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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006723

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a live attenuated bacterial vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis, which is mostly administered to neonates in regions where tuberculosis is endemic. Adverse reactions after BCG vaccination are rare; however, immunocompromised individuals and in particular patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are prone to develop vaccine-derived complications. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review demographic, clinical, immunologic, and genetic data of PIDs that present with BCG vaccine complications. Moreover, we performed a meta-analysis aiming to determine the BCG-vaccine complications rate for patients with PID. METHODS: We conducted electronic searches on Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus (1966 to September 2018) introducing terms related to PIDs, BCG vaccination, and BCG vaccine complications. Studies with human subjects with confirmed PID, BCG vaccination history, and vaccine-associated complications (VACs) were included. RESULTS: A total of 46 PIDs associated with BCG-VAC were identified. Severe combined immunodeficiency was the most common (466 cases) and also showed the highest BCG-related mortality. Most BCG infection cases in patients with PID were reported from Iran (n = 219 [18.8%]). The overall frequency of BCG-VAC in the included 1691 PID cases was 41.5% (95% CI, 29.9-53.2; I2 = 98.3%), based on the results of the random-effect method used in this meta-analysis. Patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases had the highest frequency of BCG-VACs with a pooled frequency of 90.6% (95% CI, 79.7-1.0; I2 = 81.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Several PID entities are susceptible to BCG-VACs. Systemic neonatal PID screening programs may help to prevent a substantial amount of BCG vaccination complications.

2.
Blood ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932845

RESUMO

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a rare but life-threatening primary combined immunodeficiency. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only curative treatment for this condition, but transplant survival in published series was poor. We analysed the outcome of 25 such patients undergoing first HCT at our centre between 1995 and 2018. Median age at diagnosis was 6.5 months (range, birth to 7.5 years). Median age at transplant was 21.4 months (range, 0.1-7.8 years). Donors were matched family donors (MFD) (n=6), unrelated donors (UD) (n=12) and haploidentical donors (HID) (n=7). PBSC was the stem cell source in 68% of patients. Conditioning was treosulfan-based in 84% of patients; 84% received either alemtuzumab (n=14) or ATG (n=8) as serotherapy.With a 2.9-year median follow-up, overall survival (OS) improved from 33% (95%CI, 46-68%) for the children transplanted before 2008 (n=6) to 94% (95% CI, 66-99%) for children transplanted after 2008 (n=19) (p=0.003). For HCT after 2008, the OS according to donor was 100% for MFD, 100% for UD and 85% for HID (p=0.40). None had grade III-IV acute or chronic GvHD. Latest median donor myeloid and lymphocyte chimerism was 100% (range, 0-100%) and 100% (range, 64-100%) respectively. Latest CD4+T-lymphocyte number was significantly lower in transplant survivors (n=14) compared to post-transplant controls (p=0.01). All survivors were off immunoglobulin replacement and had protective vaccine responses to tetanus and Haemophilus influenza. None had any significant infection or autoimmunity. Changing transplant strategy in our center has significantly improved outcomes for MHC class II deficiency.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings strongly support hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe presentation of LPS-responsive beige-like anchor protein (LRBA) deficiency, but long-term follow-up and survival data beyond previous patient reports or meta-reviews are scarce for those patients who do not receive a transplant. OBJECTIVE: This international retrospective study was conducted to elucidate the longitudinal clinical course of patients with LRBA deficiency who do and do not receive a transplant. METHOD: We assessed disease burden and treatment responses with a specially developed immune deficiency and dysregulation activity score, reflecting the sum and severity of organ involvement and infections, days of hospitalization, supportive care requirements, and performance indices. RESULTS: Of 76 patients with LRBA deficiency from 29 centers (median follow-up, 10 years; range, 1-52), 24 underwent HSCT from 2005 to 2019. The overall survival rate after HSCT (median follow-up, 20 months) was 70.8% (17 of 24 patients); all deaths were due to nonspecific, early, transplant-related mortality. Currently, 82.7% of patients who did not receive a transplant (43 of 52; age range, 3-69 years) are alive. Of 17 HSCT survivors, 7 are in complete remission and 5 are in good partial remission without treatment (together, 12 of 17 [70.6%]). In contrast, only 5 of 43 patients who did not receive a transplant (11.6%) are without immunosuppression. Immune deficiency and dysregulation activity scores were significantly lower in patients who survived HSCT than in those receiving conventional treatment (P = .005) or in patients who received abatacept or sirolimus as compared with other therapies, and in patients with residual LRBA expression. Higher disease burden, longer duration before HSCT, and lung involvement were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSION: The lifelong disease activity, implying a need for immunosuppression and risk of malignancy, must be weighed against the risks of HSCT.

