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1.
J Immunol ; 207(8): 2118-2128, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507947

RESUMO

Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysfunctional host response to infection. Neutrophils play a protective role by releasing antibacterial proteins or by phagocytizing bacteria. However, excess neutrophils can induce tissue damage. Recently, a novel intercellular communication pathway involving extracellular vesicles (EVs) has garnered considerable attention. However, whether EVs secreted by macrophages mediate neutrophil recruitment to infected sites has yet to be studied. In this study, we assessed the chemotactic effect of EVs isolated from mouse Raw264.7 macrophages on mouse neutrophils and found that CXCL2 was highly expressed in these EVs. By regulating CXCL2 in Raw264.7 macrophages, we found that CXCL2 on macrophage EVs recruited neutrophils in vitro and in vivo. The CXCL2 EVs activated the CXCR2/PKC/NOX4 pathway and induced tissue damage. This study provides information regarding the mechanisms underlying neutrophil recruitment to tissues and proposes innovative strategies and targets for the treatment of sepsis.

2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361717

RESUMO

The development of bio-based nanocomposites is of high scientific and industrial interest, since they offer excellent advantages in creating functional materials. However, dispersion and distribution of the nanomaterials inside the polymer matrix is a key challenge to achieve high-performance functional nanocomposites. In this context, for better dispersion, biobased triethyl citrate (TEC) as a dispersing agent in a liquid-assisted extrusion process was used to prepare the nanocomposites of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and chitin nanocrystals (ChNCs). The aim was to identify the effect of the TEC content on the dispersion of ChNCs in the PLA matrix and the manufacturing of a functional nanocomposite. The nanocomposite film's optical properties; microstructure; migration of the additive and nanocomposites' thermal, mechanical and rheological properties, all influenced by the ChNC dispersion, were studied. The microscopy study confirmed that the dispersion of the ChNCs was improved with the increasing TEC content, and the best dispersion was found in the nanocomposite prepared with 15 wt% TEC. Additionally, the nanocomposite with the highest TEC content (15 wt%) resembled the mechanical properties of commonly used polymers like polyethylene and polypropylene. The addition of ChNCs in PLA-TEC15 enhanced the melt viscosity, as well as melt strength, of the polymer and demonstrated antibacterial activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Quitina/química , Citratos/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Poliésteres/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Módulo de Elasticidade , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanocompostos/ultraestrutura , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Reologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência à Tração , Viscosidade
3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800162

RESUMO

Various carbon materials have been developed for energy storage applications to address the increasing energy demand in the world. However, the environmentally friendly, renewable, and nontoxic bio-based carbon resources have not been extensively investigated towards high-performance energy storage materials. Here, we report an anisotropic, hetero-porous, high-surface area carbon aerogel prepared from renewable resources achieving an excellent electrical double-layer capacitance. Two different green, abundant, and carbon-rich lignins which can be extracted from various biomasses, have been selected as raw materials, i.e., kraft and soda lignins, resulting in clearly distinct physical, structural as well as electrochemical characteristics of the carbon aerogels after carbonization. The obtained green carbon aerogel based on kraft lignin not only demonstrates a competitive specific capacitance as high as 163 F g-1 and energy density of 5.67 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 50 W kg-1 when assembled as a two-electrode symmetric supercapacitor, but also shows outstanding compressive mechanical properties. This reveals the great potential of the carbon aerogels developed in this study for the next-generation energy storage applications requiring green and renewable resources, lightweight, robust storage ability, and reliable mechanical integrity.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672079

