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1.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatogenic diabetes is common after pancreatectomy, and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate QOL between diabetic and non-diabetic patients at least five years after pancreatectomy. METHODS: Patients were recruited from a prospectively maintained institutional database. Participants were administered the Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQOL). Quality of life was compared between diabetics and non-diabetics using validated European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires. RESULTS: 80 individuals completed surveys. 55% were female, 80% non-Hispanic white, 44% underwent Whipple, 48% were cystic neoplasms and 39% were adenocarcinoma. Diabetic patients (42.5%) reported comparable EORTC QLQ-C30 and Pan26 scores to non-diabetic patients. Pre-operative diabetic patients reported more dyspnea (p = 0.02) and greater pain (p = 0.02) than new-onset diabetics. Diabetic patients reported an overall ADDQOL quality of life score 'very good' (IQR: excellent, good) though felt life would be much better without diabetes (IQR: very much better, little better). While operation type was not influential, patients diagnosed with cystic neoplasms were almost twice as likely as those with other pathologies to report that life would be much better without diabetes (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: At a median of 9.3 years from pancreatic surgery, ADDQoL scores of patients were similar to cohorts of non-pancreatogenic diabetics in the general population. Patients without cancer were more likely to report that diabetes affected their overall QOL, regardless of operation. This study provides nuanced understanding of long-term QOL to improve the informed consent process and post-operative long-term care.

2.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128203

RESUMO

Associations between anthropometric factors and breast cancer (BC) risk have varied inconsistently by estrogen and/or progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status. Associations between prediagnostic anthropometric factors and risk of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC overall and ER/PR status subtypes were investigated in a pooled analysis of 20 prospective cohorts, including 36,297 BC cases among 1,061,915 women, using multivariable Cox regression analyses, controlling for reproductive factors, diet and other risk factors. We estimated dose-response relationships and tested for nonlinear associations using restricted cubic splines. Height showed positive, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (6-7% RR increase per 5 cm increment), with stronger associations for receptor-positive subtypes. Body mass index (BMI) at cohort baseline was strongly inversely associated with premenopausal BC risk, and strongly positively-and nonlinearly-associated with postmenopausal BC (especially among women who never used hormone replacement therapy). This was primarily observed for receptor-positive subtypes. Early adult BMI (at 18-20 years) showed inverse, linear associations for premenopausal and postmenopausal BC risk (21% and 11% RR decrease per 5 kg/m2, respectively) with stronger associations for receptor-negative subtypes. Adult weight gain since 18-20 years was positively associated with postmenopausal BC risk, stronger for receptor-positive subtypes, and among women who were leaner in early adulthood. Women heavier in early adulthood generally had reduced premenopausal BC risk, independent of later weight gain. Positive associations between height, baseline (adult) BMI, adult weight gain and postmenopausal BC risk were substantially stronger for hormone receptor-positive versus negative subtypes. Premenopausal BC risk was positively associated with height, but inversely with baseline BMI and weight gain (mostly in receptor-positive subtypes). Inverse associations with early adult BMI seemed stronger in receptor-negative subtypes of premenopausal and postmenopausal BC.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the U.S. SEER-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55,900), 3,073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM stage and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of stage T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score ≥8 prostate cancer, as this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced stage (T4 or N1 or M1), high grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No study has comprehensively examined how the steroid metabolome is associated with breast cancer risk in women with familial risk. METHODS: We examined 36 steroid metabolites across the spectrum of familial risk (5-year risk ranged from 0.14% to 23.8%) in pre- and postmenopausal women participating in the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry (BCFR). We conducted a nested case-control study with 62 cases/124 controls individually matched on menopausal status, age, and race. We measured metabolites using GC-MS in urine samples collected at baseline before the onset of prospectively ascertained cases. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) per doubling in hormone levels. RESULTS: The average proportion of total steroid metabolites in the study sample were glucocorticoids (61%), androgens (26%), progestogens (11%), and estrogens (2%). A doubling in glucocorticoids (aOR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.3-5.3) and androgens (aOR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0-2.7) was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Specific glucocorticoids (THE, THF αTHF, 6ß-OH-F, THA, and α-THB) were associated with 49% to 161% increased risk. Two androgen metabolites (AN and 11-OH-AN) were associated with 70% (aOR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.1-2.7) and 90% (aOR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2-3.1) increased risk, respectively. One intermediate metabolite of a cortisol precursor (THS) was associated with 65% (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.0-2.7) increased risk. E1 and E2 estrogens were associated with 20% and 27% decreased risk, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that glucocorticoids and 11-oxygenated androgens are positively associated with breast cancer risk across the familial risk spectrum. IMPACT: If replicated, our findings suggest great potential of including steroids into existing breast cancer risk assessment tools.

