different wholegrains vary in nutritional composition and their beneficial impact on health. In this study, we compared the in vitro starch and protein digestibility, as well as dietary fiber content of eight different wholegrains including barley, buckwheat, coix seed, foxtail millet, oat, proso millet, quinoa, and sorghum and their porridges. We found that boiling improved starch digestibility of all grains, and protein digestibility except proso millet and sorghum. Porridges made from oats, quinoa, or buckwheat are considered healthier than others due to their lower glycemic index and glycemic load, higher digestible protein content and amino acid bioaccessibility, and higher dietary fiber content (>12%). This study could provide a comprehensive nutritional composition and digestibility of the eight types of wholegrains and their porridges. Dietary recommendations were also given for different populations based on factor analysis.


Assuntos
Dieta , Digestão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Amido
6.
Food Chem ; 371: 131106, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543925

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. Intake of dietary fiber is inversely associated with risks of T2D. Here, metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were employed to investigate the effects of arabinoxylan on gut microbiota and their metabolites in type 2 diabetic rats. T2D increased the abundance of opportunistic pathogens (such as Desulfovibrio and Klebsiella) and the levels of 12α-hydroxylated bile acids and acylcarnitines (C3) in diabetic rats, which eventually contribute to insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Supplementation with arabinoxylan promoted the growth of fiber-degrading bacteria to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as decreased the abundance of opportunistic pathogens. Arabinoxylan treatment also decreased the concentrations of 12α-hydroxylated bile acids, and increased the levels of equol, indolepropionate, and eicosadienoic acid. This study indicated that the beneficial effects of arabinoxylan on T2D may be partially attributed to the modification of gut microbiota and related metabolites.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Xilanos
7.
Food Chem ; 371: 131156, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583183

RESUMO

The spoiled dry-cured ham commonly shows unpleasant taste and odour. To deepen the understanding in the formation mechanism of unpleasant taste in spoiled ham, sensory attributes, texture parameters, protein degradation, metabolites were investigated between normal and spoiled hams; the relationship between the sensory quality and metabolites of dry-cured ham was further evaluated by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The scores of richness and overall acceptance were significantly lower in spoiled ham, and more than 12.5-fold values in adhesiveness were found in spoiled ham than normal ham. Myofibrillar proteins including actin, troponin-T and myosin light chain showed excessive degradation in spoiled ham. Forty-two kinds of metabolites mainly derived from protein degradation were identified by LC-MS/MS, and amino acid derivatives and oligopeptides were the key components to distinguish spoiled and normal hams demonstrated by PLS-DA. Purine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism and protein degradation were the main metabolism pathways in spoiled ham.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Carne de Porco , Cromatografia Líquida , Produtos da Carne/análise , Metabolômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 823-835, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relatively inferior techno-functionality of flaxseed protein/polysaccharide complexes, especially regarding emulsifying and antioxidant activities, has partially limited their implication in the health food system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) on the physicochemical, structural and selected techno-functional properties of flaxseed extracts. RESULTS: The results obtained showed that the full-fat and defatted flaxseed extract solutions (5 mg mL-1 ) displayed a sustainable decline in pH (-54.06%, -48.80%, P < 0.05) and zeta potential values (-29.42%, -44.28%, P < 0.05), but a gradual increase in particle sizes, as visualised by an optical microscope, during 0-120 s of APPJ treatment. Moreover, the APPJ led to initial decrease but subsequent increase in protein carbonyls and secondary lipid oxidation products, and concurrently changed the spatial conformation and microstructure of flaxseed extracts, as indicated by endogenous fluorescence properties and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the protein subunit remodeling and gum polysaccharides depolymerization were different for full-fat and defatted flaxseed extracts after 30 s of APPJ exposure. Importantly, the emulsifying and antioxidant activities of defatted flaxseed extract were particularly improved, as assessed by cyro-SEM and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity following 15-30 s of APPJ treatment, as a result of the changing interactions between protein and gum polysaccharides, as well as the release of specific phenolic compounds. CONCLUSION: APPJ could serve as a promising strategy for tailoring the specific techno-functionality of flaxseed extracts based on mild structural modification. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Linho/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Pressão Atmosférica , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
9.
Food Chem ; 369: 130828, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488128