4.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701524

RESUMO

Treosulfan is given off-label in pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. This study investigated treosulfan's pharmacokinetics (PKs), efficacy, and safety in a prospective trial. Pediatric patients (n = 87) receiving treosulfan-fludarabine conditioning were followed for at least 1 year posttransplant. PKs were described with a two-compartment model. During follow-up, 11 of 87 patients died and 12 of 87 patients had low engraftment (≤ 20% myeloid chimerism). For each increase in treosulfan area under the curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-∞) ) of 1,000 mg hour/L the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for mortality increase was 1.46 (1.23-1.74), and the hazard ratio for low engraftment was 0.61 (0.36-1.04). A cumulative AUC(0-∞) of 4,800 mg hour/L maximized the probability of success (> 20% engraftment and no mortality) at 82%. Probability of success with AUC(0-∞) between 80% and 125% of this target were 78% and 79%. Measuring PK at the first dose and individualizing the third dose may be required in nonmalignant disease.

5.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 445, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737589

RESUMO

The field of primary immunodeficiencies has pioneered many of the advances in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and cellular therapies over the last 50 years. The first patients to demonstrate sustained benefit and prolonged cure from the primary genetic defect following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation were patients with primary immunodeficiencies. Although primary immunodeficiency patients began the modern era of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the history is nevertheless short-in answer to the question "what is the long term outcome of patients transplanted for primary immunodeficiencies?" we often have to say that we do not know. We believe that most patients who undergo haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiencies should live a normal lifespan with a fully corrected immune system. We are now beginning to understanding long term outcomes, the relationship to the underlying genetic defect, age, and pre-morbid condition of the patient at time of transplantation, stem cell source and donor, and effect of pre-transplant cytoreductive chemotherapy conditioning. The long term consequences of post-transplant complications such as graft vs. host disease, veno-occlusive disease, or immune dysregulation are also being recognized. Additionally, some genetic defects have a systemic distribution, and we are learning the natural history of these defects once the immunodeficiency has been removed.

6.
Blood ; 134(20): 1688-1689, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725867
7.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616648

RESUMO

Transplantation techniques for patients with primary immunodeficiencies have improved so that survival from the procedure in many cases is >80%. However, long term complications may arise due to the use or not of conditioning agents. This may result in variable immune reconstitution, the long term effects of chemotherapy, particularly on fertility, and complications relating to the genetic disorder, unresolved by transplantation. For patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), long term T- and B-lymphocyte immune reconstitution is best achieved after pre-transplant chemotherapy. For patients who receive an unconditioned infusion of donor stem cells, the quality of immune reconstitution depends on the SCID genotype. Long term effects include chemotherapy-induced impaired fertility, and sequelae specific to the genotype. For patients with other primary immunodeficiencies, conditioning is required-sequelae related to direct effects of chemotherapy may be observed. Additional long term effects may be observed due to partial donor chimerism resulting in incomplete eradication of disease, and other geno-specific effects.

8.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3123-3131, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648332

RESUMO

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is curative therapy for the treatment of patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA). However, several conditioning regimens can be used for BMT. We evaluated transplant conditioning regimens for BMT in SAA after HLA-matched sibling and unrelated donor BMT. For recipients of HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation (n = 955), fludarabine (Flu)/cyclophosphamide (Cy)/antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or Cy/ATG led to the best survival. The 5-year probabilities of survival with Flu/Cy/ATG, Cy/ATG, Cy ± Flu, and busulfan/Cy were 91%, 91%, 80%, and 84%, respectively (P = .001). For recipients of 8/8 and 7/8 HLA allele-matched unrelated donor transplantation (n = 409), there were no differences in survival between regimens. The 5-year probabilities of survival with Cy/ATG/total body irradiation 200 cGy, Flu/Cy/ATG/total body irradiation 200 cGy, Flu/Cy/ATG, and Cy/ATG were 77%, 80%, 75%, and 72%, respectively (P = .61). Rabbit-derived ATG compared with equine-derived ATG was associated with a lower risk of grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.39; P < .001) but not chronic GVHD. Independent of conditioning regimen, survival was lower in patients aged >30 years after HLA-matched sibling (HR, 2.74; P < .001) or unrelated donor (HR, 1.98; P = .001) transplantation. These data support Flu/Cy/ATG and Cy/ATG as optimal regimens for HLA-matched sibling BMT. Although survival after an unrelated donor BMT did not differ between regimens, use of rabbit-derived ATG may be preferred because of lower risks of acute GVHD.