5.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(12): 1129-1140, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974796

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We evaluated the contribution of rice intake, a source of dietary arsenic, to cancer risk in a population of women with likely low arsenic exposure from drinking water and variable rice intake who participated in the California Teachers Study. METHODS: Rice consumption was categorized into quartiles (< 9.6, 9.7-15.6, 15.7-42.7, and ≥ 42.8 g/day). Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for incident cancer were estimated comparing rice consumption categories with bladder, breast, kidney, lung, and pancreatic cancer, with progressive adjustment for age, total calories, BMI, race, smoking status, physical activity, and cancer-specific covariates. RESULTS: The number of breast, lung, pancreatic, bladder, and kidney cancer cases was 7,351; 1,100; 411; 344; and 238, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) comparing the highest versus lowest rice intake quartiles were 1.07 (1.00-1.15); 0.87 (0.72-1.04); 0.95 (0.66-1.37); 1.11 (0.81-1.52) and 1.07 (0.72-1.59) for breast, lung, pancreatic, bladder, and kidney cancers, respectively. Results were consistent when rice was modeled as a continuous variable and in analyses stratified by smoking status. CONCLUSION: Rice consumption was not associated with risk of kidney, lung or pancreatic cancer, except maybe a small excess risk for breast cancer and a small non-significant excess risk for bladder cancer, comparing the highest versus lowest quartile of rice intake. Due to lower consumption patterns in this cohort, future studies should involve populations for which rice is a staple food and use of an arsenic biomarker.

6.
Environ Res ; 190: 109781, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reasons why pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to have poor survival are only partly known. No previous studies have analyzed the combined influence of KRAS mutations, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and trace elements upon survival in PDAC or in any other human cancer. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the individual and combined influence of KRAS mutations, POPs, and trace elements upon survival from PDAC. METHODS: Incident cases of PDAC (n = 185) were prospectively identified in five hospitals in Eastern Spain in 1992-1995 and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission. KRAS mutational status was determined from tumour tissue through polymerase chain reaction and artificial restriction fragment length polymorphism. Blood and toenail samples were obtained before treatment. Serum concentrations of POPs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Concentrations of 12 trace elements were determined in toenail samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess prognostic associations. RESULTS: Patients with a KRAS mutated tumor had a 70% higher risk of early death than patients with a KRAS wild-type PDAC (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7, p = 0.026), adjusting for age, sex, and tumor stage. KRAS mutational status was only modestly and not statistically significantly associated with survival when further adjusting by treatment or by treatment intention. The beneficial effects of treatment remained unaltered when KRAS mutational status was taken into account, and treatment did not appear to be less effective in the subgroup of patients with a KRAS mutated tumor. POPs did not materially influence survival: the adjusted HR of the highest POP tertiles was near unity for all POPs. When considering the joint effect on survival of POPs and KRAS, patients with KRAS mutated tumors had modest and nonsignificant HRs (most HRs around 1.3 to 1.4). Higher concentrations of lead, cadmium, arsenic, vanadium, and aluminium were associated with better survival. When KRAS status, POPs, and trace elements were simultaneously considered along with treatment, only the latter was statistically significantly related to survival. CONCLUSIONS: In this study based on molecular, clinical, and environmental epidemiology, KRAS mutational status, POPs, and trace elements were not adversely related to PDAC survival when treatment was simultaneously considered; only treatment was independently related to survival. The lack of adverse prognostic effects of POPs and metals measured at the time of diagnosis provide scientific and clinical reassurance on the effects of such exposures upon survival of patients with PDAC. The weak association with KRAS mutations contributes to the scant knowledge on the clinical implications of a genetic alteration highly frequent in PDAC.