RESUMO

This study systematically analyzed and compared thechanges of physicochemical, functional and molecular structural characteristics between thick egg white (KEW) and thin egg white (NEW) during storage. Analysis of physicochemical properties showed that moisture content decreased significantly with the increase of pH during storage. KEW was gradually thinning, while NEW was closer to Newtonian fluid. Functional properties indicated that KEW thermal gel was gradually hard and brittle with the properties of NEW. KEW had better emulsifying property than NEW, and NEW had superior foaming ability. The α-helix and ß-sheet in the FT-IR spectrum showed a downward trend, revealing secondary structure changed from order to disorder. Enhancement of fluorescence intensity indicated the structural unfolding and exposure of tryptophan residues. SDS-PAGE proved that OVO might be related to the difference between KEW and NEW characteristics. This study provided new idea and reference value for egg storage and diversified utilization of egg white.


Assuntos
Clara de Ovo , Clara de Ovo/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Estrutura Molecular , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
10.
Food Chem ; 374: 131691, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883433

RESUMO

The potential effects of tocopherols (100 µM in emulsions) on the physicochemical stability of whey protein isolate (WPI), soy lecithin (SL), or Tween 20 (TW) stabilized flaxseed oil (FO)-in-water emulsions were investigated. During the storage (18 days at 55 ℃), the particle size, microstructure, and multiple light scattering results showed WPI-stabilized emulsions exhibited better physical stability when tocopherols were added hydroperoxides and TBARS concentration in TW-stabilized emulsions were higher than those of SL or WPI, which were suppressed differently by tocopherols. Among homologues, δ-tocopherol was more effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation than α-tocopherol, which was related to the higher interface partitioning. Moreover, the increased interfacial tension indicated tocopherols, especially δ-tocopherol, were adsorbed on the interface and interacted with WPI or SL via hydrophobic or electrostatic interactions determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Our results suggest tocopherols are more applicable in WPI emulsion systems to achieve steady-state delivery of ALA.

11.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 400, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poor regenerative capability and structural complexity make the reconstruction of meniscus particularly challenging in clinic. 3D printing of polymer scaffolds holds the promise of precisely constructing complex tissue architecture, however the resultant scaffolds usually lack of sufficient bioactivity to effectively generate new tissue. RESULTS: Herein, 3D printing-based strategy via the cryo-printing technology was employed to fabricate customized polyurethane (PU) porous scaffolds that mimic native meniscus. In order to enhance scaffold bioactivity for human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) culture, scaffold surface modification through the physical absorption of collagen I and fibronectin (FN) were investigated by cell live/dead staining and cell viability assays. The results indicated that coating with fibronectin outperformed coating with collagen I in promoting multiple-aspect stem cell functions, and fibronectin favors long-term culture required for chondrogenesis on scaffolds. In situ chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs resulted in a time-dependent upregulation of SOX9 and extracellular matrix (ECM) assessed by qRT-PCR analysis, and enhanced deposition of collagen II and aggrecan confirmed by immunostaining and western blot analysis. Gene expression data also revealed 3D porous scaffolds coupled with surface functionalization greatly facilitated chondrogenesis of hMSCs. In addition, the subcutaneous implantation of 3D porous PU scaffolds on SD rats did not induce local inflammation and integrated well with surrounding tissues, suggesting good in vivo biocompatibility. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study presents an approach to fabricate biocompatible meniscus constructs that not only recapitulate the architecture and mechanical property of native meniscus, but also have desired bioactivity for hMSCs culture and cartilage regeneration. The generated 3D meniscus-mimicking scaffolds incorporated with hMSCs offer great promise in tissue engineering strategies for meniscus regeneration.

12.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 81: 105862, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894527

RESUMO

The bacteriostatic effects of high-intensity ultrasonic treatment (HIU) on Bacillus subtilis vegetative cells were evaluated, and the related mechanisms were explored using quantitative proteomics. The bacteriostatic effect of HIU on B. subtilis was proportional to the ultrasound treatment time and power, and the number of cultivable B. subtilis cells was decreased by approximately one log (at 270 W for 15 min) or half log (at 90 W for 25 min or 360 W for 5 min). Scanning electron microscopy images and gel electrophoresis results showed that HIU caused the destruction of the cell structure and intracellular protein leakage. In addition, HIU treatment at 270 W for 15 min resulted in the greatest decrease (84.22%) in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content. The quantitative proteomic analysis showed that B. subtilis resisted the stress of HIU treatment by regulating the key proteins in physiological activities related to membrane transport (ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporter), signal transduction (the two-component system), and energy metabolism (the tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle). HIU-induced physical damage, stress, and metabolic disorders were the main causes of the bacteriostatic effects on B. subtilis. These findings provide a foundation for the subsequent optimization and potential applications of HIU inactivation of B. subtilis.