RESUMO

Finding renewable alternatives to the commonly used reinforcement materials in composites is attracting a significant amount of research interest. Nanocellulose is a promising candidate owing to its wide availability and favorable properties such as high Young's modulus. This study addressed the major problems inherent to cellulose nanocomposites, namely, controlling the fiber structure and obtaining a sufficient interfacial adhesion between nanocellulose and a non-hydrophilic matrix. Unidirectionally aligned cellulose nanofiber filament mats were obtained via ice-templating, and chemical vapor deposition was used to cover the filament surfaces with an aminosilane before impregnating the mats with a bio-epoxy resin. The process resulted in cellulose nanocomposites with an oriented structure and a strong fiber-matrix interface. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed the presence of silane on the filaments. The improved interface, resulting from the surface treatment, was observable in electron microscopy images and was further confirmed by the significant increase in the tan delta peak temperature. The storage modulus of the matrix could be improved up to 2.5-fold with 18 wt% filament content and was significantly higher in the filament direction. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to study the orientation of cellulose nanofibers in the filament mats and the composites, and the corresponding orientation indices were 0.6 and 0.53, respectively, indicating a significant level of alignment.

5.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672280

RESUMO

The use of bio-based residues is one of the key indicators towards sustainable development goals. In this work, bacterial cellulose, a residue from the fermentation of kombucha tea, was tested as a reinforcing nanofiber network in an emulsion-polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The use of the nanofiber network is facilitating the formation of nanocomposites with well-dispersed nanofibers without using organic solvents or expensive methodologies. Moreover, the bacterial cellulose network structure can serve as a template for the emulsion polymerization of PMMA. The morphology, size, crystallinity, water uptake, and mechanical properties of the kombucha bacterial cellulose (KBC) network were studied. The results showed that KBC nanofibril diameters were ranging between 20-40 nm and the KBC was highly crystalline, >90%. The 3D network was lightweight and porous material, having a density of only 0.014 g/cm3. Furthermore, the compressed KBC network had very good mechanical properties, the E-modulus was 8 GPa, and the tensile strength was 172 MPa. The prepared nanocomposites with a KBC concentration of 8 wt.% were translucent with uniform structure confirmed with scanning electron microscopy study, and furthermore, the KBC network was homogeneously impregnated with the PMMA matrix. The mechanical testing of the nanocomposite showed high stiffness compared to the neat PMMA. A simple simulation of the tensile strength was used to understand the limited strain and strength given by the bacterial cellulose network. The excellent properties of the final material demonstrate the capability of a residue of kombucha fermentation as an excellent nanofiber template for use in polymer nanocomposites.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592682

RESUMO

The aim of current study was to investigate risk perception of COVID-19 pandemic, sleep quality and time change of leisure activity and their correlations with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in healthcare workers (HCWs) from four designated hospitals in China. Medical staffs (n = 317) from three designated hospitals in Guangdong Province and one designated hospital in Guangxi Province were surveyed on their demographic information, sleep quality and time change of leisure activity, risk perception of pandemic and PTSD symptoms (by using PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5)). Hierarchical regression and structural equation model (SEM) were used to examine the correlated factors of PTSD. The prevalence of high level of PTSD symptoms (PCL-5 > =33, a probable diagnosis of PTSD) was 10.7%. Regression analysis found that risk perception (dread: ß = 0.142, p < 0.01; familiarity: ß = 0.203, p < 0.01), sleep quality (ß = 0.250, p < 0.001), time change of leisure activity (ß = -0.179, p < 0.01), were independently correlated with PTSD severity, which was further confirmed by SEM. Locations of COVID-19-related hazards were significant different in cognitive map of risk perception between groups with high and low levels of PTSD symptoms. Risk perception of COVID-19 pandemic influenced PTSD symptoms in HCWs. Adequate time for leisure activity and good sleep quality protected some HCWs against PTSD symptoms under the influence of pandemic. More researches were warranted to understand the path from pre-factors of risk perception to its psychological consequences among HCWs.