7.
J Cancer Surviv ; 14(3): 393-403, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130627

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify distinct trajectories of total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior following a breast cancer diagnosis and their correlates. METHODS: The analysis examined 3000 female breast cancer survivors within Kaiser Permanente Northern California between 2006 and 2013. Self-reported time spent on total MVPA and sedentary behaviors were assessed at baseline (mean = 1.8 months post-diagnosis) and at 6 and 24 months follow up. Trajectory groups were identified using group-based trajectory modeling and K-means for longitudinal data analysis. Trajectory groups were named by baseline activity level (high, medium, or low) and direction of change (increaser, decreaser, or maintainer). RESULTS: Trajectory analyses identified three MVPA trajectories [high decreaser (7%), medium decreaser (35%), low maintainer (58%)] and four sedentary behavior trajectories [high maintainer (18%), high decreaser (27%), low increaser (24%), and low maintainer (31%)]. Women with higher education (ORs: 1.63-4.37), income (OR: 1.37), dispositional optimism (ORs: 1.60-1.86), and social support (OR: 1.33) were more likely to be high or medium decreasers of MVPA (all P < 0.05). High maintainers and high decreasers of sedentary behavior were more likely to have higher education (OR: 1.84) and social support (ORs: 1.42-1.86), but lower income (OR: 0.66; all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In the 24 months following breast cancer diagnosis, 42% of survivors decreased MVPA and 73% maintained or increased time on sedentary behavior. Socioeconomic status and stress coping at diagnosis predicted subsequent PA trajectory. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: It is important to prioritize exercise intervention and counseling during early stage of breast cancer survivorship, especially in survivors who are at high risk of becoming physically inactive post-diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e015658, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067593

RESUMO

Background Arsenic-related cardiovascular effects at exposure levels below the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard of 10 µg/L are unclear. For these populations, food, especially rice, is a major source of exposure. We investigated associations of rice intake, a marker of arsenic exposure, with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) markers in a multiethnic population. Methods and Results Between 2000 and 2002, MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) enrolled 6814 adults without clinical CVD. We included 5050 participants with baseline data on rice intake and markers of 3 CVD domains: inflammation (hsCRP [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein], interleukin-6, and fibrinogen), vascular function (aortic distensibility, carotid distensibility, and brachial flow-mediated dilation), and subclinical atherosclerosis at 3 vascular sites (carotid intima-media thickness, coronary artery calcification, and ankle-brachial index). We also evaluated endothelial-related biomarkers previously associated with arsenic. Rice intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Urinary arsenic was measured in 310 participants. A total of 13% of participants consumed ≥1 serving of rice/day. Compared with individuals consuming <1 serving of rice/week, ≥1 serving of rice/day was not associated with subclinical markers after demographic, lifestyle, and CVD risk factor adjustment (eg, geometric mean ratio [95% CI] for hsCRP, 0.98 [0.86-1.11]; aortic distensibility, 0.99 [0.91-1.07]; and carotid intima-media thickness, 0.98 [0.91-1.06]). Associations with urinary arsenic were similar to those for rice intake. Conclusions Rice intake was not associated with subclinical CVD markers in a multiethnic US population. Research using urinary arsenic is needed to assess potential CVD effects of low-level arsenic exposure. Understanding the role of low-level arsenic as it relates to subclinical CVD may contribute to CVD prevention and control.