10.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 19(6): 571-577, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464718

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) is a congenital defect of development of B lymphocytes leading to agammaglobulinaemia. It was one of the first primary immunodeficiencies described, but treatment has remained relatively unchanged over the last 60 years. This summary aims to outline the current outcomes, treatments and future research areas for XLA. RECENT FINDINGS: Immunoglobulin therapy lacks IgA and IgM, placing patients at theoretical risk of experiencing recurrent respiratory tract infections and developing bronchiectasis despite best current therapy. Recent cohort studies from Italy and the USA conform that bronchiectasis remains a major burden for this group despite best current efforts. However, gene therapy offers a potential cure for these patients with proven proof of concept murine models. SUMMARY: The potential limitations of current immunoglobulin therapy appear to be confirmed by recent cohort studies, and therefore further work in the development of gene therapy is warranted. Until this is available, clinicians should strive to reduce the diagnostic delay, regularly monitor for lung disease and individualize target immunoglobulin doses to reduce infection rates for their patients.

11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1570, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31333680

RESUMO

Background: This retrospective study assessed the use and long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe autoimmune diseases (ADs), reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry. Methods: Between 1997 and 2014, 128 patients received allogeneic HSCT for various hematological (n = 49) and non-hematological (n = 79) refractory ADs. The median age was 12.7 years (0.2-62.2). Donors were syngeneic for seven, matched related for 46, unrelated for 51, haploidentical for 15, and cord blood for nine patients. Results: The incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) was 20.8% at 100 days. Cumulative incidence of chronic GvHD was 27.8% at 5-years. Non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 12.7% at 100-days. Overall survival (OS) and Progression-Free Survival (PFS) were 70.2 and 59.4% at 5-years, respectively. By multivariate analysis, age <18 years, males, and more recent year of transplant were found to be significantly associated with improved PFS. Reduced conditioning intensity was associated with a lower NRM. On a subgroup of 64 patients with detailed information a complete clinical response was obtained in 67% of patients at 1-year. Conclusions: This large EBMT survey suggests the potential of allogeneic HSCT to induce long-term disease control in a large proportion of refractory ADs, with acceptable toxicities and NRM, especially in younger patients.

13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(9): 1786-1791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082473

RESUMO

Gonadal impairment is an important late effect with a significant impact on quality of life of transplanted patients. The aim of this study was to compare gonadal function after busulfan (Bu) or treosulfan (Treo) conditioning regimens in pre- and postpubertal children. This retrospective, multicenter study included children transplanted in pediatric European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers between 1992 and 2012 who did not receive gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy before the transplant. We evaluated 137 patients transplanted in 25 pediatric EBMT centers. Median age at transplant was 11.04 years (range, 5 to 18); 89 patients were boys and 48 girls. Eighty-nine patients were prepubertal at transplant and 48 postpubertal. One hundred eighteen children received Bu and 19 Treo. A higher proportion of girls treated with Treo in the prepubertal stage reached spontaneous puberty compared with those treated with Bu (P = .02). Spontaneous menarche was more frequent after Treo than after Bu (P < .001). Postpubertal boys and girls treated with Treo had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) compared with the Bu group. Frequency of gonadal damage associated with Treo was significantly lower than that observed after Bu. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population.

15.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(10): 1525-1552, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953028

RESUMO

This is the seventh special EBMT report on the indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders. Our aim is to provide general guidance on transplant indications according to prevailing clinical practice in EBMT countries and centres. In order to inform patient decisions, these recommendations must be considered together with the risk of the disease, the risk of the transplant procedure and the results of non-transplant strategies. In over two decades since the first report, the EBMT indications manuscripts have incorporated changes in transplant practice coming from scientific and technical developments in the field. In this same period, the establishment of JACIE accreditation has promoted high quality and led to improved outcomes of patient and donor care and laboratory performance in transplantation and cellular therapy. An updated report with operating definitions, revised indications and an additional set of data with overall survival at 1 year and non-relapse mortality at day 100 after transplant in the commonest standard-of-care indications is presented. Additional efforts are currently underway to enable EBMT member centres to benchmark their risk-adapted outcomes as part of the Registry upgrade Project 2020 against national and/or international outcome data.