7.
Front Chem ; 8: 655, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062631

RESUMO

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels produced using the freeze-thaw method have attracted attention for a long time since their first preparation in 1975. Due to the importance of polymer intrinsic features and the advantages associated with them, they are very suitable for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery systems. On the other hand, there is an increasing interest in the use of biobased additives such as cellulose nanocrystals, CNC. This study focused on composite hydrogels which were produced by using different concentrations of PVA (5 and 10%) and CNC (1 and 10 wt.%), also, pure PVA hydrogels were used as references. The main goal was to determine the impact of both components on mechanical, thermal, and water absorption properties of composite hydrogels as well as on morphology and initial water content. It was found that PVA had a dominating effect on all hydrogels. The effect of the CNC addition was both concentration-dependent and case-dependent. As a general trend, addition of CNC decreased the water content of the prepared hydrogels, decreased the crystallinity of the PVA, and increased the hydrogels compression modulus and strength to some extent. The performance of composite hydrogels in a cyclic compression test was studied; the hydrogel with low PVA (5) and high CNC (10) content showed totally reversible behavior after 10 cycles.

8.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764421

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recycling on polypropylene (PP) and wood-fiber thermoplastic composites (WPCs) using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. After nine extrusion passes microscopy studies confirmed that the fiber length decreased with the increased number of recycling passes but the increased processing time also resulted in excellent dispersion and interfacial adhesion of the wood fibers in the PP matrix. Thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties were studied. The repeated extrusion passes had minimal effect on thermal behavior and the viscosity decreased with an increased number of passes, indicating slight degradation. The recycling processes had an effect on the tensile strength of WPCs while the effect was minor on the PP. However, even after the nine recycling passes the strength of WPC was considerably better (37 MPa) compared to PP (28 MPa). The good degree of property retention after recycling makes this recycling strategy a viable alternative to discarding the materials. Thus, it has been demonstrated that, by following the most commonly used extrusion process, WPCs can be recycled several times and this methodology can be industrially adapted for the manufacturing of recycled products.

9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214000

RESUMO

The crystalline phase of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has crucial effects on its own properties and nanocomposites. In this study, the isothermal crystallization of PLA, triethyl citrate-plasticized PLA (PLA-TEC), and its nanocomposite with chitin nanocrystals (PLA-TEC-ChNC) at different temperatures and times was investigated, and the resulting properties of the materials were characterized. Both PLA and PLA-TEC showed extremely low crystallinity at isothermal temperatures of 135, 130, 125 °C and times of 5 or 15 min. In contrast, the addition of 1 wt % of ChNCs significantly improved the crystallinity of PLA under the same conditions owing to the nucleation effect of the ChNCs. The samples were also crystallized at 110 °C to reach their maximal crystallinity, and PLA-TEC-ChNC achieved 48% crystallinity within 5 min, while PLA and PLA-TEC required 40 min to reach a similar level. Moreover, X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the addition of ChNCs resulted in smaller crystallite sizes, which further influenced the barrier properties and hydrolytic degradation of the PLA. The nanocomposites had considerably lower barrier properties and underwent faster degradation compared to PLA-TEC110. These results confirm that the addition of ChNCs in PLA leads to promising properties for packaging applications.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(6): 7432-7441, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961641

RESUMO

In current times, CO2 capture and lightweight energy storage are receiving significant attention and will be vital functions in next-generation materials. Porous carbonaceous materials have great potential in these areas, whereas most of the developed carbon materials still have significant limitations, such as nonrenewable resources, complex and costly processing, or the absence of tailorable structure. In this study, a new strategy is developed for using the currently underutilized lignin and cellulose nanofibers, which can be extracted from renewable resources to produce high-performance multifunctional carbon aerogels with a tailorable, anisotropic pore structure. Both the macro- and microstructure of the carbon aerogels can be simultaneously controlled by carefully tuning the weight ratio of lignin to cellulose nanofibers in the precursors, which considerably influences their final porosity and surface area. The designed carbon aerogels demonstrate excellent performance in both CO2 capture and capacitive energy storage, and the best results exhibit a CO2 adsorption capacity of 5.23 mmol g-1 at 273 K and 100 kPa and a specific electrical double-layer capacitance of 124 F g-1 at a current density of 0.2 A g-1, indicating that they have great future potential in the relevant applications.