9.
JCO Clin Cancer Inform ; 4: 108-116, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078367

RESUMO

Cancer Informatics for Cancer Centers (CI4CC) is a grassroots, nonprofit 501c3 organization intended to provide a focused national forum for engagement of senior cancer informatics leaders, primarily aimed at academic cancer centers anywhere in the world but with a special emphasis on the 70 National Cancer Institute-funded cancer centers. Although each of the participating cancer centers is structured differently, and leaders' titles vary, we know firsthand there are similarities in both the issues we face and the solutions we achieve. As a consortium, we have initiated a dedicated listserv, an open-initiatives program, and targeted biannual face-to-face meetings. These meetings are a place to review our priorities and initiatives, providing a forum for discussion of the strategic and pragmatic issues we, as informatics leaders, individually face at our respective institutions and cancer centers. Here we provide a brief history of the CI4CC organization and meeting highlights from the latest CI4CC meeting that took place in Napa, California from October 14-16, 2019. The focus of this meeting was "intersections between informatics, data science, and population science." We conclude with a discussion on "hot topics" on the horizon for cancer informatics.

11.
Cancer Res ; 80(1): 116-125, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578201

RESUMO

Although physical activity is associated with lower breast cancer risk for average-risk women, it is not known if this association applies to women at high familial/genetic risk. We examined the association of recreational physical activity (self-reported by questionnaire) with breast cancer risk using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, which is enriched with women who have a breast cancer family history (N = 15,550). We examined associations of adult and adolescent recreational physical activity (quintiles of age-adjusted total metabolic equivalents per week) with breast cancer risk using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for demographics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. We tested for multiplicative interactions of physical activity with predicted absolute breast cancer familial risk based on pedigree data and with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status. Baseline recreational physical activity level in the highest four quintiles compared with the lowest quintile was associated with a 20% lower breast cancer risk (HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.93). The association was not modified by familial risk or BRCA mutation status (P interactions >0.05). No overall association was found for adolescent recreational physical activity. Recreational physical activity in adulthood may lower breast cancer risk for women across the spectrum of familial risk. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that physical activity might reduce breast cancer risk by about 20% for women across the risk continuum, including women at higher-than-average risk due to their family history or genetic susceptibility.See related commentary by Niehoff et al., p. 23.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(9): 929-937, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excess body weight is an established cause of postmenopausal breast cancer, but it is unknown if weight loss reduces risk. METHODS: Associations between weight change and risk of breast cancer were examined among women aged 50 years and older in the Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In 10 cohorts, weight assessed on three surveys was used to examine weight change patterns over approximately 10 years (interval 1 median = 5.2 years; interval 2 median = 4.0 years). Sustained weight loss was defined as no less than 2 kg lost in interval 1 that was not regained in interval 2. Among 180 885 women, 6930 invasive breast cancers were identified during follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with women with stable weight (±2 kg), women with sustained weight loss had a lower risk of breast cancer. This risk reduction was linear and specific to women not using postmenopausal hormones (>2-4.5 kg lost: hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70 to 0.96; >4.5-<9 kg lost: HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.90; ≥9 kg lost: HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50 to 0.93). Women who lost at least 9 kg and gained back some (but not all) of it were also at a lower risk of breast cancer. Other patterns of weight loss and gain over the two intervals had a similar risk of breast cancer to women with stable weight. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sustained weight loss, even modest amounts, is associated with lower breast cancer risk for women aged 50 years and older. Breast cancer prevention may be a strong weight-loss motivator for the two-thirds of American women who are overweight or obese.