13.
Food Chem X ; 12: 100158, 2021 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825168

RESUMO

Plantago (Plantaginaceae) is an herbal plant, which is used in folk medicine, functional food, and dietary supplement products. Recent pharmacological and phytochemical studies have shown that polysaccharides isolated from Plantago have multiple medicinal and nutritional benefits, including improve intestinal health, hypoglycemic effect, immunomodulatory effect, etc. These health and pharmacological benefits are of great interest to the public, academia, and biotechnology industries. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in the physicochemical, structural features, and biological effects of Plantago polysaccharides and highlights the similarities and differences of the polysaccharides from different species and in different parts, including leaves, seeds, and husks. The scientific support for its use as a prebiotic is also addressed. The purpose of this review is to provide background as well as useful and up-to-date information for future research and applications of these polysaccharides.

14.
Int J Pharm ; : 121291, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780929

RESUMO

Reducing post-surgical pain can promote recovery of mobility, improve patient satisfaction, and reduce the risk of chronic pain syndrome. When managing post-surgical pain, single-injection local anesthesia is more convenient and involves lower risk to the patient than multi-injection regimes, but the effects are not long-lasting. Here we developed a system that can prolong local anesthesia after a single injection. In this system, ropivacaine (Ro) is encapsulated into liposomes, which are then loaded into Poloxamer 407-based thermosensitive hydrogels. The Ro-loaded liposome-in-gel system (Ro-Lip-Gel) is in a sol state before injection, and immediately after subcutaneous injection, it forms a gel in situ. We show through in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies that this gel acts as a drug release depot. In rats, the initial burst release of Ro was smaller from Ro-Lip-Gel than from Ro solution or Ro-Gel, and Ro-Lip-Gel caused nerve blockade lasting four times longer than Ro solution. Ro-Lip-Gel degraded in vivo and showed good biocompatibility. Our results suggest that a liposome-in-gel system can show small initial burst release, long-term nerve blockade and good biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, such a system may be useful for sustained local anesthesia without systemic toxicity.

15.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-11, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669541

RESUMO

Human gut microbiota played a key role in maintaining and regulating host health. Gut microbiota composition could be altered by daily diet and related nutrients. Diet polysaccharide, an important dietary nutrient, was one kind of biological macromolecules linked by the glycosidic bonds. Galactans were widely used in foods due to their gelling, thickening and stabilizing properties. Recently, effects of different galactans on gut microbiota have attracted much attention. This review described the structural characteristics of 4 kinds of galactans, including porphyran, agarose, carrageenan, and arabinogalactan, along with the effects of different galactans on gut microbiota and production of short-chain fatty acids. The ability of gut microbiota to utilize galactans with different structural characteristics and related degradation mechanism were also summarized. All these four galactans could be used by gut Bacteroides. Besides, the porphyran could be utilized by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, while the arabinogalactan could be utilized by Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Roseburia. Four galactans with significant difference in molecular weight/degree of polymerization, glycosidic linkage, esterification, branching and monosaccharide composition required gut microbes which could utilize them have corresponding genes encoding the corresponding enzymes for decomposition. This review could help to understand the relationship between galactans with different structural characteristics and gut microbiota, and provide information for potential use of galactans as functional foods.

16.
Food Funct ; 12(21): 10524-10537, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569560

RESUMO

The release of lysosomal hydrolase into the cytoplasm is accompanied by several systems of apoptosis signal transduction, and the imbalance between cell viability and apoptosis induces tumorigenesis. Tea polysaccharides (TPs) are the main bioactive components in green tea with hopeful anti-tumor efficacy, while their mechanism is still unclear. Here, TPs significantly promoted the death of colon cancer cell line CT26. RNA-seq results showed that the signal pathways up-regulated by TPs included lysosome pathways, apoptosis, the release of mitochondrial pigment c and programmed cell death. Among them, the results of AO-EB and annexin V-FITC/PI double staining indicated that TPs significantly up-regulated apoptosis. In addition, TPs significantly disrupted the function of lysosomes, which would cause mitochondrial damage. Intriguingly, TPs treatment increased the expression of Bak1, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3, but decreased the level of Bcl-2 and mitochondrial membrane potential, which indicated that TPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, TPs ameliorated the reduced lysosomal numbers by Baf A1 (lysosomal inhibitor). Therefore, our data indicated that TPs targeted lysosomes and induced apoptosis by a lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway mediated caspase cascade, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of CT26 cells. In short, the data would help the development of TPs as potential cancer drug therapeutics.