11.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(6): 1069-1077, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests aldosterone (aldo) and NLRP3 inflammasome are important factors for HSC activation and liver fibrosis. However, the interaction between aldo and NLRP3 inflammasome in HSC activation and liver fibrosis remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between aldo and NLRP3 inflammasome in liver fibrosis. METHODS: Serum and liver specimens collected from 40 patients with or without liver fibrosis were used to test the level of aldo and NLRP3. Primary HSC isolated from C57BL/6 mice were treated with aldo, and the effects of aldo on NLRP3 inflammasome and HSC activation were detected in vitro. Two animal models were used to verify the effect of aldo on liver fibrosis in vivo: hyperaldosteronism model was established in wild-type and NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3-/- ) mice by micro-pump, and liver fibrosis mouse model was built by tetrachloromethane (CCl4 ). RESULTS: Patients with liver fibrosis showed higher aldo levels and increased NLRP3 expression in liver. In vitro, aldo induced the activation of primary mouse HSCs by promoting the expression and assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome. In vivo, NLRP3 knockout could alleviate the liver fibrosis induced by aldo in mice. In addition, treatment with spironolactone (spi) could inhibit the NLRP3 expression, HSC activation, and liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 . CONCLUSIONS: Aldo promotes the activation of HSCs and liver fibrosis through NLRP3 inflammasome relative pathways. Intervention of aldo and NLRP3 inflammasome-related pathways may provide a promising strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Aldosterona/metabolismo , Aldosterona/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/genética , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Aldosterona/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
12.
Biomacromolecules ; 19(10): 4075-4083, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130395

RESUMO

Multifunctional lightweight, flexible, yet strong polymer-based nanocomposites are highly desired for specific applications. However, the control of orientation and dispersion of reinforcing nanoparticles and the optimization of the interfacial interaction still pose substantial challenges in nanocellulose-reinforced polymer composites. In this study, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted cellulose nanofibers have demonstrated much better dispersion in a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) matrix as compared to unmodified nanocellulose. Through a uniaxial drawing method, aligned PLA/nanocellulose nanocomposites with high strength, high toughness, and unique optical behavior can be obtained. With the incorporation of 0.1 wt % of the PEG-grafted cellulose nanofibers in PLA, the ultimate strength of the aligned nanocomposite reaches 343 MPa, which is significantly higher than that of other aligned PLA-based nanocomposites reported previously. Moreover, its ultimate strength and toughness are enhanced by 39% and 70%, respectively, as compared to the aligned nanocomposite reinforced with unmodified cellulose nanofibers. In addition, the aligned nanocomposite film is highly transparent and possesses an anisotropic light scattering effect, revealing its significant potential for optical applications.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Nanocompostos/química , Nanofibras/química , Poliésteres/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polímeros/química , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Resistência à Tração
13.
Nanoscale ; 10(25): 11797-11807, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675528

RESUMO

In nanocomposites, dispersing hydrophilic nanomaterials in a hydrophobic matrix using simple and environmentally friendly methods remains challenging. Herein, we report a method based on in situ polymerization to synthesize nanocomposites of well-dispersed cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc). We have also shown that by blending this PVAc/CNC nanocomposite with poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a good dispersion of the CNCs can be reached in PLA. The outstanding dispersion of CNCs in both PVAc and PLA/PVAc matrices was shown by different microscopy techniques and was further supported by the mechanical and rheological properties of the composites. The in situ PVAc/CNC nanocomposites exhibit enhanced mechanical properties compared to the materials produced by mechanical mixing, and a theoretical model based on the interphase effect and dispersion that reflects this behavior was developed. Comparison of the rheological and thermal behaviors of the mixed and in situ PVAc/CNC also confirmed the great improvement in the dispersion of nanocellulose in the latter. Furthermore, a synergistic effect was observed with only 0.1 wt% CNCs when the in situ PVAc/CNC was blended with PLA, as demonstrated by significant increases in elastic modulus, yield strength, elongation to break and glass transition temperature compared to the PLA/PVAc only material.

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