13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(1): 229-240, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify distinct diet trajectories after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis, and to examine the characteristics associated with diet trajectories. METHODS: We analyzed 2865 Pathways Study participants who completed ≥ 2 food frequency questionnaires at the time of BC diagnosis (baseline), and at 6 and 24 months after baseline. Trajectory groups of fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake, % calories from dietary fat, and alcohol intake over 24 months were identified using group-based trajectory modeling. Associations between diet trajectories and sociodemographic, psychosocial, and clinical factors were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Analyses identified 3 F/V trajectory groups, 4 dietary fat groups, and 3 alcohol groups. All 3 F/V trajectory groups reported slightly increased F/V intake post-diagnosis (mean increase = 0.2-0.5 serving/day), while 2 groups (48% of participants) persistently consumed < 4 servings/day of F/V. Dietary fat intake did not change post-diagnosis, with 45% of survivors maintaining a high-fat diet (> 40% of calories from fat). While most survivors consumed < 1 drink/day of alcohol at all times, 21% of survivors had 1.4-3.0 drinks/day at baseline and temporarily decreased to 0.1-0.5 drinks/day at 6 months. In multivariable analysis, diet trajectory groups were significantly associated with education (ORs: 1.93-2.49), income (ORs: 1.32-2.57), optimism (ORs: 1.93-2.49), social support (OR = 1.82), and changes in physical well-being (ORs: 0.58-0.61) and neuropathy symptoms after diagnosis (ORs: 1.29-1.66). CONCLUSIONS: Pathways Study participants reported slightly increasing F/V and decreasing alcohol intake after BC diagnosis. Nearly half of survivors consumed insufficient F/V and excessive dietary fat. It is important to prioritize nutrition counseling and education in BC survivors.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas/química , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras/química
14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 128, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC), but it is unclear whether these associations vary by a woman's familial BC risk. METHODS: Using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, we evaluated associations between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and BC risk. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We examined whether associations were modified by familial risk profile (FRP), defined as the 1-year incidence of BC predicted by Breast Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA), a pedigree-based algorithm. RESULTS: We observed 1009 incident BC cases in 17,435 women during a median follow-up of 10.4 years. We found no overall association of smoking or alcohol consumption with BC risk (current smokers compared with never smokers HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85-1.23; consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week compared with non-regular drinkers HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.92-1.32), but we did observe differences in associations based on FRP and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Women with lower FRP had an increased risk of ER-positive BC associated with consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week (compared to non-regular drinkers), whereas there was no association for women with higher FRP. For example, women at the 10th percentile of FRP (5-year BOADICEA = 0.15%) had an estimated HR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.07-1.99), whereas there was no association for women at the 90th percentile (5-year BOADICEA = 4.2%) (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.80-1.44). While the associations with smoking were not modified by FRP, we observed a positive multiplicative interaction by FRP (pinteraction = 0.01) for smoking status in women who also consumed alcohol, but not in women who were non-regular drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased BC risk, particularly for women with ER-positive BC, but only for those at lower predicted familial BC risk (5-year BOADICEA < 1.25). For women with a high FRP (5-year BOADICEA ≥ 6.5%) who also consumed alcohol, being a current smoker was associated with increased BC risk.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(23): e013324, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766976

RESUMO

Background The enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway is an alternative pathway of nitric oxide generation, potentially linking the oral microbiome to insulin resistance and blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that increased abundance of nitrate-reducing oral bacteria would be associated with lower levels of cardiometabolic risk cross-sectionally. Methods and Results ORIGINS (Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study) enrolled 300 diabetes mellitus-free adults aged 20 to 55 years (mean=34±10 years) (78% women). Microbial DNA was extracted from subgingival dental plaque (n=281) and V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced to measure the relative abundances of 20 a priori-selected taxa with nitrate-reducing capacity. Standardized scores of each taxon's relative abundance were summed, producing a nitrate-reducing taxa summary score (NO3TSS) for each participant. Natural log-transformed homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, plasma glucose, systolic BP, and diastolic BP were regressed on NO3TSS in multivariable linear regressions; prediabetes mellitus and hypertension prevalence were regressed on NO3TSS using modified Poisson regression models. Nitrate-reducing bacterial species represented 20±16% of all measured taxa. After multivariable adjustment, a 1-SD increase in NO3TSS, was associated with a -0.09 (95% CI, -0.15 to -0.03) and -1.03 mg/dL (95% CI, -1.903 to -0.16) lower natural log-transformed homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and plasma glucose, respectively. NO3TSS was associated with systolic BP only among patients without hypertension; 1-SD increase in NO3TSS was associated with -1.53 (95% CI, -2.82 to -0.24) mm Hg lower mean systolic BP. No associations were observed with prediabetes mellitus and hypertension. Conclusions A higher relative abundance of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria was associated with lower insulin resistance and plasma glucose in the full cohort and with mean systolic BP in participants with normotension.