17.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110587, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507732

RESUMO

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and methylxanthines are representative bioactive compounds in tea leaves, the strong affinity between them will elicit destruction of tea quality. In order to elucidate the mechanism of complexation between EGCg and methylxanthines, we compared the bindings of theophylline and caffeine to EGCg by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), molecular docking and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The results revealed that the stoichiometries of caffeine to EGCg and theophylline to EGCg were both 1:1. Caffeine and theophylline were captured in the hydrophobic space formed by aromatic rings of EGCg. The affinity between EGCg and caffeine was stronger than that between EGCg and theophylline, which could be partially attributed to the two extra CH-π interactions between N7-Me of caffeine and aromatic rings of EGCg. Furthermore, the results of ITC were agreed well with NMR and molecular docking, indicating that ITC was possible to accurately evaluate the complexation.


Assuntos
Cafeína , Catequina , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Teofilina , Termodinâmica
18.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 156: 112522, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dietary fibers have beneficial effects on human health through the interaction with gut microbiota. Larch wood arabinogalactan (LA-AG) is one kind of complex soluble dietary fibers that may be utilized by human gut microbiota. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, the LA-AG degradation by gut microbiota were characterized by investigating the change of LA-AG, microbiota composition, and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), lactic acid, succinic acid, as well as volatile organic metabolites. During the fermentation, pH decreased continuously, along with the organic acids (especially acetic acid and lactic acid) accumulating. LA-AG was degraded by gut microbiota then some beneficial metabolites were produced. In addition, LA-AG inhibited the proliferation of some gut microbiota (Unclassified_Enterobacteriaceae and Citrobacter) and the accumulation of some metabolites (Sulfide and indole) released by gut microbiota. CONCLUSION: LA-AG was partly fermentable fibers with prebiotic potential for human gut health.

19.
Front Nutr ; 8: 669805, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368207

RESUMO

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a common vegetable, widely consumed all over the world. Onion contains diverse phytochemicals, including organosulfur compounds, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, and saponins. The phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds, including onionin A, cysteine sulfoxides, quercetin, and quercetin glucosides, are the major bioactive constituents of onion. Accumulated studies have revealed that onion and its bioactive compounds possess various health functions, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anticancer, cardiovascular protective, neuroprotective, hepatorenal protective, respiratory protective, digestive system protective, reproductive protective, and immunomodulatory properties. Herein, the main bioactive compounds in onion are summarized, followed by intensively discussing its major health functions as well as relevant molecular mechanisms. Moreover, the potential safety concerns about onion contamination and the ways to mitigate these issues are also discussed. We hope that this paper can attract broader attention to onion and its bioactive compounds, which are promising ingredients in the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals for preventing and managing certain chronic diseases.

20.
Mol Ecol ; 30(22): 5796-5813, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448283

RESUMO

Quaternary climate oscillations and geographical heterogeneity play important roles in determining species and genetic diversity distribution patterns, but how these factors affect the migration and differentiation of East Asian plants species at the population level remains poorly understood. The Aquilegia ecalcarata complex, a group that originated in the Late Tertiary and is widely distributed throughout East Asia, displays high genetic variation that is suitable for studying elaborate phylogeographic patterns and demographic history related to the impact of Quaternary climate and geography. We used plastid genome data from 322 individuals in 60 populations of the A. ecalcarata complex to thoroughly explore the impact of Quaternary climate oscillations and geography on the phylogeographic patterns and demographic history of the A. ecalcarata complex through a series of phylogenetic, divergence time estimation, and demographic history analyses. The dry, cold climate and frequent climate oscillations that occurred during the early Pleistocene and the Mid-Pleistocene transition led to the differentiation of the A. ecalcarata complex, which was isolated in various areas. Geographically, the A. ecalcarata complex can be divided into Eastern and Western Clades and five subclades, which conform to the divergence of the East Asian flora. Our results clearly show the impact of Quaternary climate and geography on evolutionary history at the population level. These findings promote the understanding of the relationship between plant genetic differentiation and climate and geographical factors of East Asia at the population level.

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