16.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 195-199, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868346

RESUMO

X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (XL-CGD), a rare primary immunodeficiency due to a defect in the gp91phox NADPH oxidase subunit, results in recurrent, severe infection, inflammation, and autoimmunity. Patients have an absent, or significantly reduced, neutrophil oxidative burst. Due to lyonization, XL-CGD carriers have a dual population of functional and non-functional phagocytes and experience a range of symptoms including increased risk of autoimmunity, fatigue, and infection. Patients with CGD have poorer quality of life (QoL) than normal controls. We evaluated QoL and psychological health in UK XL-CGD carriers. Recruited participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36 V2), providing an overall score for mental and physical health. Psychological health was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. Seventy-five XL-CGD carriers were recruited from 62 families, median age 43 years (range 3-77). Fifty-six were mothers, 6 grandmothers, and 13 siblings. Sixty-two completed the SF36v2 and had reduced QoL scores compared with adult CGD patients and a UK age-matched female control cohort, indicating a reduced QoL. Sixty-one completed a HADS questionnaire. Over 40% experienced moderate or greater levels of anxiety with only one third being classified as normal. Higher anxiety scores significantly correlated with higher depression scores, lower self-esteem, presence of joint or bowel symptoms, and higher levels of fatigue (p < 0.05). This is the first study to evaluate QoL of XL-CGD carriers, and demonstrates high rates of anxiety and significantly reduced QoL scores. XL-CGD carriers should be considered as potential patients and pro-actively assessed and managed.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 280-293, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatched stem cell transplantation is associated with a high risk of graft loss, graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and transplant-related mortality. Alternative graft manipulation strategies have been used over the last 11 years to reduce these risks. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the outcome of using different graft manipulation strategies among children with primary immunodeficiencies. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2017, 147 patients with primary immunodeficiencies received 155 mismatched grafts: 30 T-cell receptor (TCR) αß/CD19-depleted grafts, 43 cord blood (CB) grafts (72% with no serotherapy), 17 CD34+ selection with T-cell add-back grafts, and 65 unmanipulated grafts. RESULTS: The estimated 8-year survival of the entire cohort was 79%, transplant-related mortality was 21.7%, and the graft failure rate was 6.7%. Posttransplantation viral reactivation, grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) complicated 49.6%, 35%, and 15% of transplantations, respectively. Use of TCRαß/CD19 depletion was associated with a significantly lower incidence of grade II to IV aGvHD (11.5%) and cGvHD (0%), although with a greater incidence of viral reactivation (70%) in comparison with other grafts. T-cell immune reconstitution was robust among CB transplants, although with a high incidence (56.7%) of grade II to IV aGvHD. Stable full donor engraftment was significantly greater at 80% among TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted and CB transplants versus 40% to 60% among the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly accessible CB and haploidentical grafts are suitable alternatives for patients with no HLA-matched donor. Cord transplantation without serotherapy and TCRαß+/CD19+-depleted grafts produced comparable survival rates of around 80%, although with a high rate of aGvHD with the former and a high risk of viral reactivation with the latter that need to be addressed.

18.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800289

RESUMO

Recombination-activating genes ( RAG) 1 and RAG2 initiate the molecular processes that lead to lymphocyte receptor formation through VDJ recombination. Nonsense mutations in RAG1/ RAG2 cause the most profound immunodeficiency syndrome, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Other severe and less-severe clinical phenotypes due to mutations in RAG genes are now recognized. The degree of residual protein function may permit some lymphocyte receptor formation, which confers a less-severe clinical phenotype. Many of the non-SCID phenotypes are associated with autoimmunity. New findings into the effect of mutations in RAG1/2 on the developing T- and B-lymphocyte receptor give insight into the development of autoimmunity. This article summarizes recent findings and places the genetic and molecular findings in a clinical context.

20.
Cells ; 8(1)2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30646564

RESUMO

Adverse outcomes following virus-associated disease in patients receiving allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have encouraged strategies to control viral reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. However, despite timely treatment with antiviral medication, some viral infections remain refractory to treatment, which hampers outcomes after HSCT, and are responsible for a high proportion of transplant-related morbidity and mortality. Adoptive transfer of donor-derived lymphocytes aims to improve cellular immunity and to prevent or treat viral diseases after HSCT. Early reports described the feasibility of transferring nonspecific lymphocytes from donors, which led to the development of cell therapy approaches based on virus-specific T cells, allowing a targeted treatment of infections, while limiting adverse events such as graft versus host disease (GvHD). Both expansion and direct selection techniques have yielded comparable results in terms of efficacy (around 70⁻80%), but efficacy is difficult to predict for individual cases. Generating bespoke products for each donor⁻recipient pair can be expensive, and there remains the major obstacle of generating products from seronegative or poorly responsive donors. More recent studies have focused on the feasibility of collecting and infusing partially matched third-party virus-specific T cells, reporting response rates of 60⁻70%. Future development of this approach will involve the broadening of applicability to multiple viruses, the optimization and cost-control of manufacturing, larger multicentred efficacy trials, and finally the creation of cell banks that can provide prompt access to virus-specific cellular product. The aim of this review is to summarise present knowledge on adoptive T cell manufacturing, efficacy and potential future developments.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfócitos T/transplante , Viroses/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Doação Dirigida de Tecido , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Humanos , Viroses/etiologia
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