16.
Gut ; 68(6): 1034-1043, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has among the highest stromal fractions of any cancer and this has complicated attempts at expression-based molecular classification. The goal of this work is to profile purified samples of human PDA epithelium and stroma and examine their respective contributions to gene expression in bulk PDA samples. DESIGN: We used laser capture microdissection (LCM) and RNA sequencing to profile the expression of 60 matched pairs of human PDA malignant epithelium and stroma samples. We then used these data to train a computational model that allowed us to infer tissue composition and generate virtual compartment-specific expression profiles from bulk gene expression cohorts. RESULTS: Our analysis found significant variation in the tissue composition of pancreatic tumours from different public cohorts. Computational removal of stromal gene expression resulted in the reclassification of some tumours, reconciling functional differences between different cohorts. Furthermore, we established a novel classification signature from a total of 110 purified human PDA stroma samples, finding two groups that differ in the extracellular matrix-associated and immune-associated processes. Lastly, a systematic evaluation of cross-compartment subtypes spanning four patient cohorts indicated partial dependence between epithelial and stromal molecular subtypes. CONCLUSION: Our findings add clarity to the nature and number of molecular subtypes in PDA, expand our understanding of global transcriptional programmes in the stroma and harmonise the results of molecular subtyping efforts across independent cohorts.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Simulação por Computador , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Microdissecção , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 132, 2018 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between body mass index (BMI) and risk of breast cancer depends on time of life, but it is unknown whether this association depends on a woman's familial risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of a cohort enriched for familial risk consisting of 16,035 women from 6701 families in the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cunningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer followed for up to 20 years (mean 10.5 years). There were 896 incident breast cancers (mean age at diagnosis 55.7 years). We used Cox regression to model BMI risk associations as a function of menopausal status, age, and underlying familial risk based on pedigree data using the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA), all measured at baseline. RESULTS: The strength and direction of the BMI risk association depended on baseline menopausal status (P < 0.001); after adjusting for menopausal status, the association did not depend on age at baseline (P = 0.6). In terms of absolute risk, the negative association with BMI for premenopausal women has a much smaller influence than the positive association with BMI for postmenopausal women. Women at higher familial risk have a much larger difference in absolute risk depending on their BMI than women at lower familial risk. CONCLUSIONS: The greater a woman's familial risk, the greater the influence of BMI on her absolute postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Given that age-adjusted BMI is correlated across adulthood, maintaining a healthy weight throughout adult life is particularly important for women with a family history of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Pré-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(9): 1057-1064, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898891

RESUMO

Background: Although germline genetics influences breast cancer incidence, published research only explains approximately half of the expected association. Moreover, the accuracy of prediction models remains low. For women who develop breast cancer early, the genetic architecture is less established.Methods: To identify loci associated with early-onset breast cancer, gene-based tests were carried out using exome array data from 3,479 women with breast cancer diagnosed before age 50 and 973 age-matched controls. Replication was undertaken in a population that developed breast cancer at all ages of onset.Results: Three gene regions were associated with breast cancer incidence: FGFR2 (P = 1.23 × 10-5; replication P < 1.00 × 10-6), NEK10 (P = 3.57 × 10-4; replication P < 1.00 × 10-6), and SIVA1 (P = 5.49 × 10-4; replication P < 1.00 × 10-6). Of the 151 gene regions reported in previous literature, 19 (12.5%) showed evidence of association (P < 0.05) with the risk of early-onset breast cancer in the early-onset population. To predict incidence, whole-genome prediction was implemented on a subset of 3,076 participants who were additionally genotyped on a genome wide array. The whole-genome prediction outperformed a polygenic risk score [AUC, 0.636; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.614-0.659 compared with 0.601; 95% CI, 0.578-0.623], and when combined with known epidemiologic risk factors, the AUC rose to 0.662 (95% CI, 0.640-0.684).Conclusions: This research supports a role for variation within FGFR2 and NEK10 in breast cancer incidence, and suggests SIVA1 as a novel risk locus.Impact: This analysis supports a shared genetic etiology between women with early- and late-onset breast cancer, and suggests whole-genome data can improve risk assessment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(9); 1057-64. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Appetite ; 121: 186-197, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous studies have not addressed a fundamental component of a food addiction disorder: the compulsive relationship between eating and potentially positively reinforcing foods. We aimed to evaluate the association between food consumption and food addiction. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional analyses merging data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 58,625) and Nurses' Health Study II (n = 65,063), two prospective cohort studies of female nurses in the United States. Diet was assessed in 2006-2007 using a food frequency questionnaire, and food addiction was assessed in 2008-2009 using the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of food addiction was 5.4%. The odds of food addiction were strongest among nurses consuming 5+ servings/week (compared with <1 serving/month) of hamburgers (multivariable odds ratio (MVOR) 4.08; 95% CI, 2.66-6.25), French fries (MVOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.59-3.51) and pizza (MVOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.67-3.69). Consumption of red/processed meat, low/no fat snacks/desserts, and low calorie beverages was positively associated with food addiction, while consumption of refined grains, sugar-sweetened beverages and fruits, vegetables, and legumes was inversely associated with food addiction. CONCLUSIONS: This epidemiologic study was the largest to examine food consumption and food addiction. Food addiction was positively associated with consumption of many hypothesized positively reinforcing foods that include a combination of carbohydrates and fats such as snacks, "fast foods," and candy bars. However, it was inversely or not associated with certain sweet foods, refined grains, and sugar-sweetened beverages, which is consistent with literature suggesting that carbohydrates (without other ingredients) are less associated with food addiction. Longitudinal analyses will help untangle the temporal order between food consumption and food addiction, as some relationships in our analyses were difficult to interpret due to the cross-sectional design.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Dieta , Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Fabaceae , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frutas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Produtos da Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adoçantes Calóricos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Verduras
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(35): e7900, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28858107

RESUMO

Asymptomatic pancreatic cysts are a common clinical problem but only a minority of these cases progress to cancer. Our aim was to compare the accuracy to detect malignancy of the 2015 American Gastroenterological Association (AGA), the 2012 International Consensus/Fukuoka (Fukuoka guidelines [FG]), and the 2010 American College of Radiology (ACR) guidelines.We conducted a retrospective study at 3 referral centers for all patients who underwent resection for an asymptomatic pancreatic cyst between January 2008 and December 2013. We compared the accuracy of 3 guidelines in predicting high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or cancer in resected cysts. We performed logistic regression analyses to examine the association between cyst features and risk of HGD or cancer.A total of 269 patients met inclusion criteria. A total of 228 (84.8%) had a benign diagnosis or low-grade dysplasia on surgical pathology, and 41 patients (15.2%) had either HGD (n = 14) or invasive cancer (n = 27). Of the 41 patients with HGD or cancer on resection, only 3 patients would have met the AGA guideline's indications for resection based on the preoperative cyst characteristics, whereas 30/41 patients would have met the FG criteria for resection and 22/41 patients met the ACR criteria. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of HGD, and/or cancer of the AGA guidelines were 7.3%, 88.2%, 10%, and 84.1%, compared to 73.2%, 45.6%, 19.5%, and 90.4% for the FG and 53.7%, 61%, 19.8%, and 88% for the ACR guidelines. In multivariable analysis, cyst size >3 cm, compared to ≤3 cm, (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11, 4.2) and each year increase in age (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.11) were positively associated with risk of HGD or cancer on resection.In patients with asymptomatic branch duct-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms or mucinous cystic neoplasms who underwent resection, the prevalence rate of HGD or cancer was 15.2%. Using the 2015 AGA criteria for resection would have missed 92.6% of patients with HGD or cancer. The more "inclusive" FG and ACR had a higher sensitivity for HGD or cancer but lower specificity. Given the current deficiencies of these guidelines, it will be important to determine the acceptable rate of false-positives in order to prevent a single true-positive.


Assuntos
Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico , Cisto Pancreático/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cisto Pancreático/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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